Blogarchiv

Sonntag, 1. Februar 2015 - 17:45 Uhr

Astronomie - 3D-Karte von Supernovaüberrest zeigt, dass das Innere aus einer Sammlung von massiven blasenartige Hohlräume besteht

.

A new 3-D study of the remains of a supernova explosion called Cassiopeia A (Cas A) has found that its interior is made up of a collection of massive bubble-like cavities.  Cas A is one of the most well studied supernova remnants in our galaxy. A team of Harvard-Smithsonian and Dartmouth College astronomers used the astronomical equivalent of a hospital's CAT scan to produce a 3-D map of its interior.  "Our three-dimensional map is a rare look at the insides of an exploded star," Dan Milisavljevic of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), said in a statement.  The supernova was observed about 340 years ago when a massive star exploded, approximately 11,000 light-years away, in the constellation Cassiopeia. As the star blew itself apart, hot radioactive matter streamed outward from the star's core. The expanding cloud of material is now approximately 10 light-years across from Earth's perspective. The complex physics behind these explosions is difficult to model, even with state-of-the-art simulations run on some of the world’s most powerful supercomputers. However, by carefully studying relatively young supernova remnants like Cas A, astronomers can investigate the key processes that drive these stellar explosions.  "We're sort of like bomb squad investigators. We examine the debris to learn what blew up and how it blew up,” said Milisavljevic. "Our study represents a major step forward in our understanding of how stars actually explode."  

.

This new 3-D map provides the first detailed look at the distribution of stellar debris following a supernova explosion. The blue-to-red colours correspond to the varying speed of the emitting gas along our line of sight. Image credit: D. Milisavljevic (CfA) & R. Fesen (Dartmouth). Background image: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team.
Milisavljevic and co-author Rob Fesen of Dartmouth College examined Cas A in near-infrared light using the Mayall 4-metre telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. They used spectroscopy to measure expansion velocities of extremely faint material in Cas A's interior to provide the crucial third dimension. 
Around half a dozen large interior cavities appear to be connected to previously observed rings of debris that make up the bright outer shell of Cas A. The two most well-defined cavities are three and six light-years in diameter.
The cavities were probably created by plumes of radioactive nickel generated during the stellar explosion. Since this nickel will decay to form iron, the team predict that Cas A's interior bubbles should be enriched with as much as a tenth of a solar mass of iron.
As the enriched interior debris hasn’t been detected in previous observations, next-generation telescopes may be needed to find the "missing" iron and confirm the origin of the bubbles.
The research was published in the 30 January issue of the journal Science.
Quelle: SEN

Tags: Astronomie 

2081 Views

Sonntag, 1. Februar 2015 - 17:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Erfolgreicher Start von H-2A Rakete mit IGS Gathering Satelliten

.

29.01.2015

Japanese rocket launch postponed by poor weather

.

A threat of thick clouds kept a Japanese H-2A rocket from launching Thursday with a government-owned radar reconnaissance satellite.
Japanese officials did not set a new target launch date, and said the liftoff would be rescheduled based on forecast weather conditions over the next few days.
The H-2A rocket was supposed to take off from the Tanegashima Space Center in southwest Japan at 0121 GMT Thursday (8:21 p.m. EST Wednesday), the opening of a 13-minute launch window.
Liftoff was scheduled for 10:21 a.m. local time in Japan.
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries — owner of the Tanegashima launch pad and the commercial operator of the H-2A rocket — announced the launch’s postponement before engineers began loading cryogenic hydrogen and oxygen propellants into the two-stage rocket.
Ground crews rolled the rocket to Launch Pad No. 1 at Tanegashima Space Center’s Yoshinobu launch complex Wednesday before the flight was postponed.
The weather forecast called for thick clouds penetrating into a layer of freezing temperatures over the island space center. Officials worried the rocket could generate lightning when it punched through the freezing clouds.
The 174-foot-tall launcher is flying in its basic configuration with two strap-on solid rocket boosters and a four-meter (13.1-foot) diameter payload fairing.
The flight will mark the 27th launch of an H-2A rocket since its debut mission in August 2001, and the third H-2A liftoff in less than four months.
The mission’s payload is an Information Gathering Satellite equipped with a radar spy instrument capable of peering through clouds, darkness and camouflage to obtain high-resolution imagery of Earth’s surface.
The exact capabilities of the satellite are kept secret by the Japanese government.
Japan established the space-based reconnaissance program in the wake of a North Korean missile test over Japanese territory in 1998. Although the program was initially aimed at monitoring North Korea, the satellites can take pictures of nearly any place on Earth each day.
The first Information Gathering Satellites were launched in 2003. An H-2A rocket sent up the newest spy satellites in January 2013.
Japan’s IGS satellite program is run by the Cabinet Satellite Intelligence Center, which reports directly to the government’s executive leadership.
Quelle: SN
-

H-2A rocket with satellite set for liftoff on Sunday

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency said Thursday they have rescheduled to Sunday the postponed launch of an H-2A rocket carrying a backup information-gathering radar satellite.
The launch of the H-2A Launch Vehicle No. 27, originally scheduled for Thursday, was put off due to expected bad weather. It will lift off from the Tanegashima Space Center on Tanegashima island in Kagoshima Prefecture, at 10:21 a.m. Sunday, Mitsubishi Heavy and JAXA said.
Japan introduced information-gathering satellites following North Korea’s ballistic missile launch in 1998.
Currently, the Japanese government has four such satellites — two optical sensor satellites used when weather is good and two radar satellites capable of conducting observation even in bad weather conditions.
The satellites are operated by the Cabinet Satellite Intelligence Center, and gather information necessary for crisis management in light of national security and in times of large-scale natural disasters.Speech
Quelle: TheJapanNews
-
Update: 1.02.2015
.

H-2A rocket boosts Japanese radar spy satellite into orbit

Japan launched a new satellite Sunday to reinforce the country’s fleet of orbiting spy platforms charged with monitoring its neighbors in the Asia-Pacific.
The spacecraft carries a sophisticated radar payload designed to survey the globe night and day — and in all weather conditions — from an orbit about 300 miles above Earth. The synthetic aperture radar instrument can see through clouds and camouflage, but its exact capabilities are kept secret by the Japanese government.
The satellite blasted off at 0121 GMT Sunday (8:21 p.m. EST Saturday) on top of a 17-story H-2A rocket from the Tanegashima Space Center in southwestern Japan.
Two strap-on boosters consumed their pre-packed solid propellant in less than two minutes as the H-2A rocket soared south from its launch pad at Tanegashima. The rocket’s hydrogen-burning LE-7A and LE-5B first and second stage engines completed their planned firings as programmed before deploying the reconnaissance payload in space.
The rocket took off at 10:21 a.m. local time in Japan after a three-day delay caused by unfavorable weather at the launch site.
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, which owns and operates the Tanegashima launch base, declared Sunday’s flight a success in a press release. The H-2A rocket launch was conducted by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, the vehicle’s builder and commercial operator.
The launch marked the third H-2A rocket mission in less than four months, following launches of Japan’s Himawari 8 weather satellite in October and the Hayabusa 2 asteroid sample return probe in December.
The Information Gathering Satellite launched Sunday joins a network of surveillance craft run by the Cabinet Satellite Intelligence Center, which reports directly to the Japanese government’s executive leadership.
The radar spy craft was built as a backup for reconnaissance satellites launched on earlier missions.
Sunday’s launch was the 27th flight of an H-2A rocket since the launcher’s debut mission in August 2001, and the rocket’s 21st consecutive success since February 2005. It was the ninth H-2A launch in support of Japan’s spy satellite program.
Japan established the space-based reconnaissance program in the wake of a North Korean missile test over Japanese territory in 1998. Although the program was initially aimed at monitoring North Korea, the satellites can take pictures of nearly any place on Earth each day.
Japanese officials say data from the Information Gathering Satellites support civilian applications, such as responding to natural disasters.
The next H-2A launch is scheduled for March with an IGS payload carrying a high-resolution optical camera.
After the March flight, Japan plans plans up to three more launches from Tanegashima this year.
An H-2B rocket fitted with an extra hydrogen-fueled main engine and four solid rocket boosters will take off in August with an HTV cargo carrier for the International Space Station.
Japan’s Astro-H X-ray astronomy observatory and the Telstar 12V communications satellite — the H-2A’s first dedicated commercial launch — are currently scheduled to take off before the end of the year.

Quelle: SN



Tags: Raumfahrt 

2116 Views

Samstag, 31. Januar 2015 - 23:45 Uhr

Astronomie - Wenn ein Stern ein schwarzes Loch trifft

.

FORT DAVIS, Texas — A five-year analysis of an event captured by a tiny telescope at McDonald Observatory and followed up by telescopes on the ground and in space has led astronomers to believe they witnessed a giant black hole tear apart a star. The work is published this month in The Astrophysical Journal.
On January 21, 2009, the ROTSE IIIb telescope at McDonald caught the flash of an extremely bright event. The telescope’s wide field of view takes pictures of large swathes of sky every night, looking for newly exploding stars as part of the ROTSE Supernova Verification Project (RSVP). Software then compares successive photos to find bright “new” objects in the sky — transient events like the explosion of a star or a gamma-ray burst.
With a magnitude of -22.5, this 2009 event was as bright as the “superluminous supernovae” (a new category of the brightest stellar explosions known) that the ROTSE team discovered at McDonald in recent years. The team nicknamed the 2009 event “Dougie,” after a character in the cartoon South Park. (Its technical name is ROTSE3J120847.9+430121.)
The team thought Dougie might be a supernova, and set about looking for its host galaxy (which would be much too faint for ROTSE to see). They found that the Sloan Digital Sky Survey had mapped a faint red galaxy at Dougie’s location. The team followed that up with new observations of the galaxy with one of the giant Keck telescopes in Hawaii, pinpointing the galaxy’s distance at three billion light-years.
These deductions meant Dougie had a home — but just what was he? Team members had four possibilities: a superluminous supernova; a merger of two neutron stars; a gamma-ray burst; or a “tidal disruption event” — a star being pulled apart as it neared its host galaxy’s central black hole.
To narrow it down, they studied Dougie in various ways. They made ultraviolet observations with the orbiting Swift telescope, and took many spectra from the ground with the 9.2-meter Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald. Finally, they used computer models of how the light from different possible physical processes that might explain how Dougie would behave — how it varies in brightness over time, and what chemical signatures it might show — and compared them to Dougie’s actual behavior.
In detail, Dougie did not look like a supernova. The neutron star merger and gamma-ray burst possibilities were similarly eliminated.
"When we discovered this new object, it looked similar to supernovae we had known already,” said lead author Jozsef Vinko of the University of Szeged in Hungary. “But when we kept monitoring its light variation, we realized that this was something nobody really saw before. Finding out that it was probably a supermassive black hole eating a star was a fascinating experience,” Vinko said.
Team member J. Craig Wheeler, leader of the supernova group at The University of Texas at Austin, elaborated. “We got the idea that it might be a ‘tidal disruption’ event,” he said, explaining that means that the enormous gravity of a black hole pulls on one side of the star harder than the other side, creating tides that rip the star apart.
“A star wanders near a black hole, the star’s side nearer the black hole is pulled” on more than the star’s far side, he said. “These especially large tides can be strong enough that you pull the star out into a noodle” shape.
The star “doesn’t fall directly into the black hole,” Wheeler said. “It might form a disk first. But the black hole is destined to swallow most of that material.”
Though astronomers have seen black holes swallow stars before — though less than a dozen times — this one is special even in that rare company: It’s not going down easy.
Models by team members James Guillochon of Harvard and Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz at the University of California, Santa Cruz, showed that the disrupted stellar matter was generating so much radiation that it pushed back on the infall. The black hole was choking on the rapidly infalling matter. 
Based on the characteristics of the light from Dougie, and their deductions of the star’s original mass, the team has determined that Dougie started out as a Sun-like star, before being ripped apart.
Their observations of the host galaxy, coupled with Dougie’s behavior, led them to surmise that the galaxy’s central black hole has the “rather modest” mass of about a million Suns, Wheeler said.
Delving into Dougie’s behavior has unexpectedly resulted in learning more about small, distant galaxies, Wheeler said, musing “Who knew this little guy had a black hole?”
The paper’s lead author, Jozsef Vinko, began the project while on sabbatical at The University of Texas at Austin. The team also includes Robert Quimby of San Diego State University, who started the search for supernovae using ROTSE IIIb (then called the Texas Supernova Search, now RSVP) and discovered the category of superluminous supernovae while a graduate student at The University of Texas at Austin. 
-
Quelle: The University of Texas McDonald Observatory

Tags: Astronomie 

1936 Views

Samstag, 31. Januar 2015 - 18:33 Uhr

Raumfahrt - SpaceX vor raketengetriebenen Notsystem Test der bemannten Dragon Kapsel

.

SpaceX has released this photo of the Dragon spacecraft for the pad abort test. Credit: SpaceX
-
SpaceX is finishing up preparations for a major test of a rocket-powered abort system for the company’s new Dragon crew ferry spacecraft, targeting launch from Cape Canaveral in March after a pair of Falcon 9 missions in February.
The redesigned version of SpaceX’s cargo-carrying Dragon capsule should be ready for an uncrewed space mission by late 2016, said Gwynne Shotwell, the company’s president and chief operating officer. A piloted test flight will follow in early 2017, she said.
Engineers have already built a prototype version of the human-rated capsule for the abort test from Cape Canaveral’s Complex 40 launch pad. The craft will not carry a space-rated life support system or cockpit displays, but SpaceX officials have said an instrumented mannequin will be strapped into a seat inside the capsule’s crew cabin.
The pad abort test was delayed from last year, but Shotwell told reporters Jan. 26 that SpaceX has “largely completed” construction of the pad abort system.
“It took us quite a while to get there, but there’s a lot of great technology and innovations in that pad abort vehicle,” Shotwell said.
The pad abort setup includes a capsule with hundreds of sensors to measure pressures, loads, temperatures and other data during the flight test, which is expected to last about one minute. The craft will blast off from a specially-built truss to mimic the capsule sitting atop a Falcon 9 booster.
The test will be the most visible sign of progress on NASA’s commercial crew program at Cape Canaveral since the space shuttle’s retirement in 2011. The space agency is turning over crew taxi flights to the International Space Station to industry, allowing NASA to spend more money on human missions to deep space.
The pad abort is scheduled after two upcoming Falcon 9 launches from Complex 40. The Deep Space Climate Observatory for NOAA is set to blast off Feb. 8, followed by the launch of a pair of communications satellites for Eutelsat and Asia Broadcast Satellite before the end of the month.
Eight SuperDraco rocket engines will fire to push the spacecraft away from the truss platform and demonstrate the Dragon’s ability to escape from a catastrophic mishap on the launch pad.
SpaceX shared the brief video clip below showing a SuperDraco “jetpack” with two thrusters firing on a stand at the company’s test facility in McGregor, Texas.
The test capsule’s SuperDraco engines will propel the craft several thousand feet into the air before three main parachutes unfurl and the Dragon gently splashes down in the Atlantic Ocean just offshore Cape Canaveral.
Each SuperDraco thruster generates about 16,000 pounds of thrust to carry crews away from danger during launch. SpaceX says the engines can also slow down the capsule during landing, eventually allowing the craft to accomplish propulsive pinpoint touchdowns like a helicopter.
“The integrated launch abort system is critically important to us,” Shotwell said. “We think it gives incredible safety features for a full abort all the way through ascent. It does also allow us the ultimate goal of fully propulsive landing.”
The Crew Dragon’s initial flights will end with splashdowns in the ocean like the capsule’s cargo version.
SpaceX won a NASA contract worth up to $2.6 billion in September to finish development of the Crew Dragon spacecraft to ferry astronauts to and from the International Space Station. Boeing netted a similar deal for its CST-100 space capsule with a maximum value of $4.2 billion.
NASA is counting on the two companies being certified to fly crews by the end of 2017, allowing the space agency to end its reliance on Russian Soyuz spacecraft to send astronauts to the space station.
The human-rated version of the Dragon spacecraft features many upgrades from the capsule’s cargo configuration, which has flown to the space station six times. It adds extra levels of redundancy, a new life support system, cockpit displays, a modernized heat shield, and has a different shape than the logistics capsule.
“We understand and have been told that crew is clearly different (than cargo),” Shotwell said. “There are a number of upgrades that we’ve been working for the past few years to ensure that this crewed version of Dragon is as reliable as possible, and ultimately we plan for it to be the most reliable spaceship flying crew ever.”
.
Artist’s concept of a Crew Dragon spacecraft on final approach to the International Space Station. A SpaceX cargo craft is also seen in this animation. Credit: SpaceX
-
SpaceX plans another abort test later this year to demonstrate the capsule can fly away from an exploding rocket in flight. The maneuver will occur about 73 seconds after liftoff, according to NASA, when aerodynamic pressures on the rocket are highest.
Once the pad abort capsule is returned to Port Canaveral — and if it survives the high-stress abort unscathed — SpaceX engineers could reuse the craft for the in-flight abort later in the year.
“We’ve got a few environmental hurdles to get through before we fly that,” Shotwell said.
The pad and in-flight abort tests are leftover milestones under an earlier agreement between SpaceX and NASA finalized in 2012. The space agency extended the deadline for the abort tests from last year until the end of March 2015, while SpaceX has already started work under its new $2.6 billion contract signed in September.
Another company that competed for NASA’s commercial crew contracts — Sierra Nevada Corp. — also received an extension from NASA to conduct an approach and landing test of the Dream Chaser space plane.
Sierra Nevada did not win funding from NASA to continue work on the Dream Chaser beyond the existing agreement expiring this year.
Quelle: SN

Tags: Raumfahrt 

2162 Views

Samstag, 31. Januar 2015 - 16:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Erfolgreicher Start von Delta-II mit SMAP-Satelliten

.

1.01.2015

Satellite with Extraordinary Antenna to Study Soil Moisture
 
It's active. It's passive. And it's got a big, spinning lasso.
Scheduled for launch on Jan. 29, 2015, NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) instrument will measure the moisture lodged in Earth's soils with an unprecedented accuracy and resolution. The instrument's three main parts are a radar, a radiometer and the largest rotating mesh antenna ever deployed in space.
.
Remote sensing instruments are called “active” when they emit their own signals and “passive” when they record signals that already exist. The mission's science instrument ropes together a sensor of each type to corral the highest-resolution, most accurate measurements ever made of soil moisture -- a tiny fraction of Earth's water that has a disproportionately large effect on weather and agriculture.
To enable the mission to meet its accuracy needs while covering the globe every three days or less, SMAP engineers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, designed and built the largest rotating antenna that could be stowed into a space of only one foot by four feet (30 by 120 centimeters) for launch. The dish is 19.7 feet (6 meters) in diameter.
"We call it the spinning lasso," said Wendy Edelstein of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, the SMAP instrument manager. Like the cowboy's lariat, the antenna is attached on one side to an arm with a crook in its elbow. It spins around the arm at about 14 revolutions per minute (one complete rotation every four seconds). The antenna dish was provided by Northrop Grumman Astro Aerospace in Carpinteria, California. The motor that spins the antenna was provided by the Boeing Company in El Segundo, California.
"The antenna caused us a lot of angst, no doubt about it," Edelstein noted. Although the antenna must fit during launch into a space not much bigger than a tall kitchen trash can, it must unfold so precisely that the surface shape of the mesh is accurate within about an eighth of an inch (a few millimeters).
The mesh dish is edged with a ring of lightweight graphite supports that stretch apart like a baby gate when a single cable is pulled, drawing the mesh outward. "Making sure we don't have snags, that the mesh doesn't hang up on the supports and tear when it's deploying -- all of that requires very careful engineering," Edelstein said. "We test, and we test, and we test some more. We have a very stable and robust system now."
SMAP's radar, developed and built at JPL, uses the antenna to transmit microwaves toward Earth and receive the signals that bounce back, called backscatter. The microwaves penetrate a few inches or more into the soil before they rebound. Changes in the electrical properties of the returning microwaves indicate changes in soil moisture, and also tell whether or not the soil is frozen. Using a complex technique called synthetic aperture radar processing, the radar can produce ultra-sharp images with a resolution of about half a mile to a mile and a half (one to three kilometers).
SMAP's radiometer detects differences in Earth's natural emissions of microwaves that are caused by water in soil. To address a problem that has seriously hampered earlier missions using this kind of instrument to study soil moisture, the radiometer designers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, developed and built one of the most sophisticated signal-processing systems ever created for such a scientific instrument.
The problem is radio frequency interference. The microwave wavelengths that SMAP uses are officially reserved for scientific use, but signals at nearby wavelengths that are used for air traffic control, cell phones and other purposes spill over into SMAP's wavelengths unpredictably. Conventional signal processing averages data over a long time period, which means that even a short burst of interference skews the record for that whole period. The Goddard engineers devised a new way to delete only the small segments of actual interference, leaving much more of the observations untouched.
Combining the radar and radiometer signals allows scientists to take advantage of the strengths of both technologies while working around their weaknesses. "The radiometer provides more accurate soil moisture but a coarse resolution of about 40 kilometers [25 miles] across," said JPL's Eni Njoku, a research scientist with SMAP. "With the radar, you can create very high resolution, but it's less accurate. To get both an accurate and a high-resolution measurement, we process the two signals together."
SMAP will be the fifth NASA Earth science mission launched within the last 12 months.
.
NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive Spacecraft
NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive, or SMAP, spacecraft comes into view as the protective covering is removed in the Astrotech payload processing facility on Vandenberg Air Force Base in California during a post-shipment inspection. The covering protected the spacecraft from static-charge buildup and contamination while it was in transit from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. SMAP will launch on a Delta II 7320 configuration vehicle featuring a United Launch Alliance first stage booster powered by an Aerojet Rocketdyne RS-27A main engine and three Alliant Techsystems, or ATK, strap-on solid rocket motors. Once on station in Earth orbit, SMAP will provide global measurements of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state. These measurements will be used to enhance understanding of processes that link the water, energy and carbon cycles, and to extend the capabilities of weather and climate prediction models. SMAP data also will be used to quantify net carbon flux in boreal landscapes and to develop improved flood prediction and drought monitoring capabilities. Launch from Space Launch Complex 2 is targeted for Jan. 29, 2015. To learn more about SMAP, 
.
Delta II at the Pad
 The mobile service tower at Space Launch Complex 2 on Vandenberg Air Force Base in California is rolled back from the first stage of the Delta II rocket for NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive mission, or SMAP, during preparations for the arrival of the rocket's second stage. Photo credit: NASA/Randy Beaudoin
.
Mission Overview
SMAP is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, Space Studies Board, National Academies Press, 2007). SMAP data have both high science value and high applications value. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw measurements are invaluable across many science and applications disciplines including hydrology, climate, carbon cycle, and the meteorological, environmental and ecology applications communities.
Executive Summary to Satellite Observations to Benefit Science and Society Future water resources are a critical societal impact of climate change, and scientific understanding of how such change may affect water supply and food production is crucial for policy makers. Current climate models uncertainties result in disagreement on whether there will be more or less water regionally compared to today; SMAP data will enable climate models to be brought into agreement on future trends in water resource availability. For these reasons, the Committees Water Resources Panel gave SMAP the highest mission priority within its field of interest.
On Feb 2, 2008, NASA announced that SMAP would be one of two new start missions initiated in FY08. The Earth Science Division (ESD) of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) at NASA Headquarters determined that SMAP will be implemented as a directed mission within the NASA Earth Systematic Mission (ESM) Program managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is assigned responsibility for the overall success of the SMAP project.
"...Addressing the environmental challenges will not be possible without increased collaboration between Earth scientists and researchers in other disciplines including the social, behavioral, and economic sciences and policy experts. It is necessary now to build on the paradigm of Earth system science and strengthen its dual role Science and applications. This duality has always been an element of Earth science, but it must be leveraged more effectively than in the past..." (Chapter 1: Earth Science: Scientific Discovery and Societal Applications)
"...The global water cycle describes the circulation of water a vital and dynamic substance in its liquid, solid, and vapor phases as it moves through the atmosphere, the land, and the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Water affects everything animal, vegetable, and mineral on the surface of Earth and in the oceans. Life in its many forms exists because of water, and humans have flourished as a hydraulic civilization. Modern civilization depends on learning how to live within the constraints imposed by the availability of water its excesses and its deficiencies.
"...On a global scale, there are important gaps in knowledge of where water is stored, where it is going, and how fast it is moving. Global measurements from space open a vision for the advancement of water science, or hydrology. This vision includes advances in understanding, data, and information that will improve the ability to manage water and to provide the water-related infrastructure that is needed to provide for human needs and to protect and enhance the natural environment and associated biological systems..." (Chapter 11: Water Resources and the Global Hydrologic Cycle)
Quelle: NASA
.
Update: 13.01.2015
.

NASA water mapper set for move to the launch pad

SMAP folded up for launch. Credit: NASA
.
Making a scientific measurement of planet Earth on a global scale never before attempted by NASA is the objective of an environment satellite to be mounted atop its booster rocket Tuesday in California.
Liftoff of the United Launch Alliance Delta 2 rocket is slated for Jan. 29 at 6:20 a.m. local time (9:20 a.m. EST; 1420 GMT).
The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) spacecraft will detect the moisture content in land surfaces and determine whether it’s frozen or thawed during a three-year mission.
“The relevance is (soil moisture) is a pretty sensitive indicator of future water availability and can be used in climate models to help improve forecasts,” said Kent Kellogg, the project manager for SMAP.
“One of the really nice things about this mission is we have a lot of relevance for climate science, but the data is also very useful for everyday practical applications. It will improve weather forecasting significantly, drought and flood forecasting, food productivity and diseases.”
The mission was born out of first-ever Earth Science Decadal Survey in 2007, which tagged a soil moisture mission like SMAP as a high-ranking objective.
Capable of peering beneath clouds, vegetation and other surface features, the SMAP mission will produce global maps every 2-3 days.
.
File image of payload hoist at launch pad. Credit: NASA
.
Early Tuesday morning, crews with United Launch Alliance will carefully transport the 2,081-pound satellite from the commercial Astrotech processing facility to the pad at Space Launch Complex 2 of Vandenberg Air Force Base.
Once at the ocean-front pad, workers will lift the canister containing the observatory into the gantry for payload mating to the rocket’s second stage.
A combined systems check of the rocket and spacecraft is coming up this week. The payload fairing will be installed next week.
A two-stage Delta 2 rocket, with three strap-on solid motors, will haul the observatory into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit.
Quelle: SN
-
Update: 23.01.2015
-
Flight Readiness Review passed for next week’s Delta 2 launch
The Delta 2 rocket and the SMAP spacecraft passed the Flight Readiness Review today that assessed the progress of work and granted approval to proceed with loading the storable hypergolics into the second stage.
A NASA spokesperson says there are no major issues from the FRR and the “go” was given for second stage fueling starting tomorrow as planned.
“At its conclusion, there were significant issues identified for either the observatory or the United Launch Alliance Delta 2 rocket,” the spokesman said.
Technicians clad in protective suits at Vandenberg Air Force Base’s Space Launch Complex 2 began filling the stage with nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer tomorrow (Friday). The hydrazine propellant mixture will be placed aboard Monday.
The fuels will power the stage’s Aerojet Rocketdyne-made engine during the two firings needed to propel the SMAP satellite into the proper polar orbit.
Officials do not take the decision to start loading the rocket lightly. Commencing the second stage fueling is a major milestone in preparing for launch, one that starts a “clock” of 37 days for the rocket.
That “clock” is based on how long the stage remains certified to fly after the storable propellants begin flowing into the vehicle. Exposure to the fuels limits the lifetime for seals and other parts of the stage.
Liftoff remains targeted for Jan. 29 at 6:20 a.m. local time.
Quelle: SN
-
Update: 26.01.2015
.
NASA TV Coverage Set for Launch of Newest Earth-Observing Mission
NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive mission (SMAP) will lift off from Space Launch Complex 2 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 9:20 a.m. EST (6:20 a.m. PST) on a United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket.
Image Credit: NASA
-
NASA is preparing for a Thursday, Jan. 29, launch of the first U.S. Earth-observing satellite designed to collect global observations of surface soil moisture. The agency’s Soil Moisture Active Passive mission (SMAP) will lift off from Space Launch Complex 2 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 9:20 a.m. EST (6:20 a.m. PST) on a United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket.
NASA Television coverage will begin at 7 a.m. In addition to launch coverage, NASA also will host a series of prelaunch news conferences Tuesday, Jan. 27, at Vandenberg. All briefings, which are subject to change in time, will air live on NASA TV and the agency's website.
SMAP will provide high resolution, space-based measurements of soil moisture and its state -- frozen or thawed -- a new capability that will allow scientists to better predict natural hazards of extreme weather, climate change, floods and droughts, and help reduce uncertainties in our understanding of Earth's water, energy and carbon cycles.
The mission will map the entire globe every two to three days for at least three years and provide the most accurate and highest-resolution maps of soil moisture ever obtained. The spacecraft's final circular polar orbit will be 426 miles (685 kilometers), at an inclination of 98.1 degrees. The spacecraft will orbit the Earth once every 98.5 minutes and repeat the same ground track every eight days.
During the first news conference, at 4 p.m. EST Tuesday, Jan. 27, participants will discuss the latest information on the mission and launch status. Immediately following the prelaunch news conference will be a discussion of the CubeSat auxiliary payloads aboard the rocket.
Quelle: NASA
-
Update: 27.01.2015
-

Weather looking good for Delta 2 launch

VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE — The weather outlook is 80 percent favorable for launch of the Delta 2 rocket early Thursday morning from California, with cloud thickness posing the only worry, meteorologists report.
At launch time, the forecast predicts mid- and high-level clouds, good visibility, light northeasterly winds and a temperature of 45-50 degrees F.
Mission officials will convene the Launch Readiness Review Tuesday morning at Vandenberg Air Force Base to confirm all systems are set to enter into the countdown for Thursday’s liftoff.
The Launch Readiness Review will give the “go” to continue with the liftoff plans. Tuesday’s meeting examines the status of the Delta rocket, the SMAP spacecraft, the network of ground support and the weather forecast. The review culminates with official consensus to press ahead with countdown operations starting Wednesday afternoon.
After the LRR concludes, the pre-launch press conference is planned for 1 p.m. local (4 p.m. EST; 2100 GMT) with the NASA launch director, ULA’s program manager, SMAP officials and the weather officer.
The loading of storable propellants into the second stage was completed on Monday with the filling of hydrazine fuel. The oxidizer was loaded aboard on Friday.
Also Friday, the mission dress rehearsal was held for official personnel to practice the countdown and launch sequences.
“At this time, all pre-launch preparations are on schedule,” a NASA spokesman said Monday afternoon. “There are no significant issues being worked by the launch team.”
Quelle: SN
-
Update: 28.01.2015
.
Quelle: NASA
-
Update: 29.01.2015 
.
...
Update: 15.45 MEZ: Start wegen starker Winde um 24 Stunden verschoben
NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observatory, which will produce the highest-resolution and most accurate maps of soil moisture ever obtained from space, is scrubbed today from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. There was no time left to resolve the upper level wind shear constraint before the end of today’s launch window, so managers have decided to postpone launch by 24 hours.
Quelle: NASA
-
Update: 30.01.2015
-

Two more MSU satellites set to launch on Jan. 30, MSU program to be featured on NASA TV

BOZEMAN – Two more satellites built by Montana State University students and partners at the University of New Hampshire are set to launch Friday, Jan. 30, on a NASA mission. About 75 minutes later, MSU’s satellite development program will be featured on NASA TV.
“The opportunity our MSU students have to design and build sophisticated space flight hardware, get it launched on a NASA mission, and then actually operate their own satellite once it’s in space adds an incredibly important element to their education not available at most universities,” said David Klumpar, director of MSU’s Space Science and Engineering Laboratory.
FIREBIRD 3 and 4 – the name of the tiny cube satellites called CubeSats -- were originally scheduled to launch Thursday, Jan. 29, but NASA scrubbed the launch a few minutes before it took place because of upper level winds. The launch is now set for 7:20 a.m. Mountain time on Jan. 30.  The satellites will ride on a Delta II rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.
At 8:34 a.m. Mountain time -- after the launch and when the satellites are deployed -- a segment on MSU’s satellite program is expected to begin airing on NASA EDGE, a program that gives an “offbeat, funny and informative look behind the NASA curtain.” MSU’s segment will last more than 30 minutes and include a live interview with MSU student Matthew Handley. It will also include pre-produced videos with Klumpar, research engineer Keith Mashburn and four MSU students. An MSU commercial about the satellite program is expected to air, as well.
Viewers watch NASA TV on every floor of NASA headquarters in Washington, D.C., and every NASA facility in the United States, said Klumpar, who returned to MSU in the fall after working two years at NASA headquarters. NASA EDGE co-host Blair Allen said NASA EDGE can be seen on NASA TV or accessed on iTunes, YouTube and the NASA website at http://www.nasa.gov/nasaedge.
Three MSU-built satellites are currently orbiting the Earth. The Hiscock Radiation Belt Explorer (HRBE) was launched Oct. 28, 2011. FIREBIRD 1 and 2 – the precursors of the new satellites -- were launched Dec. 6, 2013. FIREBIRD refers to “Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Burst Intensity, Range, and Dynamics.”
Because of that work, Allen said MSU’s satellite development program has been on NASA EDGE’s radar for a while. To feature MSU on the program, Allen and two other NASA EDGE crew members came to MSU in September to film the CubeSats before they headed to California to be loaded onto the rocket. The crew filmed inside the Space Science and Engineering Laboratory in Cobleigh Hall. They interviewed Klumpar, Mashburn and four students or recent graduates who were involved in building and operating the satellites. The students were Handley, Jerry Johnson, Adam Gunderson and Nathan Fite.
Fite is a recent MSU graduate with a master’s degree in engineering management. A native of Wheelersburg, Ohio, he has worked on CubeSats for at least six years and continued to work on them as a graduate research assistant in the Space Science and Engineering Laboratory until November when he left MSU for an aerospace position in southern California.
Gunderson, a Kalispell native, told NASA EDGE that he started working on CubeSats as an undergraduate in electrical engineering and eventually became responsible for their power systems. He recently earned his master’s degree in electrical engineering. Four days after the NASA EDGE interview, he left Bozeman to start working for Northrop Grumman Corp., an aerospace and defense technology company.
Being able to say that he had been involved with four satellite missions from cradle to the grave made him a much better job candidate than if he hadn’t had the experience, Gunderson said.
MSU is the third university to have its satellite program featured on NASA EDGE, Blair said. One past show focused on California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly), but it included an appearance by Ehson Mosleh, an MSU graduate and current employee of MSU’s Space Science and Engineering Laboratory. Another show featured Medgar Evers College of The City University of New York (CUNY).
FIREBIRD 3 and 4 are the fifth and sixth MSU satellites to be launched through NASA’s Educational Launch of Nanosatellites (ELaNa) program. Their most important job is gathering more information about the loss of electrons from the Van Allen Radiation Belts, Klumpar said. Radiation in space affects Earth in a variety of ways, including interference with communication systems and power grids.
Klumpar said electrons become trapped in the Earth’s magnetic field, but the trap is leaky, causing electrons to be lost into the upper atmosphere from the Van Allen Radiation Belts. To better understand the process and impacts, MSU and the University of New Hampshire designed satellites that will gather information in tandem. The satellites are slightly taller than HRBE, which is a cube about four inches on each side. The FIREBIRD satellites conform to a nanosatellite size standard, known as the CubeSat standard, which allows them to ride together in a container called a PPOD.
FIREBIRD was funded by the National Science Foundation under the NSF’s CubeSat-based Science Missions for Geospace and Atmospheric Research program. The University of New Hampshire, where Klumpar earned his Ph.D., built the instruments that will take scientific measurements. MSU students designed and built the satellite buses that hold those instruments. They also integrated the instruments into the satellites and tested them to prepare them for launch.
The main job of the rocket carrying FIREBIRD 3 and 4 is to launch a NASA mission, called Soil Moisture Active Passive. SMAP will measure and map the moisture and freeze/thaw state of soil to better understand water, carbon and energy cycles on the Earth.
Quelle:Montana State University
...
The launch of NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observatory, which will produce the highest-resolution maps of soil moisture ever obtained from space, has been delayed to a targeted launch date of Jan. 31, pending completion of minor repairs to the United Launch Alliance Delta II launch vehicle. During inspections following the Jan. 29 launch attempt, minor “debonds” to the booster insulation were identified; a standard repair is being implemented. A launch attempt on Jan. 31 would take place at 9:20 a.m. EST.
Quelle: NASA
-
Update: 31.01.2015
.
...
Update: 13.50 
Weather Update
Vandenberg Air Force Base 30th Operations Support Squadron Launch Weather Officer Lt. Johnny Martin provided a weather update to NASA Launch Manager Tim Dunn and the NASA and United Launch Alliance SMAP launch team a few minutes ago.
There is a 100 percent chance of favorable launch weather with no range safety launch commit criteria violations predicted. At the time of liftoff, there is a slight chance of patchy ground fog, 5-7 mile visibility, winds from the northeast at 8 to 12 knots and a temperature between 48 and 53 degrees.
Currently, upper level winds are “red.” However, Dunn briefed the launch team that there is an opportunity for them to go “green” closer to the time of launch.
 
-

Quelle: NASA
...
LIVE
...
 
...
 
...
...Frams: ulalaunch
-
Update: 16.45 MEZ:
-
Trennphase von SMAP-Satelliten von Trägerstufe...
Quelle: ulalaunch

Tags: Raumfahrt 

2199 Views

Samstag, 31. Januar 2015 - 12:22 Uhr

Astronomie - BICEP2 Gravitationswellen 'Entdeckung' ist falsch!

.

This new image shows a patch of the southern sky and is based on observations performed by ESA's Planck satellite at microwave and sub-millimeter wavelengths. The color scale represents the emission from dust, a minor but crucial component of the interstellar medium that pervades our Milky Way galaxy. The texture, instead, indicates the orientation of the Galactic magnetic field. It is based on measurements of the direction of the polarized light emitted by the dust. The BICEP2 field of view is outlined in white. ESA/PLANCK COLLABORATION. ACKNOWLEDGMENT: M.-A. MIVILLE-DESCHÊNES, CNRS – INSTITUT D’ASTROPHYSIQUE SPATIALE, UNIVERSITÉ PARIS-XI, ORSAY, FRANCE
-
In online French documents briefly released and then removed last night and confirmed by the European Space Agency today, physicists have announced that last year’s much-publicized ‘discovery’ of gravitational waves embedded in the ‘echo’ of the Big Bang was a misstep.
Preempting the official research paper that is planned to be published next week, the ESA, who manages the Planck space telescope data, has gone on the record to say that the BICEP2 measurements of B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) was caused not by the presence of primordial gravitational waves, but by obscuring dust inside our own galaxy. The CMB is the left-over ancient radiation from the Big Bang that occurred nearly 14 billion years ago.
“Despite earlier reports of a possible detection, a joint analysis of data from ESA’s Planck satellite and the ground-based BICEP2 and Keck Array experiments has found no conclusive evidence of primordial gravitational waves,” writes an ESA statement.
This null result doesn’t come as a surprise to many scientists in the field, however.
Since the media storm that surrounded one of the would-be biggest cosmological discoveries in modern history in March 2014, the BICEP2 data has been heavily scrutinized. Although the BICEP2 telescope, a US-led project based near the South Pole, is designed to detect the tell-tail ‘wiggle’ in the polarization of CMB radiation caused by the presence of gravitational waves, great care needs to be taken when interpreting the results.
Should gravitational waves be detected, not only would their discovery be monumental, it would also confirm some key models of the universe’s origin, thereby revealing the mechanisms behind inflation — the split-second expansion of the universe immediately after the Big Bang.
However, between us and the outermost reaches of our observable universe there is magnetized material within our own galaxy. Any radiation detected beyond our galaxy has to travel through the interstellar dust and the signal needs to be corrected for. But to correct for our galaxy’s dust, you need to precisely map it first — this is where the European Planck space telescope comes in.
Before it went silent in 2013, Planck was surveying the sky, mapping the CMB. But it was also mapping the intervening magnetic field and dust content of our galaxy. These data are critical to subtract from CMB measurements if B-mode polarization is to be detected. But in March 2014, when the BICEP2 researchers announced their results to the world, the precision Planck dust map was not available.
Now that the Planck survey data has been processed, it seems that the BICEP2 ‘signal’ of gravitational waves is in fact interference caused by galactic dust.
“When we first detected this signal in our data, we relied on models for Galactic dust emission that were available at the time,” said John Kovac, principal investigator of BICEP2 at Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. “These seemed to indicate that the region of the sky chosen for our observations had dust polarization much lower than the detected signal.”
Now the BICEP2 and Planck teams are working together in hopes to place some limits on how strong any potential gravitational wave signals will be.
“This joint work has shown that the detection of primordial B-modes is no longer robust once the emission from Galactic dust is removed,” added Jean-Loup Puget, principal investigator of the HFI instrument on Planck at the Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay, France.
“So, unfortunately, we have not been able to confirm that the signal is an imprint of cosmic inflation.”
We will have to wait to read the full details behind this latest twist in the BICEP2 results when the joint Planck-BICEP2 paper is published next week, but it seems certain that the original BICEP2 announcement was premature.
It is important to note, however, that this null result doesn’t disprove the existence of gravitational waves, it just confirms, to a high degree of certainty, that BICEP2 hasn’t detected gravitational waves — yet.
“While we haven’t found strong evidence of a signal from primordial gravitational waves in the best observations of CMB polarization that are currently available, this by no means rules out inflation,” said Reno Mandolesi, principal investigator of the LFI instrument on Planck at University of Ferrara, Italy.
There’s also the possibility that the gravitational wave signal is in the BICEP2 data, but it is just swamped in the noise, so this new result places an upper limit on the possible strength of B-mode polarization caused by gravitational waves.
“The gravitational wave signal could still be there, and the search is definitely on,” said Brendan Crill, of both the Planck and BICEP2 teams from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif.
Quelle. D-News

Tags: Astronomie 

1831 Views

Freitag, 30. Januar 2015 - 22:45 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Gab es eine UFO-Landung am 17.Juni 1950 in der DDR ? Teil-4/4

.

Wie UFO-Legenden entstehen können, ist gerade hier in diesem Fall schön zu erkennen, nach dem der Fall in die damalige US-Ufologie aufgenommen wurde und seine Eigendynamik bekam:

War es so in Wirklichkeit? Oder war es ganz anders...

Was war die Ursache für die Beobachtung und Erinnerungs-Skizze von Oskar Linke und seiner Tochter? War es nur die Mißinterpretation eines gelandeten russischen Helikopter MIL-1 in der Nacht welcher im Jahre 1950 erst seit kurz Zeit bei den russischen Streitkräften eingesetzt wurde und daher der Zivilbevölkerung von Form und Flugverhalten noch nicht bekannt? Oder doch eine "Nahe Begegnung mit Humanoiden" welche in fliegenden Wärmflaschen zu uns kamen als Beweis für die Außerirdische Präsenz? 

---

Erinnern wir uns an die Kern-Aussagen von Oskar Linke:

Als ich mich über das wellige Gelände bis auf rund 80 Meter genähert hatte, erkannte ich aber keine Rehe, sondern zwei menschliche Gestalten. Sie steckten in dicken Anzügen, ähnlich wie Polarforscher. Ich dachte es waren Russen und verhielt mich still.
-
Hinter einer Geländewelle bewegte ich mich seitwärts weiter und bemerkte jetzt ein seltsames Gebilde. Es sah aus wie eine große Zinkwärmflasche. Ich schätzte sie auf 15 Meter Länge und zweieinhalb Meter Höhe. Das Ganze glänzte metallisch.
-
An den Seiten waren viele Öffnungen oder Ausbuchtungen
-
Oben drauf aber trug die "Wärmflasche" einen zylindrischen Aufsatz, der vielleicht zweieinhalb Meter hoch war.
-
Sicher ist sicher, sagte ich mir, und beobachtete die Männer, die sich gestikulierend zu unterhalten schienen, und den merkwürdigen Apparat. Das mögen 25 Minuten gewesen sein. Die ganze Zeit über war Gabriele auf der Straße allein.
-
"Ich kriegte Angst und rief nach meinem Vater", erzählt sie. "Dann hörte ich ein sehr lautes Geräusch von der Wiese herüber und sah, wie dort eine brennende Scheibe in die Luft flog und in Richtung Hildburghausen verschwand.
-
Als Gabriele rief, berichtet ihr Vater weiter, "krochen die beiden Männer eiligst in den Apparat.
-
 Dann sah ich, wie sich der Zylinder senkte und am unteren Teil der Wärmflasche herauskam, während die sich entsprechend hob.
-
Doch plötzlich heulte es auf wie Nebelhörner. Die Wärmflasche leuchtete und glühte. Jetzt sah ich, daß sie rund war, während sie mir vorher länglich erschienen war. Sicher drehte sie sich.
-
Ein mächtiger kalter Luftzug legte los, daß sich das Getreide auf dem nahen Feld flach legte.
-
Der Zylinder ging in seine alte Lage zurück und die Wärmflasche, die jetzt aussah wie eine helleuchtende Scheibe, schwebte frei in der Luft.
-
Da stieg sie plötzlich mit großer Geschwindigkeit steil in die Höhe, wobei ich mehrfach dumpfes Knallen hörte.
-
Als sie für das Auge vielleicht noch die Größe der Mondscheibe hatte, flog sie vertikal in Richtung Hildburghausen und Coburg davon. Ich schätze die Geschwindigkeit auf 1600 km/st.

---

Nach ausgiebiger Luftfahrt-Archiv Reserche fanden wir die Form des russischen Helikopters MIL-1 als für die Beobachtungszeit sowie die von Herrn Oskar Linke aufgeführte Skizze wie er es in der Dunkelheit für sich wahrnahm, als ursächlichen Flugkörper.

Durch Zufall entdeckten wir auch eine Film-Sequenz die fast das Szenario von der Skizze nachempfindet, jedoch gänzlich unabhängig zu sehen ist. Was auf diesem Bild zu sehen und sofort auffällt ist der "scheinbare Zylinder auf dem Helikopter" welcher die charakteristische Form ergibt.

Und schön sind auch die "beiden Polarforscher" an dem Helikopter zu sehen. Stellt man sich nun diese Szene in der Dunkelheit vor und das im Jahre 1950 in welchem diese Helikopter erst eingesetzt wurden ist die Mißinterpretation verständlich.

> Als ich mich über das wellige Gelände bis auf rund 80 Meter genähert hatte, erkannte ich aber keine Rehe, sondern zwei menschliche Gestalten. Sie steckten in dicken Anzügen, ähnlich wie Polarforscher. Ich dachte es waren Russen und verhielt mich still.<

-

MIL-1-Skizze

-

Schaut man sich die Form des Helikopters an ist ohne Frage der Vergleich mit der "Wärmflasche"  gegeben. Da wir nicht wissen in welchem Winkel der Helikopter zu dem Zeugen stand und wir mit einbeziehen müssen das es Dunkelheit gab und nur Beleuchtungseffekte die Konturen zeigten, dürfte nur der Kanzel+Antriebsbereich zu sehen gewesen sein, siehe nachfolgende Aufnahme im Fluge:

Auch ist die Größenschätzung von Herrn Oskar Linke für den Helikopter-MIL-1 fast deckungsgleich:

>Hinter einer Geländewelle bewegte ich mich seitwärts weiter und bemerkte jetzt ein seltsames Gebilde. Es sah aus wie eine große Zinkwärmflasche. Ich schätzte sie auf 15 Meter Länge und zweieinhalb Meter Höhe. Das Ganze glänzte metallisch.<

-

Auch die wahrgenommenen Ausbuchtungen sind auf dem Helikopter zu finden und welche sicherlich in der Dunkelheit diverse Schatteneffekte ergeben:

>An den Seiten waren viele Öffnungen oder Ausbuchtungen<

.

MIL-1- Technik-Museum / Auch hier der auffällige Aufbau zur Rotorantriebverkleidung welche als "Zylinder" in der Dunkelheit mißinterpretiert werden kann. Auch nochmal schön die "Ausbuchtungen am Rumpf" zu erkennen:

>Oben drauf aber trug die "Wärmflasche" einen zylindrischen Aufsatz, der vielleicht zweieinhalb Meter hoch war.<

-

Der beschwerliche Einstieg der Besatzung in die relativ kleine Kanzel von Helikopter-MIL-1

...passt ebenfalls zu Herrn Oskar Linkes Aussagen:

>Als Gabriele rief, berichtet ihr Vater weiter, "krochen die beiden Männer eiligst in den Apparat".<

-

Ebenfalls ist der Abflug der "Wärmflasche" sehr wohl identisch vom Verhalten eines startenden Helikopters:

Flugverhalten sowie die wahrgenommene Geräuschkulisse passen 1 zu1 auf den Helikopter MIL-1 : Flugbewegung sowie das Aufheulen der Antriebsturbine welche mit ihren Aussetzern ein "dumpfes Knallen" während des Abfluges verursachte ist hier anzutreffen. CENAP liegen Video-Aufnahmen des Helikopters MIL-1 vor auf welchen genau diese Geräuschkulisse zu hören ist. Der Luftzug entstehend durch die Rotorblätter ist auch bekannt sowie die Begleitumstände der umbiegenden Halme auf der Wiese/Feld.

Abflug in der Dunkelheit ergeben dann sicherlich eine wesentlich andere Gestalt in der Wahrnehmung als hier auf der Tages-Aufnahme:

Nachtaufnahme eines Helikopterstarts: Leichtes Anheben, kurzes Schweben und Abflug mit Beschleunigung nach Oben...

>Dann sah ich, wie sich der Zylinder senkte und am unteren Teil der Wärmflasche herauskam, während die sich entsprechend hob.

-
Doch plötzlich heulte es auf wie Nebelhörner. Die Wärmflasche leuchtete und glühte. Jetzt sah ich, daß sie rund war, während sie mir vorher länglich erschienen war. Sicher drehte sie sich.
-
Ein mächtiger kalter Luftzug legte los, daß sich das Getreide auf dem nahen Feld flach legte.
-
Der Zylinder ging in seine alte Lage zurück und die Wärmflasche, die jetzt aussah wie eine helleuchtende Scheibe, schwebte frei in der Luft.
-
Da stieg sie plötzlich mit großer Geschwindigkeit steil in die Höhe, wobei ich mehrfach dumpfes Knallen hörte.
-
Als sie für das Auge vielleicht noch die Größe der Mondscheibe hatte, flog sie vertikal in Richtung Hildburghausen und Coburg davon. Ich schätze die Geschwindigkeit auf 1600 km/st.<

---

Fall als Helikopter identifiziert und geschlossen?

Wir denken nach der langen zurückliegenden Zeit und der doch noch zu ermittelnden Umstände und Gegegbenheiten bei der UFO-Landung bei Haselbach, spricht mehr für die Beobachtung eines russischen Helikopters mit möglichen Antriebs-Problemen als für die unwahrscheinlichere Begegnung mit Humanoiden in fliegenden "Wärmflaschen"! Sicherlich sind so manche Details wie die Beschreibungen des "Zylinders" noch offen, doch hier sind einfach auch Wahrnehmungen in der Nacht zu beachten, welche durch dürftige Beleuchtung und Schatteneffekte beim Flugverhalten verursacht werden.

CENAP-Mannheim


Tags: UFO-Forschung 

1845 Views

Freitag, 30. Januar 2015 - 22:30 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Gab es eine UFO-Landung am 17.Juni 1950 in der DDR ? Teil-3/4

.

Schaut man sich die Skizzen von Oskar Linke an, fällt einem auf das die Skizze nicht die Beobachtung bei Nacht berücksichtigt. Siehe nachfolgende Skizze:

.

Auch in nachfolgenden Frams von Kino-Wochenschau Beitrag Flying-Saucer-Mystery von 1953 wird dies nicht für den Betrachter klar:

.

Oskar Linke im Interview

Oskar Linkes kleine Tochter im Interview

Erste Skizze von Oskar Linke / Nacht-Depesche

Oskar Linke fertigt vor laufender Kamera eine Skizze von seiner Beobachtung...

Nimmt man nun die Skizze von Oskar Linke und stellt die Szene bei Nacht dar, wird die Beobachtung realistischer:

.

...

Die Kern-Aussagen welche von Oskar Linke und seiner Tochter stammen: 

Als ich mich über das wellige Gelände bis auf rund 80 Meter genähert hatte, erkannte ich aber keine Rehe, sondern zwei menschliche Gestalten. Sie steckten in dicken Anzügen, ähnlich wie Polarforscher. Ich dachte es waren Russen und verhielt mich still.
-
Hinter einer Geländewelle bewegte ich mich seitwärts weiter und bemerkte jetzt ein seltsames Gebilde. Es sah aus wie eine große Zinkwärmflasche. Ich schätzte sie auf 15 Meter Länge und zweieinhalb Meter Höhe. Das Ganze glänzte metallisch.
-
An den Seiten waren viele Öffnungen oder Ausbuchtungen
-
Oben drauf aber trug die "Wärmflasche" einen zylindrischen Aufsatz, der vielleicht zweieinhalb Meter hoch war.
-
Sicher ist sicher, sagte ich mir, und beobachtete die Männer, die sich gestikulierend zu unterhalten schienen, und den merkwürdigen Apparat. Das mögen 25 Minuten gewesen sein. Die ganze Zeit über war Gabriele auf der Straße allein.
-
"Ich kriegte Angst und rief nach meinem Vater", erzählt sie. "Dann hörte ich ein sehr lautes Geräusch von der Wiese herüber und sah, wie dort eine brennende Scheibe in die Luft flog und in Richtung Hildburghausen verschwand.
-
Als Gabriele rief, berichtet ihr Vater weiter, "krochen die beiden Männer eiligst in den Apparat.
-
 Dann sah ich, wie sich der Zylinder senkte und am unteren Teil der Wärmflasche herauskam, während die sich entsprechend hob.
-
Doch plötzlich heulte es auf wie Nebelhörner. Die Wärmflasche leuchtete und glühte. Jetzt sah ich, daß sie rund war, während sie mir vorher länglich erschienen war. Sicher drehte sie sich.
-
Ein mächtiger kalter Luftzug legte los, daß sich das Getreide auf dem nahen Feld flach legte.
-
Der Zylinder ging in seine alte Lage zurück und die Wärmflasche, die jetzt aussah wie eine helleuchtende Scheibe, schwebte frei in der Luft.
-
Da stieg sie plötzlich mit großer Geschwindigkeit steil in die Höhe, wobei ich mehrfach dumpfes Knallen hörte.
-
Als sie für das Auge vielleicht noch die Größe der Mondscheibe hatte, flog sie vertikal in Richtung Hildburghausen und Coburg davon. Ich schätze die Geschwindigkeit auf 1600 km/st.
-
Sieht man sich diese Kern-Aussagen an und verbindet sie mit der Wahrnehmung in der Nacht, wird der Hinweis auf Helikopter sehr deutlich. Bei der VorOrt-Untersuchung in Verbindung der im Vorfeld gesammelten Daten zu den örtlichen Umständen, wird dieser Hinweis mit Indizien weiter gestützt. 
Man muss eine kleine Zeitreise machen, wenn man auch vor Ort fast wieder in den 50iger Jahren angekommen war. Aber die Hinweise von älteren Einwohnern das hier die Russen ständig präsent waren und auch Hubschrauberflüge dazu gehörten, zu dem gerade im Jahre 1950 es noch keine Mauer gab und der kalte Krieg zwischen den Machtblöcken ausgeprägt war, sind wichtig.
.
Deutschland-Karte 1950
-
Auf dieser Karte ist gut zu erkennen der nahe Grenzverlauf bei Gleimershausen zwischen Südthüringen und Bayern
-
Aber noch interessanter werden nachfolgende Karten welche die russischen Flugplätze und Einrichtungen zeigen auf welchen schon im Jahre 1950 die ersten russischen Helikopter MIL-1 eingesetzt wurden. Diese Helikopter waren klein und wendig und so konnte man im Tiefflug nah an der Grenze fliegen ohne vom Radar der Gegenseite erfasst zu werden.
Aussagen vorOrt gegenüber CENAP: Hier flogen keine UFOs nur die Russen! , Es war normal das sie zwischen den Hügeln flogen und tief..., Vor der Mauer war es Gang und Gäbe entweder sie zu sehen oder zu hören..., Ja, Nachts waren sie auch unterwegs und wenn irgend Etwas war (Fluchtversuche), flogen sie mit Scheinwerfern...
-
Kartenvergleich zu russischen Deutschlandkarten mit Eintrag von Helikopter-Flugplätzen (rot) Meiningen und (gelb) Wolfmannshausen
-
Neben diesen Flugplätzen in der Nähe von Gleimershausen/Haselbach war jedoch auch eine wichtige Radarstation für die damalige UdSSR nordwestlich auf dem Hohen Geba:
-
Foto: E.Ritter
Von 1945 bis 1962 dienten die Gebäude der Sowjetarmee den höchsten Punkt des Gipfelplateaus und errichtete hier eine Radarstation. Das Gelände wurde Sperrgebiet und war fortan für die Einheimischen und ihre Gäste nicht mehr zugänglich.
Ende der 1960er Jahre wurden durch eine deutsche Firma für die Sowjetarmee Baracken erbaut. Im Haus I (heute Gebatreff) befanden sich eine Waffenkammer, ein Politraum für Schulungen, ein Schlafsaal für 120 Soldaten, Küche, Bekleidungskammer, Speiseräume und einfache Sanitärräume. Am 22. April 1991 zogen die Sowjetsoldaten ab und das Haus 1 wurde durch ABM-Kräfte entkernt.
.
Hubschrauberlandeplatz
hier waren ständig Hubschrauber stationiert, diese flogen täglich die Grenze ab und kamen bei Zwischenfällen zum Einsatz.
-
Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg verlief die Innerdeutsche Grenze bis zur Wiedervereinigung in grober Nord-Süd-Richtung durch die Rhön – etwa von Bad Salzungen, dann östlich der Wasserkuppe, östlich der Königsburg und östlich vorbei an Bad Königshofen. Der Verlauf entsprach dem der heutigen Landesgrenze von Thüringen zu Hessen und Bayern. Die russische Militäranlage auf der Hohen Geba war der westlichste Großhorchposten des Warschauer Paktes auf europäischem Boden. Auf westlicher Seite markierten amerikanische Militäranlagen (z. B. Point alpha) die Präsenz dieser Großmacht, auch in der hessischen und bayerischen Rhön wurden neue Truppenübungsplätze eingerichtet oder bestehende erweitert. Im Rahmen der „Sicherung der Staatsgrenze“ wurden ein Grenzregiment in Dermbach und mehrere Grenzkompanien in den Rhöngemeinden stationiert. In Bad Salzungen entstand eine große Garnison mit einem großflächigen Übungsgelände um den Pleßberg. Auch der Ellenbogen war ein durch die NVA genutztes militärisches Sperrgebiet. Auf dem Pleßberg, auf dem Ellenbogen und auf der Hohen Geba wurden Radarstationen errichtet. Deshalb konnten die Gipfel auch nicht mehr vom Rhönclub und der Bevölkerung genutzt werden.
-
-------------
---
Kennt man nun die damaligen Gegebenheiten in Bezug zur Grenze und den Tagen des kalten Krieges ist davon auszugehen, es wahrscheinlicher ist das es sich bei der Beobachtung von Oskar Linke um einen Helikopter der russischen Streitkräfte gehandelt hat als um eine "Wärmflasche mit Humanoiden aus dem All". Es war zwar 1952 die Hoch-Zeit der Ufologen mit Adamski und Co und lief gerade der SF-Film "Am Tag als die Erde still stand" in den KInos an, aber wie wir wissen stellten sich all die Storys von den Kontaktlern wie Adamski als Schwindel heraus.
-
Schaut man sich nochmal die Karten an, ersieht man die kurzen Entfernungen von den russischen Einrichtungen zu dem Beobachtungsort Gleimershausen/Haselbach und es ist durchaus denkbar, das in der Nacht vom 17.Juni 1950 solch ein Hubschrauber wegen Einsatz oder technischen Problemen dort auf den gut erreichbaren Wiesen gelandet ist.
-
Der russische Helikopter könnte von der Radarstation (damals noch mit mobilen Radargeräten auf Fahrzeugen) Hohen Geba oder von Flugplatz Meiningen gekommen und in Richtung Wolfmannshausen Richtung Grenze geflogen sein, was sich auch mit der angegeben Abflugrichtung von Oskar Linke : Hildburghausen decken würde.
-
A= Gleimershausen, B= Wolfmannshausen
---
Wie aus einer "fliegenden Zinkwärmflasche" ein russischer MIL-1-Helikopter wird und die "Polarforscher" ganz normale russische Helikopterpiloten, können wir im vierten und letzten Teil aufführen...



Tags: UFO-Forschung 

2302 Views

Freitag, 30. Januar 2015 - 22:15 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Gab es eine UFO-Landung am 17.Juni 1950 in der DDR ? Teil-2/4

.

Anfang Januar 2015 fuhr CENAP zum Ort der Beobachtung um sich einen eigenen Überblick auf die Landschaft sowie die örtlichen Gegebenheiten sich zu verschaffen. Klar war zu Anfangs nur das sich solche "Sensationen der UFO-Geschichte" immer am Ende der Welt oder sich Fuchs und Hase Gute Nacht sagen, abspielen. So auch in diesem Fall, die Anfahrt über die schöne Rhön führte in immer kleinere Dörfer, welche sich z.T. noch in einem "Dornröschen-Schlaf" befinden wie es Damals in den 50iger Jahren im Grenzbereich DDR/BRD vorzufinden war. An der Landstraße führen immer noch zwischen Gleimersheim und dem knapp 2km entfernten Haselbach Telefondrähte auf Holzpfählen entlang. Sanfte Hügel sind nach verlassen des Dorfes Gleimersheim im Blick, welche die Landschaft bestimmen bis ca. 1km südlich ein großer Bauernhof steht, in welchem sich eine große Anzahl an Kühen und Schafen befinden. Der Bauernhof muss schon in den 50iger Jahren dort gestanden haben, was sich aus der Bauweise ergibt. Danach wird die Landschaft Richtung Haselbach immer flacher und die Beobachtungs-Umstände wie wir sie aus der Beobachtungsmeldung von Herrn Linke entnehmen, können sich hier nicht abgespielt haben. Bleibt also der ca.1km Abschnitt südlich von Gleimershausen. 

-

Nachfolgend CENAP-VorOrt-Fotos:

-

Richtung Haselbach/Rhön

Das Ziel rückt näher...

...

...

Richtung Haselbach/Rhön

Ankunft bei Haselbach / Einsatz von Video-Kamera welche gesamte Wegstrecke aufnahm von Haselbach-Gleimershausen

Vor Ort in Gleimershausen und Gespräch mit Dorfbewohner...

Orstausfahrt von Gleimershausen in Richtung Haselbach...

Blick auf linke Straßenseite mit Landschaft kurz nach Ortsausfahrt von Gleimershausen...

Blick auf kleine Talsenke mit Hasel-Bach...

...Blickrichtung Haselbach

...

...

Nach ca. 1km kommt dieser große Bauernhof in welchem Kühe und Schafe in großer Anzahl vertreten sind.

...

...wie man sehen kann wird südlich des Bauernhofes die Landschaft sichtlich flacher und kommt den Zeugenbeschreibungen weniger entgegen.

Am Vormittag hatten wir Glück und konnten mit dem Bauern sprechen welcher gerade bei der Fütterung der Tiere war. Hierbei bekamen wir zusätzliche Informationen welche in den nächsten Punkten zur  Sprache kommen.

Nach Gespräch mit Bauern vor Ort fuhren wir die Strecke  zwischen Gleimersheim und Haselbach vier mal ab um die "Landestelle der Wärmflasche" noch besser einzugrenzen.

Richtung Haselbach...

Haselbach

Zurück bei Gleimersheim wo wir die örtlichen Gegebenheiten auf der linken Straßenseite als mögliche "Landestelle für was auch immer" am möglichsten einschätzten.

...

...

Mit den Informationen vorOrt welche sich in unsere Recherche einfügten, wollten wir wissen WAS wirklich für die Beobachtung von Herrn Oskar Linke mit seiner Tochter verantwortlich ist, da hier sehr viele Indizien für einen Hubschrauber  sprechen.




Tags: UFO-Forschung 

2126 Views

Freitag, 30. Januar 2015 - 21:30 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Gab es eine UFO-Landung am 17.Juni 1950 in der DDR ? Teil-1/4

.

Im ersten Teil wollen wir die unterschiedlichen Angaben zu dem Geschehen aus den vorliegenden Informationen und Dokumente zu dem "UFO-Lande-Fall in der damaligen DDR" aufführen:

In Deutschland wurde dieser Zeitungs-Bericht aus der Nacht-Depesche (15.August 1952) bekannt:

-

...

Diese Beobachtung kommt so auch in CIA und Blue-Book Dokumente als Abschrift vor:

-

CIA:

Ausschnitt-Vergrößerung

...

Blue Book / Spring 1952:

...

Le Figaro(7.Juli 1952):

...

Notar-Dokument zu den Angaben von Herr Oskar Linke:

Soweit die vorliegenden Dokumente aus denen unterschiedliche Angaben zu Entfernung zum Beobachteten sowie auch in Details erscheinen.

So ist es nicht unerheblich wenn von der nähesten Beobachtungs-Position die Entfernung zwischen 10, 40 und 80 Metern schwankt. Auffällig ist die Angabenschwankung zwischen den amerikanischen Aufzeichnungen gegenüber der Schilderung in der deutschen Nacht-Depesche, dies könnte auf Übersetzungsfehler oder Mißverständnisse zurückzuführen sein. Warum die Entfernung in diesem Fall nicht unwichtig ist, werden wir in nachfolgenden Punkten aufführen. Darunter fallen auch die Detail-Unterschiede bei der beobachteten Besatzung die zwischen metallisch glänzenden Anzügen (in CIA und BlueBook) und dicken Anzügen wie Polarforscher (Nacht-Depesche) sich unterscheiden. Das Objekt wird als "fliegende Pfanne" in den amerikanischen Quellen und in deutscher Quelle als Wärmflasche aufgeführt. Diese Punkte würden bei einem Vorfall bei Tage nicht ganz so wichtig erscheinen, aber bei einer Nacht-Beobachtung schon, da hier markante Beobachtungsdetails in der Wahrnehmung problematisch sind.

---

Ort des Geschehens: Landstraße Zwischen Gleimersheim und Gleimersheim-Haselbach /Rhön in Südthüringen:

.

.

-

Auf dieser Straße befanden sich Herr Oskar Linke mit seiner Tochter am 17. Juni 1950 gegen 2.30 Uhr MEZ

Nach CENAP-VorOrt-Begehung gehen wir davon aus, sich die Beobachtung zwischen Gleimershausen und dem ca. 1km weiter südlich liegenden großen Bauernhof abgespielt haben muss. Da die südlich führende Straße ab dem Bauernhof in immer flacherers Gelände führt und nicht mehr den Gegebenheiten wie sie aus der Zeugenbeschreibung erfolgt, entspricht.

Ebenfalls muss hier ein Beobachtungsdetail festgehalten bzw. berichtigt werden da es in aktuellen Berichten darüber falsche Angaben zur "Flugrichtung des Objektes" gibt. Es wird beim Abflug des Objektes die Flugrichtung Hildburghausen /Stockheim/ Coburg als  Südwestlich angegeben, was jedoch bei der Karte klar Südöstliche Richtung ergibt:

.

Diese Flugrichtung Südost ist ebenfalls ein wichtiges Detail bei dieer Beobachtung wie es in nachfolgenden Punkten ersichtlich wird. Vielleicht liegt hier auch kein böser Wille vor, könnte ebenfalls ein Mißverständnis sein. Wenn man Damals sagte: "flog Richtung Westen (Bundesrepublik Deutschland)" da es ja an der Thüringen/Bayern-Grenze war, wurde es zu "Südwesten", aber ein Blick auf eine Karte hätte es schon früher getan.

CENAP-Mannheim

 




.


Tags: UFO-Forschung 

1886 Views


Weitere 10 Nachrichten nachladen...