A team led by researchers from the Institute of Cosmos Sciences of the University of Barcelona (ICCUB, UB-IEEC) and the University of Groningen has found, through the analysis of Gaia data, substructures which were unknown so far in the Milky Way. The findings, which appeared when combining positions and speed of 6 million stars from our galaxy’s disk, have been published in the journal Nature.
“We have observed shapes with different morphologies, such as a spiral similar to a snail’s shell. The existence of these substructures has been observed for the first time thanks to the unprecedented precision of the data brought by Gaia satellite, from the European Space Agency (ESA)”, says Teresa Antoja, researcher at ICCUB (IEEC-UB) and first signer of the article. “These substructures –she adds- allow us to conclude that the disk of our galaxy suffered an important gravitational disturbance about 300 and 900 million years ago”. This is one of the great first findings of “Galactic archaeology” following the publication of the Gaia data that should allow researchers find out about the origins and evolution of the Milky Way.
What caused this disturbance? To answer this question, the researchers compared the structure and level of twisting of the spiral with models of the dynamics of the Galaxy. As researchers noted, this allowed them to formulate the hypothesis that states that the disturbance was caused by the Sagittarius Dwarf galaxy passing near the Milky Way disk.
“The study implies, definitely, that our galaxy’s disk is dynamically young, sensitive to disturbances and changing over time”, says Antoja. “One of the most distinguishable forms we saw –continues the researcher- is the spiral pattern of the stars near the Sun, and which had never been seen before. Actually, the observed shapes in the graphics were that clear (unlike common cases), that we thought it could be a mistake in the data”, says Antoja. In this sense, more than a hundred European engineers and scientists, among which the UB played a distinguished role, worked during months on the verification and validation tasks of the Gaia data. As part of this task, Mercè Romero Gómez, UB researcher, says that “with the simulations carried out at the UB we could also reproduce the observed spirals”.
The Sagittarius Dwarf galaxy effect
Like when a stone falls in a pound and creates waves that spread in the surface, or when a magnet gets close to iron fillings and these are alienated in a certain direction, the stars in the galactic disk ordered in a certain way after the gravitational attraction of the satellite galaxy that passed next to them. After some time, the stars maintain the effects of the disturbance that shook them in their movements, and now a spiral can be seen in the graphics.
According to Amina Helmi, researcher at the University of Groningen, “we know our Galaxy is ‘cannibal’ and has grown while eating other small galaxies, like it is doing now with the Sagittarius Dwarf galaxy”. Nonetheless, the expert notes that “the mass of Sagittarius is still large enough to cause a notable gravitational impact”. What we see now does not respond to a collision between galaxies but Sagittarius getting closer to the galactic disk.
First results of the new Gaia release
The data analysed in this study is part of the second Gaia release, which was published some months ago, on April 25, 2018. “Scientists and engineers of the UB played an essential role in making these data a reality”, says Xavier Luri, director of ICCUB and coordinator of the team that built the Gaia archive. The effort of more than four hundred scientists and engineers allowed publishing positions and precise movements for more than 1,300 million objects. This second catalogue –which embraces the first twenty-two months of data gathering-, published the first spectroscopic data for some million stars in the solar surroundings, which allow researchers to measure the speed of the stars in our line of sight and obtain, therefore, the three velocity coordinates of the stars. These data have enabled the discovery that has been now published in Nature.
Now, the Gaia satellite collectsmore than 48 months of successful operations and ESA has approved of prolonging the mission until late 2020. ESA is now assessing a second two-year prorogue. According to Carme Jordi, UB researcher and member of Gaia Science Team, the scientific advisory body in ESA for this mission, “everything suggests this is only one of the first discoveries of a wide series of new findings –and surprises- hidden in Gaia data which were published on April: the tip of the iceberg in the study of the origins and the evolution of the galaxy in which we are”.
Quelle: Universitat de Barcelona
GAIA HINTS AT OUR GALAXY’S TURBULENT LIFE
ESA’s star mapping mission, Gaia, has shown our Milky Way galaxy is still enduring the effects of a near collision that set millions of stars moving like ripples on a pond.
The close encounter likely took place sometime in the past 300–900 million years. It was discovered because of the pattern of movement it has given to stars in the Milky Way disc – one of the major components of our Galaxy.
The pattern was revealed because Gaia not only accurately measures the positions of more than a billion stars but also precisely measures their velocities on the plane of the sky. For a subset of a few million stars, Gaia provided an estimate of the full three-dimensional velocities, allowing a study of stellar motion using the combination of position and velocity, which is known as ‘phase space’.
In phase space, the stellar motions revealed an interesting and totally unexpected pattern when the star’s positions were plotted against their velocities. Teresa Antoja from Universitat de Barcelona, Spain, who led the research couldn’t quite believe her eyes when she first saw it on her computer screen.
One shape in particular caught her attention. It was a snail shell-like pattern in the graph that plotted the stars’ altitude above or below the plane of the Galaxy against their velocity in the same direction. It had never been seen before.
“At the beginning the features were very weird to us,” says Teresa. “I was a bit shocked and I thought there could be a problem with the data because the shapes are so clear.”
But the Gaia data had undergone multiple validation tests by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium teams all over Europe before release. Also, together with collaborators, Teresa had performed many tests on the data to look for errors that could be forcing such shapes on the data. Yet no matter what they checked, the only conclusion they could draw was that these features do indeed exist in reality.
The reason they had not been seen before was because the quality of the Gaia data was a huge step up from what had come before.
“It looks like suddenly you have put the right glasses on and you see all the things that were not possible to see before,” says Teresa.
With the reality of the structure confirmed, it came time to investigate why it was there.
“It is a bit like throwing a stone in a pond, which displaces the water as ripples and waves,” explains Teresa.
Unlike the water molecules, which settle again, the stars retain a ‘memory’ that they were perturbed. This memory is found in their motions. After some time, although the ripples may no longer be easily visible in the distribution of stars, they are still there when you look in their velocities.
The researchers looked up previous studies that had investigated such ‘phase mixing’ in other astrophysical settings and in quantum physics situations. Although no one had investigated this happening in the disc of our Galaxy, the structures were clearly reminiscent of each other.
“I find this really amazing that we can see this snail shell shape. It is just like it appears in text books,” says Amina Helmi, University of Groningen, The Netherlands, a collaborator on the project and the second author on the resulting paper.