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Sonntag, 1. Oktober 2017 - 21:00 Uhr

Astronomie - Fliegendes Observatorium SOFIA soll Schatten von Neptun Mond Triton einfangen

1.10.2017

Catching the Shadow of a Neptunian Moon

Researchers on the flying observatory SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, are preparing for a two-minute opportunity to study the atmosphere of Neptune’s moon Triton as it casts a faint shadow on Earth’s surface. This is the first chance to investigate Triton’s atmosphere in 16 years.

 

On Oct. 5, as Triton passes in front of a faraway star it will block the star’s light in an eclipse-like event called an occultation. During the celestial alignment, the team aboard the specially equipped Boeing 747SP aircraft will make observations of the distant star’s light as it passes through Triton’s atmosphere.

 

Triton has not passed in front of bright stars for many years, making occultation observations difficult. Now, as Triton passes in front of a bright star, the data collected by SOFIA’s 100-inch (2.5-meter) on board telescope and three powerful instruments will enable researchers to better study and characterize the moon’s atmosphere, including its temperature, pressure and density.

 

Previous observations, including those from NASA’s Voyager 2 spacecraft taken in 1989 and a previous occultation observation in 2001, indicate that Triton’s atmosphere is made mostly of nitrogen and is distorted at different locations by its high winds and strong tides. These new occultation data may also provide details about how the atmosphere varies at different altitudes, enabling researchers to examine if the atmosphere has changed since it was last studied.

 

Catching a Shadow

 

Catching Triton’s shadow as it races across Earth’s surface at more than 37,000 mph (17 km/s) while the aircraft is traveling at Mach 0.85 (approximately 652 mph), is no small feat. To ensure that they are in the right place at the right time, researchers have made advanced observations of Triton and the star with multiple telescopes to determine the location of their shadow. From these precise calculations, SOFIA’s flight planners have designed a flight plan that will put the flying observatory in the center of the shadow for approximately two minutes as Triton aligns in front of the star.

 

“SOFIA is the only observatory able to position itself directly in the shadow’s centerline while avoiding any obscuring clouds,” said Ted Dunham, astronomer from the Lowell Observatory in Arizona and instrument scientist for the High Speed Photometer for Occultations (HIPO). “With the dedicated SOFIA team and three onboard instruments, we can make the precise measurements necessary to study Triton’s atmosphere in great detail.”

 

Though challenging, SOFIA’s team has previously used this method to make successful observations of Pluto’s atmosphere with SOFIA in 2011 and 2015. Additionally, researchers on SOFIA’s predecessor, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, discovered Uranus’ rings while studying an occultation by that planet in 1977.

 

Ground and Air Observations Take Shape

 

Triton has strong tides because it is close to Neptune, much closer than our moon is to Earth. These powerful tides combined with its strong winds, change the shape of its atmosphere. To measure the overall shape of Triton’s atmosphere, the researchers are also teaming with more than 30 ground-based telescopes across the Eastern United States and Europe. Most of these telescopes are not located where the center of the shadow will fall, but they will make simultaneous observations of different areas of Triton’s atmosphere to get a global view of its shape. The data from across Earth, combined with that collected onboard SOFIA, will help researchers understand how these forces influence the atmosphere.

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The borders of Triton's shadow across Earth's surface are indicated by black lines on this map, while the orange line is the path of the shadow's center. SOFIA’s flight path is represented by the red line; the point of the crucial, two-minute observation of Triton as it aligns with the star is marked by the airplane. The red and blue dots represent the ground-based telescopes that will also observe Triton.
Credits: DSI/ Karsten Schindler (Map data, Google)
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“The ground-based campaign augments both the visible and infrared data from SOFIA, to give us a global perspective of Triton's atmosphere,” Kimberly Ennico Smith, SOFIA project scientist at NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley.

 

The center of Triton’s shadow, which is predicted to fall over the Eastern United States, the Atlantic Ocean, and Europe, is far from SOFIA’s home base at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in Palmdale, California. For this flight, the flying observatory will operate from a temporary base in Daytona Beach, Florida, to complete these observations. From Florida, SOFIA can reach the shadow’s center and return during a single, nine-hour observing flight.

 

Follow along on social media with @SOFIAtelescope and #NeptunesMoon as SOFIA chases Triton’s shadow, and join the mission crew live with NASA on Snapchat on Oct. 5.

SOFIA is a joint project of NASA and the German Aerospace Center, DLR. NASA’s Ames Research Center manages the SOFIA program, science and mission operations in cooperation with the Universities Space Research Association headquartered in Columbia, Maryland, and the German SOFIA Institute (DSI) at the University of Stuttgart. The aircraft is based at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center's Hangar 703, in Palmdale, California.

Quelle: NASA


Tags: Astronomie - Fliegendes Observatorium SOFIA soll Schatten von Neptun Mond Triton einfangen 

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Sonntag, 1. Oktober 2017 - 16:07 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Roscosmos hofft, dass Expeditionen zum Mars auf russischen Raketen abheben werden

1.10.2017

Roscosmos hopes expeditions to Mars will lift off on Russian space vehicles


"I’d like to see the liftoff of a future international space mission to the Moon or Mars from Vostochny on a Russian super heavy-duty launch vehicle," Igor Komarov said
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Vostochny cosmodrome
MOSCOW,  Director of the Russian state space corporation Roscosmos, Igor Komarov said on Friday he hopes international expeditions of the future will be lifting off towards the Moon and Mars with the aid of Russian super heavy-duty launch vehicles from Vostochny Space Center in the Far East of Russia.
He said it in an interview with Channel One Russia.
"I’d like to see the liftoff of a future international space mission to the Moon or Mars from Vostochny on a Russian super heavy-duty launch vehicle," Komarov said.
He added that the layout the project of the Deep Space Gateway lunar orbit station, an agreement on creating which Russia and the U.S. reached at a congress of astronauts in Australia, was in the phase of development.
Komarov said there was understanding on the part of both Russia and the U.S. they needed to work together.
"I think traditions and joint work at the International Space Station offer reliable groundwork for promoting our relations," Komarov said. "Also, there’s the understanding we’re great space powers and the future of space exploration is contingent on what Russia and the U.S. do.".

Quelle: TASS


Tags: Raumfahrt - Roscosmos hofft, dass Expeditionen zum Mars auf russischen Raketen abheben werden 

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Sonntag, 1. Oktober 2017 - 15:45 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Alien-Technologie Einsatz bei Privat-Event

Wo kommt es her: Area-51 oder doch nur irdischer Erfindergeist? ... Mit so einem Teil Abends durch den Wald laufen und schon hätten wir die schönsten Ufologen Schlagzeilen. Gut das sie noch so harmlos sind...

CENAP

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AL STAHLER IS READY TO HANDCRAFT THE ORIGINAL PLASMA POPPERS FOR YOU

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Need something to light up your party? Well, fireworks is one good way to do so. On second thought, fireworks is kind of passé, plus it is so not personal. The action is too far away from the crowd. Intel’s spectacular drone light show is a good alternative, but affordability is problem. So, here’s another way: The Original Plasma Poppers by the one and only Al Stahler. OK. This is to a plasma gun, but the effect offered by propane is nothing less than enthralling and that’s not to mention the “light show” is on demand. On demand. Anytime you need It, you can fire it up.

Now, we are not going to pretend we have seen this years ago; we did not. But whether or not you have seen it, here’s an awesome news: Al Stahler is ready to handcraft one for you and if he build one for you, it will come with instructions with bonus tips on how to create different effects to, you know, impress your party. Apparently, The Original Plasma Poppers video posted on Daily Planet went viral, resulting in the product flying off the shelves. At the time of this writing, both the Helical and Spiral versions, which cost $395 and $450, respectively, were sold out.

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You know you want your very own propane popper.  Now you can have the original.  Al Stahler is the often copied never duplicated inventor of the Plasma Popper.  And TODAY is your lucky day.  Because he's ready to hand-craft one of his crowd-pleasing fiery bundles of joy just for you.

 

WHAT YOU GET

  • Hand-made original plasma popper
  • Instructions plus tips on different effects
  • We can not ship MAP gas bottles but they are available at any hardware store for $10, good for 100 shots or more

 

Helical Version:  $395 SOLD OUT*
Spiral Version: $450 SOLD OUT*
Custom: Quote*

*THE RESPONSE FROM DAILY PLANET HAS BEEN OVERWHELMING. PLEASE USE THE "CONTACT" FORM TO GET ON THE WAIT LIST. FIRST COME, FIRST SERVED. THANK YOU!

“You will be the life of the party!”
 

Order Yours Today

Please fill out the brief form to the right and we will be in touch to discuss the design of your plasma popper.  The XL and Standard models are shown below, but each iteration may have slight differences.  You always get a one-of-a-kind popper.

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Video hier; https://www.facebook.com/DailyPlanetShow/?fref=mentions

 

 

 

 


Tags: UFO-Forschung - "Alien-Technologie" Einsatz bei Privat-Event 

585 Views

Sonntag, 1. Oktober 2017 - 08:10 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Start von Ariane-V-VA-239 mit Intelsat 37e and BSAT-4a Satelliten

4.09.2017

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The Ariane 5 for Flight VA239 rides atop a mobile launch table during its transfer from the Spaceport’s Launcher Integration Building to the Final Assembly Building.

The Ariane 5 for Arianespace’s ninth flight in 2017 is being readied for a September 5 liftoff from the Spaceport, while its two satellite passengers – Intelsat’s Intelsat 37e and BSAT-4a for SSL on behalf of Japan’s Broadcasting Satellite System Corporation (B-SAT) – continue their final checkout at the French Guiana facility.

Following its build-up in the Launcher Integration Building, the Ariane 5 has been moved to the Final Assembly Building for the upcoming installation of Intelsat 37e and BSAT-4a – which are now undergoing their own checkout processes in separate halls of the Spaceport’s S5 payload preparation facility.

The upcoming mission to geostationary transfer orbit is designated Flight VA239 in Arianespace’s numbering system, and will mark the 239th launch of an Ariane vehicle since the European launcher series entered service in 1979. The heavy-lift Ariane 5 is operated as part of Arianespace’s launcher family at the Spaceport, which also includes the medium-lift Soyuz and lightweight Vega.

An “Epic” launch at the service of Intelsat

Built by Boeing using a 702MP spacecraft platform, Intelsat 37e is the next satellite in Intelsat’s high-throughput EpicNG series for launch.

Preparations for Flight VA239’s two satellite passengers included the fit-check of Intelsat 37e with its payload adapter (at left), and fueling of BSAT-4a (photo at right).

It also will be the fourth EpicNGspacecraft orbited by Arianespace to date (following Ariane 5 missions with Intelsat 29e and Intelsat 33e in January and August 2016, respectively, plus last February’s heavy-lift flight that lofted SKY Brasil-1/Intelsat 32e).

Operating in the C, Ku and Ka frequency bands, the spacecraft will provide capacity for wireless backhaul, enterprise VSAT and mobility networks. Intelsat 37e, which is to carry out its mission from a 342-deg. East orbital slot, will weigh approximately 6,440 kg. at liftoff.

Continuing a long and fruitful partnership

Arianespace is launching Flight VA239’s co-passenger, BSAT-4a, as part of a turnkey contract between B-SAT and U.S.-based satellite manufacturer SSL. To be operated from an orbital position of 110 deg. East, this spacecraft will be used for Direct-To-Home (DTH) television relay in Japan and to expand the availability of advanced television services – such as 4K/8K ultra-high definition TV.

BSAT-4a is based on the SSL 1300 satellite platform and is fitted with 24 Ku-band transponders. It will weigh approximately 3,520 kg. at liftoff, with a design life that exceeds 15 years.

Arianespace has a 30-year-plus track record serving operators in the Japanese market – including B-SAT, for which it is the launch services provider of choice.

Flight VA239 will continue Arianespace’s busy schedule in 2017, in which eight launches were performed during the year’s first seven months, utilizing the company’s full launcher family (two with Vega; two with Soyuz; and four using Ariane 5).

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Ariane 5 is completed for its dual-payload mission on September 5

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The completion of Ariane 5’s assembly for Flight VA239 is shown during activity in the Spaceport’s Final Assembly Building. At left, BSAT-4a is positioned atop the launcher, followed by the installation of Intelsat 37e (center and right), which is encapsulated in a long version of Ariane 5’s payload fairing.

The Ariane 5 for Arianespace’s ninth mission of 2017 is now fully assembled following integration of its two satellite passengers at the Spaceport in French Guiana.

During activity in Ariane 5’s Final Assembly Building, the upper payload component – containing Intelsat 37e, mounted on its SYLDA dispenser system and protected by an ogive-shaped fairing – was lowered into position over BSAT-4a, which previously was installed atop the launcher’s central core.

This step clears the way for final checkout, which will enable the launch readiness review to be conducted on September 1, followed by Ariane 5’s rollout to the Spaceport’s ELA-3 launch zone the following Monday, and an evening liftoff on Tuesday, September 5.

The upcoming mission is designated Flight VA239 in Arianespace’s numbering system, and it will deliver the two telecommunications payloads into geostationary transfer orbit.

Telecommunications satellites from long-time customers

To be deployed first during the 47-minute flight sequence is Intelsat 37e – the next satellite in Intelsat’s high-throughput EpicNG series for launch, which was built by Boeing using a 702MP spacecraft platform. This spacecraft will operate in C, Ku and Ka frequency bands, providing capacity for wireless backhaul, enterprise VSAT and mobility networks from a 342-deg. East orbital slot. Intelsat 37e has an estimated liftoff mass of 6,438 kg.

Ariane 5’s second passenger – BSAT-4a, which is being launched as part of a turnkey contract between Japan’s Broadcasting Satellite System Corporation (B-SAT) and U.S.-based satellite manufacturer SSL – will be operated from an orbital position of 110 deg. East. It will be used for Direct-To-Home (DTH) television relay in Japan, as well as to expand the availability of advanced television services (such as 4K/8K ultra-high definition TV). BSAT-4a will weight approximately 3,520 kg. at liftoff.

Flight VA239 will continue Arianespace’s busy schedule in 2017, in which eight launches were performed during the year’s first seven months, utilizing the company’s full launcher family (two with Vega; two with Soyuz; and four using Ariane 5).

 

Launch window for Flight VA239:

French Guiana Washington, D.C. Universal Time (UTC) Paris
 Between 6:51 p.m. and
7:24 p.m. on Sept. 5
Between 5:51 p.m. and
6:24 p.m. on Sept. 5
Between 21:51 and
22:24 on Sept. 5
Between 11:51 p.m. and
00:24 a.m. on Sept. 5/6

 

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Ariane 5 is cleared for launch on Arianespace’s upcoming heavy-lift mission from French Guiana

Arianespace’s fifth Ariane 5 mission of 2017 has been given the “green light” for liftoff on September 5 following today’s successful launch readiness review, which was conducted at the Spaceport in French Guiana.

This milestone – held prior to each Arianespace flight – confirmed that the heavy-lift vehicle and its dual-satellite payload of Intelsat 37e and BSAT-4a are ready for launch, as well as the Spaceport’s infrastructure and the network of downrange tracking stations.

With approval granted, Ariane 5 is cleared for its September 4 rollout from the Final Assembly Building to the ELA-3 launch zone. Liftoff will occur the following day during a 33-minute launch window that opens at 6:51 p.m. local time in French Guiana.

A heavy-lift delivery for Arianespace’s Ariane 5

Total payload lift performance for next week’s liftoff is approximately 10,838 kg., with the Intelsat 37e and BSAT-4a satellites being deployed to geostationary transfer orbit during a flight lasting 47 minutes. The mission is designated Flight VA239 in Arianespace’s launcher family numbering system, signifying the 239th with an Ariane family vehicle.

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Positioned in Ariane 5’s upper passenger position and encapsulated by the launcher’s ogive-shaped payload fairing, Intelsat 37e – produced by Boeing – is the next satellite in Intelsat’s high-throughput EpicNG series for launch.

Weighing an estimated 6,440 kg. at liftoff, the spacecraft will provide capacity for wireless backhaul, enterprise VSAT and mobility networks, carrying out its mission from a 342-deg. East orbital slot.

BSAT-4a – Flight VA239’s lower passenger, contained in Ariane 5’s SYLDA dispenser system – is being launched by Arianespace as part of a turnkey contract between Japan’s Broadcasting Satellite System Corporation (B-SAT) and U.S.-based satellite manufacturer SSL.

To be operated from an orbital position of 110 deg. East, this spacecraft will be used for Direct-To-Home (DTH) television relay in Japan, as well as to expand the availability of advanced television services (such as 4K/8K ultra-high definition TV). BSAT-4a will weight approximately 3,520 kg. at liftoff.

 

Launch window for Flight VA239:

French Guiana Washington, D.C. Universal Time (UTC) Paris
 Between 6:51 p.m. and
7:24 p.m. on Sept. 5
Between 5:51 p.m. and
6:24 p.m. on Sept. 5
Between 21:51 and
22:24 on Sept. 5
Between 11:51 p.m. and
00:24 a.m. on Sept. 5/6

 

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Ariane 5 reaches the launch zone for tomorrow’s dual-satellite mission

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The Ariane 5 launcher for Arianespace Flight VA239 – outfitted with the Intelsat 37e and BSAT-4a satellite passengers – approaches its launch zone at the Spaceport in French Guiana.

Arianespace has delivered another Ariane 5 to the launch zone at Europe’s Spaceport in French Guiana, positioning the heavy-lift vehicle for its September 5 flight with two telecommunications satellites: Intelsat 37e and BSAT-4a. 

Riding atop a mobile launch table, Ariane 5 was transferred to the ELA-3 launch zone from the Spaceport’s Final Assembly Building – where its two passengers had been integrated as part of pre-flight preparations.

With the rollout now completed, the final countdown will begin for a liftoff tomorrow at the start of a 33-min. launch window that opens at 6:51 p.m. local time in French Guiana.

For this 239th launch of an Ariane-series vehicle – designated Flight VA239 in Arianespace’s numbering system – the payload lift performance to geostationary transfer orbit is an estimated 10,838 kg. The total factors in the mass of Intelsat 37e and BSAT-4a, plus the launch vehicle’s dual-passenger dispenser system and satellite integration hardware.

Intelsat 37e is riding as the upper passenger in Ariane 5’s payload arrangement, to be released 29 minutes into tomorrow’s mission. The spacecraft, with a liftoff mass estimated at 6,438 kg., was built for Intelsat by Boeing using a 702MP platform, and will operate from an orbital position of 342 deg. East.

BSAT-4a – whose launch is part of a turnkey contract between Japan’s Broadcasting Satellite System Corporation (B-SAT) and U.S.-based manufacturer SSL – will be deployed from Ariane 5’s lower passenger position. Based on the SSL 1300 platform, this satellite’s separation will occur 47 minutes after liftoff – completing Arianespace’s September 5 mission. BSAT-4a has an estimated liftoff mass of 3,520 kg. and will operate from a 110 deg. East orbital slot.

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Quelle: arianespace

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Update: 5.09.2017

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Quelle: CNES

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Update: 23.45 MESZ:

LIVE-Frams:

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...

Fehlstart von Ariane-V-VA-239:

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Quelle: CNES

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Update: 6.09.2017

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Anomaly causes interruption of the countdown for Arianespace Flight VA239

During the final seconds of the launch countdown for Arianespace Flight VA239, the checkout process detected an anomaly on the launcher as the Vulcain cryogenic main stage engine was being ignited. As a result, the final countdown was interrupted.

The Ariane 5 and its Intelsat 37e and BSAT-4a payloads immediately switched to a safe mode. Analysis of data is underway to determine the cause of the anomaly. In parallel, the launcher will be transferred back to the Final Assembly Building at the Spaceport in French Guiana – where it is to be returned to a flight-ready condition.

Arianespace will set a new launch date as soon as possible.

Quelle: arianespace

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Interruption of the VA239 countdown: results of preliminary analysis

Just after the ignition of Ariane 5’s main stage Vulcain engine, the on-board computer detected an anomaly affecting electrical equipment on one of the two solid-propellant boosters (EAP). This anomaly led to an interruption of the automated lift-off sequence.

This interruption is perfectly compliant with our procedures which authorize a launch only if 100% of launcher equipment is fully operational. This rule guarantees the reliability and robustness of our launch system.

An analysis started immediately after the countdown interruption. It will continue to identify the anomaly’s cause and determine the measures to be taken in order to resume launch operations as soon as possible.

As the analysis is underway, Ariane 5 will be transferred to the Final Assembly Building (BAF) on Thursday, September 7, once the tanks have been purged. The two satellites, Intelsat 37e and BSAT-4a, are safe under the fairing atop the launcher.

As soon as the analysis of the anomaly has been completed, Arianespace will announce a new launch date. The objective is to launch around the end of September 2017.

This postponement does not affect the other launches scheduled for the end of 2017.

Quelle: arianespace

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Update: 29.09.2017 / 23.25 MESZ

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va239-g

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23.43 MESZ

va239-ga

+++23.55 MESZ

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va239-gba

va239-gbb

va239-gc

va239-gd

va239-gda

Quelle: arianespace

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Update: 1.10.2017

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Ariane 5 orbits Intelsat 37e and BSAT-4a on Arianespace’s latest mission from the Spaceport

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Arianespace orbited telecommunications satellites for long-time customers on today’s successful mission – confirming the company’s role as a launch services leader in terms of availability, reliability and performance.

Conducted from the Spaceport’s ELA-3 launch zone in French Guiana, the successful mission delivered an estimated payload lift performance of 10,838 kg. to geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) – utilizing the heavy-lift Ariane 5 member of Arianespace’s launcher family, which also includes the medium Soyuz and lightweight Vega.

Designated Flight VA239, the mission carried Intelsat 37e for global operator Intelsat; along with BSAT-4a, which was launched as part of a turnkey contract between Japan’s Broadcasting Satellite System Corporation (B-SAT) and U.S.-based satellite manufacturer SSL. Intelsat 37e was deployed first in the flight sequence, separating from Ariane 5 at 29 minutes after liftoff, followed approximately 18 minutes later by BSAT-4a.

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va239-bd-1

va239-be-1

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Another “Epic” launch for Intelsat

Intelsat 37e – built by Boeing using a 702MP platform – is the latest satellite from Intelsat’s high-throughput EpicNG series to be launched. It also marks the fourth EpicNG spacecraft orbited by Arianespace to date (following Ariane 5 missions with Intelsat 29e and Intelsat 33e in January and August 2016, respectively, plus last February’s heavy-lift flight that lofted SKY Brasil-1/Intelsat 32e).

Overall, Intelsat 37e is the 59th Intelsat satellite launched by Arianespace since 1983, as well as the 55th Boeing-produced spacecraft orbited by the company – continuing a partnership that extends back to 1987. Arianespace’s order book includes three more satellites to be lofted for Intelsat. Two Boeing payloads are in the Arianespace order book for future missions: Horizon-3e and ViaSat 3F1.

Weighing an estimated 6,440 kg. at liftoff, Intelsat 37e will provide capacity for wireless backhaul, enterprise VSAT and mobility networks, carrying out its mission from a 342-deg. East orbital slot.

The launch leader for Japan 

The second-released passenger on today’s successful Ariane 5 flight, BSAT-4a, will be used for Direct-To-Home (DTH) television relay in Japan, as well as to expand the availability of advanced television services (such as 4K/8K ultra-high definition TV). It will operate from a final orbital position of 110 deg. East.

Arianespace has launched all B-SAT satellites since this company’s creation, reflecting an unmatched position in the market. Since 1989, Arianespace has lofted a total of 29 GTO satellites for Japanese operators, representing more than 75 percent of the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) market share in Japan.

Arianespace’s launch of BSAT-4a also continues its long-running partnership with SSL, having now launched a total of 64 satellites produced by this manufacturer since 1983 – with three more in the company’s order book (Azerspace2/Intelsat-38, Eutelsat 7C, and Intelsat 39).

Arianespace’s 2017 launch calendar

Flight VA239 was Arianespace’s ninth launch in 2017, and it follows other heavy-lift Ariane 5 missions performed this year on February 14 (carrying SKY Brasil-1 and Telkom 3S), May 4 (SGDC and KOREASAT-7), June 1 (ViaSat-2 and EUTELSAT 172B) and June 28 (Hellas Sat 3-Inmarsat S EAN and GSAT-17).

Also conducted earlier in 2017 were Arianespace’s medium-lift Soyuz missions on January 27 (with Hispasat 36W-1) and May 18 (SES-15); plus light-lift Vega flights performed March 6 (Sentinel-2B) and August 1 (OPTSAT-3000 and Venµs).

Arianespace’s next mission – a Vega flight at the service of Thales Alenia Space – is planned for November 7.

Quelle: arianespace

 

 

 

 

 

 


Tags: Raumfahrt - Startvorbereitung für Ariane-V-VA-239 mit Intelsat 37e and BSAT-4a Satelliten Epic Start von Ariane-V-VA-239 mit Intelsat 37e and BSAT-4a Satelliten Start von Ariane-V-VA-239 mit Intelsat 37e and BSAT-4a Satelliten 

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Sonntag, 1. Oktober 2017 - 08:00 Uhr

Mars-Chroniken - Sind Regenwürmer stark genug für den Mars?

1.10.2017

Are Earthworms Tough Enough for Mars?

One ecologist is trying to find out.

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Two species of earthworm, trying their luck on Martian soil simulant. WIEGER WAMELINK/WAGENINGEN UNIVERSITY & RESEARCH

IN A RECENT SPEECH IN Adelaide, Australia, the aspiring space maven Elon Musk updated the public on his plans for colonizing Mars. His current vision includes a massive 40-cabin spacecraft, an aspirational launch date of 2024, and technology that can produce fuel from the planet’s thin atmosphere.

As with the heady beginnings of most space travel plans, this is all very glitzy and appealing. If you ask Wieger Wamelink, though, any successful Mars mission will eventually have to leave room in the plans for something a bit more quotidian: a heck of a lot of worms.

Wamelink, a senior ecologist at Wageningen University & Research in the Netherlands, spends most of his time studying Earthly questions. Much of his work involves what he calls “plant-soil relations,” or figuring out why particular plant species will grow easily in one place, and not at all in another. A few years ago, though, he became interested in a far-flung version of this question: if humans were able to provide them with water, air, and climate control, could some plant species grow on dirt from the moon? What about from Mars?

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One of Wamelink’s students fills experimental pots with soil simulant. WIEGER WAMELINK/WAGENINGEN UNIVERSITY & RESEARCH

At first, Wamelink proposed a theoretical study, based on comparing plant needs with what we know about these extraterrestrial soil types. But then he learned that NASA actually sells simulants of each, based on samples analyzed by probes or, in the case of the Moon, brought back by astronauts. “I thought, why not change the project into something experimental?” Wamelink says. So in 2013, he and his students filled a greenhouse with three sets of pots: some with lunar dirt, some with Martian dirt, and some with dirt from the Rhine river. (Wamelink deliberately chose a coarse, nutrient-poor Earthly soil, he says, to even the playing field a bit.)

They planted 4,200 seeds from various useful plant species, including nitrogen-fixers such as lupin and clover, and four different crops: rye, carrots, tomatoes, and garden cress.

“Our expectations were low,” says Wamelink. But just a few days after planting, sprouts started popping up. In the end, “almost all the seeds germinated,” he says. Although the simulated moon plants withered quickly after sprouting, the others thrived, producing flowers, fruits, and even seeds. “The Mars soil simulant was even better than the Earth control that we used,” he says. “That was maybe the biggest surprise.” (He and his team later published this research in PLOSOne.)

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“Moon” tomatoes, grown in lunar soil simulant during the 2016 experiment. WIEGER WAMELINK/WAGENINGEN UNIVERSITY & RESEARCH

The next year, 2014, Wamelink and his students mixed things up. They grew only crops—ten species, including radishes, chives, and arugula—and they enriched the soils with dead plant parts, to mimic what might happen in a successful space-gardening scenario. They switched the Earth control to potting soil, now that the space soils had proved they could pull their weight. This imrpoved things: On the Mars soil, “all the plants did well except the spinach,” he says. “Even on the moon soil we had tomatoes, though they never made it to red.”

They tested the vegetables for heavy metals—a concern with space dirt, which contains cadmium, copper, and lead—and also came up clear: “the lead content was higher in the tomato we grew on Earth potting soil,” Wamelink says. After the third experiment, which was completed last year and aimed at getting as large a harvest as possible, they served up the fruits of their labor, complete with an interplanetary tomato taste test. (“The Mars soil tomatoes were a bit more sweet,” says Wamelink.)

These results have been promising. But soil alone can only do so much: a sustainable off-earth farming ecosystem also involves fungi, bacteria, and pollinators such as bees and butterflies. (Wamelink is betting on bumblebees: “you can keep them in hibernation,” he says, so they’d easily survive the rocket trip.) Over the past month, he and his team have begun testing the next most important ecosystem member—earthworms—to see if they are able to hack it in relatively harsh exoplanetary dirt.

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“Moon,” “Mars,” and plain old Earth peas. WIEGER WAMELINK/WAGENINGEN UNIVERSITY & RESEARCH

The dangers are many: lunar dirt is very sharp, because the moon lacks weather. “Stones and rocks over there fall apart because of cosmic radiation,” says Wamelink. “But they just fall apart and lie there. They have all kinds of sharp edges… imagine eating glass.” (Martian dirt has the same problem, though to a lesser extent.) The heavy metals, too, pose a threat: at certain concentrations, copper and cadmium are toxic to at least one common worm species.

If the earthworms do prove flexible about their earthiness, though, they’ll be a great help. On this planet, they are incredible gardening accomplices, breaking down organic matter into forms that plants can soak up, and aerating the soil with their burrows so that nutrients and water can reach their roots.

In space, they’ll be even more vital: “Moon soil especially is very compact and dense,” says Wamelink. “Even air has trouble getting in.” He thinks this may be one reason that the lunar soil tends to underperform. By tunneling, worms could provide the necessary egress, solving this problem.

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A couple of worm pioneers, photographed just before the experiment began. WIEGER WAMELINK/WAGENINGEN UNIVERSITY & RESEARCH

The official worm experiment started last week: Wamelink made worm homes out of organic matter, pig slurry, and the various soils, planted some arugula seeds, and dropped in several different types of wrigglers. Now, the waiting and watching begins. (You can follow the experiment’s progress on the group’s Facebook page.) But Wamelink, in his excitement, has given himself a sort of sneak peek: since February, he’s had worms in Martian-style soil living in a small terrarium on his desk.

“They are still alive,” he says. “They really seem to like it. They seem to be very happy.” One small bite for worm, one giant dig for wormkind.

Quelle: Atlas Obscura


Tags: Mars-Chroniken - Sind Regenwürmer stark genug für den Mars? 

549 Views

Samstag, 30. September 2017 - 20:15 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Projekt Blue Book - Teil-31

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The 701 Club: Case 2175 - October 19, 1952

Don Berlinner describes the case as follows:

Oct. 19. 1952; 500 miles south of Hawaii. 6:58 p.m. Witnesses: crew of USAF C-50 transport plane. One round yellow light, with a red glowing edge, estimated at 100’ in diameter, flew at 300-400 kts. (350-450 m.p.h.) for 20 seconds

This is a sighting over the open ocean. There appears to be no reports from any other aircraft or ships that might have been in the area.

 

The Blue Book file

The case file is really not very informative. It consists of one single teletype message describing the incident, which involved a C50 aircraft flying eastbound towards California. There is another message in the file, which is unrelated to this sighting and involved another aircraft, in another location, at another time. It has no bearing on this sighting.

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 In this sighting, two of the crew saw a bright light with a red glow heading towards the Southwest off of their port wing. It was only visible for an estimated twenty seconds.

There is one issue I have with this report. The location of the plane appears to have been wrong. 12 degrees north puts the plane south of Hawaii. The plane was flying from Hickam (on the island of Oahu) to Travis AFB in California. There would have been no reason for the plane to fly south over 500 miles before heading towards California. It is my opinion that the latitude was actually 22 degrees 17 minutes north. This puts the plane roughly 160 miles East-northeast of Honolulu and on a track towards California.

Potential solution?

 The event happened about an hour after sunset and was probably a fireball meteor. The estimated duration is within the expected range for a fireball and it did not appear to deviate from a straight course. There is nothing in this report that indicates it was anything else or that it was exotic in nature. In my opinion, this case should be removed from the “unknown” list and placed in the probable meteor category.

Quelle: SUNlite 5/2017


Tags: UFO-Forschung - Projekt Blue Book - Teil-31 

568 Views

Samstag, 30. September 2017 - 20:00 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Unzureichende Informationen in NICAP-Dokument als UFO-Beweis -TEIL 30

friedman-a-2-16

September 23, 1951 and July 23, 1951 March AFB

The chronology describes this case as:

September 23, 1951--Nr. March AFB, Calif. F-86 jets circled below an unidentified object, unable to

reach its altitude. [III]1

Section III gives a brief description:

Attempted to intercept UFO in apparent orbit at 50,000 feet.2

The footnote for this refers to “From USAF intelligence report. (See also Ruppelt, Edward J., op.cit., p.

131)”3

A repeat incident?

It is interesting to note that, according to The Best Evidence, this is not the first time March AFB had

such an incident. The chronology lists another event exactly two months prior to this:

July 23, 1951--March Field, Calif. Radar-visual sighting of silvery object circling high above aircraft. [VIII]4

Section VIII states:

UFO tracked on radar, pilots saw silvery object circling above them. 50,000 feet.5

The source is, once again, USAF intelligence reports and the book, Flying saucers from outer space (1953) by Donald Keyhoe. The Blue Book files make no mention of such a case on July 23rd. The applicable section of Keyhoe’s book is in chapter 3, which reads:

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Then, slowly, sightings began to increase. One new and important report came from the guided-missile tracking base near White Sands, New Mexico. On the morning of July 14, two radar operators caught a fast-moving object on their scope. At the same time a tracker watching a B-29 with binoculars saw a large UFO near the bomber. Another observer quickly lined it up with his 35-mm. camera, then shot 200 feet of film. Because of the high altitude, the saucer showed only as a round, bright spot. But at least it was proof—this was no hallucination.

On September 11, an Air Force jet pilot spotted a gleaming disc flying over New Jersey at 900 miles an hour. Three days later, at Los Alamos, a saucer was seen maneuvering not far from the Atomic Energy laboratory. (Shortly before this, UFO-report forms had been distributed at Los Alamos, after saucers were sighted over several atomic installations.)

Later that month, on the 23d, two F-86 jet pilots were scrambled from March Field, California. Vectored by GCI, they spotted a round, silvery object flying a controlled orbit at 50,000 feet. The strange machine passed over the jets, kept on circling above them. Four more jets were scrambled, but none of the pilots was able to reach the UFO’s altitude.6

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F-86-USAF

It seems the editors of the UFO evidence were more interested in compiling a whole bunch of cases instead of reading the source information closely. In the first paragraph, Keyhoe was talking about events in July. In the second paragraph, he had moved on to September. When he described the event on the 23rd of the month in the third paragraph, he was referring to September and not July. This means the July 23rd event is actually the event from September. For some reason, they still have yet to recognize this as their web site has an entry for this sighting with a brief entry by Brad Sparks.7

The July 23rd date is nothing more than a double entry and should be deleted from the best evidence.

Blue book investigation

Ruppelt gives this sequence of events8:

• 7:55 AM local time: Two F-86s on patrol over Long Beach see a UFO above them “high at twelve O’clock”. Ground control had no radar contact. F-86s start to climb. F-86s attempted to reach the UFO but it was too high. Described object as a “silver airplane with highly swept back wings”.

• Four more F-86s showed up and relieved the first two. They could not reach the UFO either. They estimated its altitude at 55,000 feet. The UFO appeared to speed up as the F-86s got close.

• One more F-86 was sent up to relieve the four, which were running out of fuel. By the time he arrived on station, the UFO had vanished. All of the pilots, with one exception, gave the description of a plane with swept back wings. The pilot, who gave a different description, stated the object was round and silver.

After several months, Ruppelt stated they tried to explain the event as a weather balloon but could not:

In a few days the data from the Long Beach Incident came in and I started to put it together. A weather balloon had been launched from the Long Beach Airport, and it was in the vicinity where the six F-86’s had made their unsuccessful attempt to intercept a UFO. I plotted out the path of the balloon, the reported path of the UFO, and the flight paths of the F-86’s. The paths of the balloon and the F-86’s were accurate. I knew, because the balloon was being tracked by radio fixes and the F-86’s been tracked by radar. At only one point did the paths of the balloon, UFO, and F-86’s coincide. When the first two F-86’s made their initial visual contact with the UFO they were looking

almost directly at the balloon. But from then on, even by altering the course of the F-86’s, I couldn’t prove a thing.

 In addition, the weather observers from Long Beach said that during the period that the intercept was taking place they had gone outside and looked at their balloon; it was an exceptionally clear day and they could see at unusually high altitude. They didn’t see any F-86’s around it. And one stronger point, the balloon had burst about ten minutes before the F-86’s lost sight of the UFO.9

The Blue Book file mirrors much of what Ruppelt wrote10:

• Blue Book notes that there was no radar contact contrary to what NICAP reported.

• 0755 Two F-86s, west of Long Beach, saw the UFO in a left orbit. They could not reach the altitude of the target, estimated at 50,000 feet

• At 0810 or 0815, the two F-86s left the area short on fuel.

• The description was of a swept wing aircraft with the wings swept at 45 degrees.

• At 0800, the four F-86s arrived in the area and split into two elements of two aircraft each.

• At 0845, one of the elements broke off and returned to base. They estimated the target at 50-55,000 feet

• At 0925, the second element returned to base. They described the object as silver and round.

• The weather balloon, that was supposedly the target, was released at 0700 and was lost from view by the observers at 0743.

• The track of the weather balloon and aircraft was plotted by Blue Book.

march-afb-a

 • The speed of the object was described as “not too fast” by one of the pilots.

• No test aircraft were airborne at the time.

• The weather balloon released from Long Beach was lost at 42,900 feet due to “mechanical difficulties” and was last recorded ascending at 1000 feet/min.

• Captain Guthrie, who was in the flight of four F-86s, stated in his interview that he thought it was a weather balloon.

• Captain Harvey, who was in the flight of four F-86s, stated in his interview that it could have been a weather balloon.

• Captain Reichman, who was in the first fight, thought it was an aircraft conducting a burn.

• There was no indication that the weather office had reported the balloon bursting in their report. Instead, they simply state they lost track of the balloon at 0743.

While there appeared to be some evidence that suggest the object was a balloon, there was also evidence that indicated that the

object was not the weather balloon launched from Long Beach.

Another solution?

T o me, the report sounds more like a large research balloon and not a weather balloon. A research balloon in the sky would have been illuminated by the rising sun (having risen around 0645) and presented a “teardrop shape”. This could have been interpreted as an aircraft with swept back wings when viewed at the right angle. The altitude of 50-55,000 feet was only an estimated altitude and it could have been higher.

The biggest source of research balloons in 1951 was Holloman AFB. They have pretty extensive records of balloon launches and there is a potential candidate. On September 21, 1951 a balloon was launched but, after reaching 96,000 feet and 16 hours of flight, they lost track of the balloon.11  The table states there was a separation failure (the payload never was released) but the balloon performed satisfactorily. The balloon, and its payload, were never recovered.

march-afb-aa

 In 1962, A. D. Belmont, of General Mills, produced a report for the Office of Naval Research, with the title, “The stratospheric monsoon”.

It described how the stratospheric winds changed month by month over the year. The following charts show the prevailing winds for heights of 50mb (approx. 63,000 feet), 30mb (approx. 71,000 feet), and 10 mb (approx 85,000 feet) during the month of September. These winds came from the east, which means a balloon in the stratosphere would have traveled westtward.12

march-afb-ab

 Specific stratospheric wind data for September of 1951 is hard to come by since balloons usually do not reach these altitudes before they burst. As noted above, it is a fact that the stratospheric winds during the summer months blow towards the west and, as fall arrives, they shift towards the east. Examining the performance of recent research balloons launched during the month of September, from New Mexico over the past six years, confirms this.13

march-afb-ac

 Based on this information, it appears that the change occurs around the fall equinox and indicates that it is probable that any stratospheric balloons launched before the 23rd would have drifted towards the west. Long Beach is about 700 miles distant from Holloman and at an azimuth of about 278 degrees. Assuming the balloon was launched in the morning, the balloon would have traveled at roughly 15-20 mph (13-17 knots) if it took a direct route. This is well within expected wind speeds for the stratosphere.

The tracks of the aircraft attempting intercepts indicate the balloon was drifting towards the NorthWest. The track (in red) is only an approximate one based on the actions of the three different flights of aircraft. While the pilots described themselves cruising directly beneath the object in an orbit of some kind, it is possible it was their own motion that gave the impression that the object was in an orbit. They may have overshot the target and were circling back to reacquire it.

march-afb-ad

 To drift to the Long Beach area from Holloman, the balloon would have been on almost a westerly course (azimuth 278-280). While, this track indicates a more northwesterly course, a change in the direction of the balloon from West to NorthWest is not that surprising.

The stratospheric winds could have begun its autumnal shift towards the east or the balloon could also have been losing altitude at this point in its flight. As it decreased in altitude, the lower stratospheric winds could have shifted towards the northwest.

Solved?

I  want to think that the weight of the evidence suggests that the likely source was the Holloman research balloon launched on September 21st. However, the evidence is not as firm as I would like. We don’t have any good data about the balloon other than it was launched on the 21st, ascended into the stratosphere, and was never recovered. The rest is all about the probability of it reaching Long Beach in two days. With that being said, it is my opinion that the Holloman AFB research balloon is more likely than something “unknown to science” hovering over Long Beach that morning. The case cannot be considered “best evidence” and should be discarded.

Quelle: SUNlite 5/2017


Tags: UFO-Forschung - Unzureichende Informationen in NICAP-Dokument als UFO-Beweis -TEIL 30 

467 Views

Samstag, 30. September 2017 - 19:00 Uhr

Mars-Chroniken - Solar Storm Triggers Whole-Planet Aurora at Mars

30.09.2017

pia21855

These images show the sudden appearance of bright aurora on Mars during a solar storm. The purple-white color scheme shows the intensity of ultraviolet light given off by aurora on Mars's night side before (left) and during (right) the event. A simulated image of Mars for the same time and orientation has been added, with the dayside crescent visible on the right. The auroral emission appears brightest at the edges of the planet where the line of sight passes along the length of the glowing atmosphere layer.  The Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph on the MAVEN spacecraft obtained these images on 12-13 September 2017.

Quelle: NASA


Tags: Mars-Chroniken - Solar Storm Triggers Whole-Planet Aurora at Mars 

561 Views

Samstag, 30. September 2017 - 18:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt - JUNO SPACECRAFT-Jupiter-Mission Update-10

2.07.2017

 

Tags: Raumfahrt - JUNO SPACECRAFT-Jupiter-Mission Update-10 Juno-Sonde Jupiter Juno Sonde NASA's Juno Spacecraft Spots Jupiter's Great Red Spot  

1671 Views

Samstag, 30. September 2017 - 14:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Dream Chaser Shuttle im Test-Modus Update-3

30.09.2017

UN Calls for Interest in Payloads for Dream Chaser Mission

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Simonetta Di Pippo and Mark Sirangelo after UNOOSA Call For Interest Announcement. Credits: SNC

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This week, the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) and Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) announced a call for interest from participating UN Member States to fly 20-30 powered experiments on a future low-Earth orbit (LEO) mission on SNC’s Dream Chaser spacecraft.

“The benefits of a joint mission between government and private organizations on a level of this scale are incalculable,” said Mark Sirangelo, corporate vice president of SNC’s Space Systems business area.

SNC holds a multi-billion dollar Commercial Resupply Services (CRS-2) program contract with NASA to resupply the International Space Station from 2019-2024 with a cargo-only version of Dream Chaser, and although the spacecraft has yet to fly in space, a lot of progress is being made towards its inaugural launch atop a ULA Atlas-V rocket from Cape Canaveral AFS, Fla. in 2019.

An engineering test article of the Dream Chaser is now in “Phase Two” flight testing at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, located at Edwards Air Force Base, CA, and recently conducted a successful “Captive Carry” test while attached to a Chinook helicopter, which carried it to the same altitude and flight conditions it will experience when released on an upcoming Free Flight test later this year (after a second Captive Carry test is conducted first).

nasa-image-of-sierra-nevadas-d

SNC put their test article through its first free flight approach and landing test three years ago, but the vehicle made a hard landing when only two of its three gear deployed, causing it to skid off the runway and sustaining minor damage.

Significant structural and systems improvements have been made to the test article since, and SNC is confident Dream Chaser will fly its first mission for NASA within the next two years.

The Call for Interest from UNOOSA particularly encourages developing and emerging countries to submit entries to be considered for the future 2-3 week mission, but offers few other details other than it will orbit at an altitude of about 500km and an inclination between 0 and 40 degrees.

“This is about scientific discovery, and about opening space to organizations that may not have access to it otherwise,” said Eren Ozmen, owner and President of SNC. “We’re thrilled to provide the vehicle that will make this happen.”

The rocket, launch site, date and landing location is yet to be determined (Dream Chaser will be capable of launching on several types of rockets).

“A key aspect of the mission is to provide training and facilitate development of technology, in particular for developing countries,” states SNC. “The access to space and application of this technology, along with the overall growth of industry, are a part of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.”

“We expect our efforts in building industry capacity to have long-term impacts, especially in space-related science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education programs, and that these results will flow to the wider economy as a whole,” said Simonetta Di Pippo, director of UNOOSA.  “We are here to support developing and emerging countries and institutions so that this mission can really enable inclusive access to space for all and contribute to the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals.”

The deadline for submission is Nov. 1, 2017.

Quelle: AS

+++

United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs and Sierra Nevada Corporation issue Call for Interest for Dream Chaser® mission dedicated to the Sustainable Development Goals

VIENNA, 26 September (UN Information Service) - The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) and the Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) have issued a Call for Interest (CFI) for a proposed orbital space mission using SNC's Dream Chaser® space vehicle.

The proposed mission will allow United Nations Member States to provide payloads or experiments to be flown in low-Earth orbit. Payloads must contribute to the attainment of one or more of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This will be the first ever space mission dedicated to the SDGs.

"We expect our efforts in building industry capacity to have long-term impacts, especially in space-related science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education programmes, and that these results will flow to the wider economy as a whole," said Simonetta Di Pippo, Director of UNOOSA. "We are here to support developing and emerging countries and institutions so that this mission can really enable inclusive access to space for all and contribute to the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals."

"The benefits of a joint mission between government and private organizations on a level of this scale is incalculable," said Mark Sirangelo, corporate vice president of SNC's Space Systems business area. "Sometimes the end-goal is about the science and technology of the experiments, and sometimes it's about the advancements of the organizations that host the payloads. In this case, it's both, and we're thrilled to provide the vehicle that will make this happen."

This opportunity is open to all United Nations Member States, and developing and emerging countries are particularly encouraged to apply.

The purpose of the CFI is to ascertain the level of interest from Member States in this initiative, and to determine the level of support each interested party might require.

The CFI can be found on UNOOSA's website. Responses are due on 1 November 2017.

Quelle: UN


Tags: Raumfahrt - Dream Chaser Shuttle im Test-Modus Update-3 

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