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Sonntag, 27. März 2016 - 21:15 Uhr

Luftfahrt-History - 1967: NASA X-15A-2 Rekordflug

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Aus dem CENAP-Archiv:

Quelle: CENAP-Archiv


Tags: Luftfahrt 

1620 Views

Sonntag, 27. März 2016 - 20:15 Uhr

Astronomie - Hellgrüne Feuerkugel über Niederlande,Belgien, England, Deutschland beobachtet

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26.03.2016 / 20.48 MEZ

A bright green fireball was reported across the Netherlands on March 26, 2016, shortly after midnight.
The burning meteor exploded after multiple-step disintegration. The fireball was also witnessed in Belgium and the United Kingdom.
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Inzwischen bekamen wir über unsere Meldestelle per Email zwei Meldungen aus dem deutsch-belgischen Grenzbereich, welche aus Fahrzeugen gemacht wurden. Bei beiden Meldungen wurde eine sehr helle grün-bläuliche Feuerkugel beobachtet welche scheinbar sich in mehrere Teile auflöste:
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Über IMO-Meteoriten-Netz kamen über 37 Meldungen bisher rein:
IMO received 37 reports about a fireball seen over Gelderland, Limburg, Zuid-Holland, Vlaanderen, Noord-Brabant, Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, Overijssel, Noord-Holland, Région wallonne, England, Utrecht and Zeeland on Friday, March 25th 2016 around 23:02 UT.
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Update: 23.15 MEZ 

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Fireball 25 March 2016 at 23h00m45s UT captured at Wilderen, Belgium (EN92) by Jean-Marie Biets. The fireball moved slow and took 3 seconds before disappearing at the edge of the shutter device.

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Weiterer Eingang von Beobachtungsmeldungen von Feuerkugel per Email bei unserer Meldestelle aus: Kranenburg (bei Grenze zu Niederlande), Heinsberg und Haanrade.

CENAP-Meldestelle

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Update: 27.03.2016

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Nach neuen Stand der Dinge, gab es zwei Feuerkugeln welche über Niederlande und England gesehen werden konnte, nachfolgende Aufnahme ist von England welche als zweite Feuerkugel festgehalten wurde:


Meteor as bright as Venus streaking past Jupiter last night.

... Update: 20.15 MESZ

Quelle: IMO

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Tags: Astronomie England Deutschland beobachtet Belgien 

1990 Views

Sonntag, 27. März 2016 - 18:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Schottland könnte kommerzielle Raketen Basis für QinetiQ und Airbus werden

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The scheme has been propsed by QinetiQ and Airbus
The Westminster Government is currently selecting a location for the UK's first spaceport, with Prestwick, Machrihanish and Stornoway airports all in the running.
Now it has emerged that a "vertical launch spaceport" in the Outer Hebrides is also being considered to allow Britain to surge ahead of China, Russia and India in the global space race.
It would be located at the existing Hebrides Missile Range on South Uist, where the first space launch from UK soil took place last October. 
That was a ballistic missile fired as part of a Nato war games exercise and blasted to pieces by the US Navy.
There are similarities between capabilities demonstrated by QinetiQ for launch of ballistic targets and the capabilities required to establish a vertical launch spaceport
Presentation
QinetiQ, which operates the range for the Ministry of Defence, believes the launch site could also be used to put satellites into orbit.
The firm gave a presentation to a Spaceport UK conference last month, stating: "There are similarities between capabilities demonstrated by QinetiQ for launch of ballistic targets and the capabilities required to establish a vertical launch spaceport."
It was delivered by Tim Humphries, QinetiQ's Business Development Manager, Missile Defence and Strategic Weapons, who demonstrated how a space launch would work from South Uist.
He predicts it would mirror the missile launch trajectory, heading west before an "orbit injection" high above the North Atlantic.
The conference, organised by the Royal Aeronautical Society, also heard from French aerospace and defence firm Airbus.
An Airbus team has put together a detailed business case for a UK "orbital launcher" to meet the growing global demand for new satellites.
In this scenario, the rockets would blast off to the north and reach orbital speed high above the Greenland Sea.
Airbus says the UK is already a "global leader" in space technology and has "the capability to provide all mission aspects except launch".
The firm adds that a "dedicated and reliable small launcher service" in the UK could capture 40 per cent of the non-military market with "China, Russia and India excluded".
The team behind the Stornoway Spaceport bid is also backing the "vertical launch" capabilities of the Hebrides Range. 
Retired Air Commodore Mark Roberts CBE, from engineering firm Atkins Global, told the conference the range has access to the "largest segregated airspace in Europe".
Joe MacPhee, Head of Economic Development with Western Isles Council, which is working with Atkins on the bid, said yesterday: "It's very early days but we think the Hebrides would be the ideal site for both vertical and horizontal launch spaceports. The idea clearly caught everybody's attention."
Quelle: Sunday Express
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Tags: Raumfahrt 

1516 Views

Sonntag, 27. März 2016 - 14:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt-History - 1967: LEM (Lunar Excursion Module) auf White Sands

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Aus dem CENAP-Archiv:

Quelle: CENAP-Archiv


Tags: Raumfahrt 

1255 Views

Sonntag, 27. März 2016 - 14:30 Uhr

Raumfahrt-History - 1967: Erde-Aufnahme von Lunar Orbiter V

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Aus dem CENAP-Archiv:

Quelle: CENAP-Archiv


Tags: Raumfahrt 

1447 Views

Sonntag, 27. März 2016 - 10:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt-History - 1967: LLTV (Lunar Landing Training Vehicle)

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Aus dem CENAP-Archiv:

Quelle: CENAP-Archiv


Tags: Raumfahrt 

1195 Views

Sonntag, 27. März 2016 - 10:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Erfolgreiches Ankoppeln von Cygnus-6 bei ISS

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25.03.2016

Expedition 47 astronauts (from left) Jeff Williams, Tim Kopra and Tim Peake share a light moment with reporters on Earth. Credit: NASA TV
A new shipment of science, spacewalk gear and crew supplies is on its way to the International Space Station. The Expedition 47 crew is preparing for its arrival while continuing research and maintenance operations onboard the orbital laboratory.
The Cygnus space freighter is refining its orbital path to the station to complete a Saturday delivery to the Harmony module. Astronauts Tim Kopra, Tim Peake and Jeff Williams are training for the robotic capture of Cygnus using Canada’s 57.7 foot Canadarm2. NASA TV will provide coverage of the Cygnus rendezvous and capture beginning Saturday at 5:30 a.m. EDT/9:30 a.m. UTC.
Meanwhile, the crew is moving on with advanced experiment work exploring how living in space affects a crew member’s body. The orbital science activities also have the potential to improve life on Earth.
Peake continued more immune system research today for the Multi-Omics investigation. Peake and Kopra then partnered up for the Habitability Factors experiment. Cosmonauts Alexey Ovchinin and Yuri Malenchenko worked together on the Cardiovector blood circulation study. Malenchenko then joined Cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka researching how crew members adapt to moving around in weightlessness.
Quelle: NASA
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Update: 26.03.2016
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Erfolgreiches Ankoppeln von Cygnus-6 an ISS
Quelle: NASA-TV
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Orbital ATK's Cygnus Spacecraft Successfully Berths With International Space Station
Rendezvous and Berthing Operations of Company’s S.S. Rick Husband Spacecraft Proceeded Smoothly
Cygnus Delivered More Than 7,900 Pounds of Cargo to the ISS Including Crew Supplies and Scientific Experiments
Dulles, Virginia 26 March 2016 – Orbital ATK, Inc. (NYSE: OA), a global leader in aerospace and defense technologies, today announced that the S.S. Rick Husband CygnusTM spacecraft successfully completed its rendezvous and berthing procedures with the International Space Station (ISS) earlier this morning. This marks the company’s fifth successful berthing with the orbiting laboratory, and the fourth under NASA’s Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) contract.
Cygnus launched aboard a United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V rocket on March 22 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. The spacecraft completed a series of thruster firings and other maneuvers over the past few days to bring the spacecraft in close proximity to the ISS. When it was approximately 30 feet from the ISS, crew members grappled Cygnus with the Station’s robotic arm at 6:51 a.m. (EDT). The spacecraft was then guided to its berthing port on the nadir side of the Unity module of the ISS where installation concluded at 10:52 a.m. (EDT).
“As we accomplish our fifth Cygnus berthing to the ISS, we celebrate the completion of a primary mission objective for OA-6,” said Frank Culbertson, President of Orbital ATK’s Space Systems Group. “Our flexible Cygnus spacecraft has a lot of work left to do. Following its stay at the ISS, and for the first time, we will undertake three experiments onboard the unmanned spacecraft.”
The crew plans to open the Cygnus hatch and make initial ingress into its cargo module tomorrow to unload the cargo, including food, clothing, crew supplies, spare parts, laboratory equipment and scientific experiments. Cygnus will remain berthed at the ISS for approximately two months before departing with approximately 4,400 pounds (2,000 kilograms) of disposable cargo.
Following departure from the ISS, Cygnus will conduct three payload mission objectives as part of its flight program. Using a deployer provided by NanoRacks, the S.S. Rick Husband will place five CubeSats into orbit to conduct their own autonomous missions. Onboard Cygnus, the Spacecraft Fire Experiment-I (Saffire-I) will intentionally light a large-scale fire that will grow and advance until it burns itself out. The final experiment to take place aboard Cygnus will be the Reentry Breakup Recorder (REBR). The ISS crew will install the REBR experiment on Cygnus as they pack the spacecraft with disposal cargo. REBR will measure and record data during Cygnus’ safe destructive reentry into Earth’s atmosphere.
Orbital ATK has two additional CRS missions scheduled in 2016 to support NASA’s ISS cargo and payload mission needs. Following an Antares launch vehicle full-power hot-fire test, flight operations for Cygnus and Antares will resume mid-year from NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility in eastern Virginia. Under the CRS contract with NASA, Orbital ATK will deliver approximately 59,000 pounds (26,800 kilograms) of cargo to the ISS over 10 missions through 2018. Beginning in 2019, Orbital ATK will carry out a minimum of six initial cargo missions under NASA’s recently awarded CRS-2 contract. 
Quelle: Orbital ATK
 
 

Tags: Raumfahrt 

1278 Views

Samstag, 26. März 2016 - 18:40 Uhr

Astronomie - Sonnenstürme sind Auslöser für massive Röntgen Auroras auf Jupiter

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24.03.2016

A new study shows the interaction with Jupiter's magnetosphere when giant solar storms arrive at the planet.
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CREDIT: X-RAY: NASA/CXC/UCL/W.DUNN ET AL, OPTICAL: NASA/STSCI
Solar storms trigger X-ray aurorae on Jupiter that are about eight times brighter than normal, a new study has found using data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory.
It is the first time that Jupiter’s northern and southern lights have been studied in X-ray light when a giant solar storm arrived at the planet.
The aurorae are hundreds of times more energetic than those on Earth and cover an area greater than the surface of the Earth.
While the Sun constantly ejects streams of particles in a so-called solar wind, causing aurorae on Jupiter, this becomes much stronger during a solar storm, or coronal mass ejection.
The stronger wind pushes Jupiter’s magnetosphere (the region of space controlled by the planet's magnetic field) inward by nearly two million kilometres, and the study found that the interaction at this boundary triggers the X-rays in Jupiter’s auroras.
The composite images above show Jupiter and its aurora during and after the arrival of particles from a giant coronal mass ejection in October 2011. X-ray data from Chandra (purple) is overlaid on an optical image from the Hubble Space Telescope.
On the left, we can see the X-ray activity when the coronal mass ejection reaches Jupiter. The image on the right shows what is happening two days later after the coronal mass ejection has subsided.
Scientists took the snapshot by monitoring X-rays emitted during two 11-hour observations, using the data to pinpoint the source of the X-ray activity.
Quelle: COSMOS
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Update: 26.03.2016
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Solar Wind Induces Jupiter’s X-ray Aurora
Artistic rendering of the Jupiter’s aurora and magnetosphere. [Click for large image]
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Jupiter boasts some of the most powerful aurora in the solar system. Compared to the Earth’s aurora, it is a few hundred times more powerful and brighter in the all spectrum range. What causes Jupiter’s powerful aurora? Several hypotheses have been proposed, but it has remained a mystery due to a lack of observational evidences.
Jupiter’s X-ray aurora, which is observed in the X-ray spectrum region, is thought to sparkle when oxygen and sulfur ion particles moving at nearly the velocity of light strike the Jupiter’s atmosphere. How can these ions be accelerated to such high speed? There are two leading hypotheses. The first one assumes that the solar wind speeding up the ions, similar to the case of the Earth’s aurora. The other proposes that the ions are being accelerated by the rapid spin of the Jupiter, the Jupiter’s own magnetic field and plasma provided by the Jupiter’s satellite Io.
Monitor observations of the Jupiter’s X-ray aurora are essential to compare several parameters of the X-ray aurora, such as brightness at each location, with the changes in the solar wind. For example, a correlation between the solar wind and the X-ray aurora supports the first hypothesis (the ions are accelerated by the solar wind) observationally.
Using the Spectroscopic Planet Observatory for Recognition of Interaction of Atmosphere "HISAKI" (SPRINT-A), the Chandra X-ray Observatory and X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton), scientists monitored the Jupiter’s X-ray aurora for two weeks in April 2014.
“We estimated the variation of the solar wind at Jupiter by HISAKI’s data. The data of the solar wind at the Earth was available. However, when this observation was conducted, Jupiter was in particular far from the Earth. The estimated pressure and velocity of the solar wind at the Jupiter location is much less accurate if we extrapolated these values observed at the Earth.” Kimura, the research team lead, explains. The results show the strong correlation between the velocity of the solar wind and the strength of the X-ray aurora. Although previous studies indicated the correlation between the pressure of the solar wind and the strength of the X-ray aurora, this is the first time to show the velocity of the solar wind affects the strength of the X-ray aurora. Since the Jupiter’s aurora at other spectral range is thought to get kicked off by the planet-moon interaction, not by solar activity, this study suggests the X-ray aurora sparks by different mechanism from the Jupiter’s aurora emitting light in other wavelength ranges.
Kimura continues, “We observed the X-ray aurora for 10 hours once-daily, 6 times in total. Thanks to the high resolving power of the Chandra X-ray observatory, we could obtain the detailed spatial structure and its time variations of the X-ray aurora. The spectral data taken by the XMM-Newton told us the volcanic gases from the satellite Io and oxygen atoms can exist in the solar wind emit X-ray. “
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Spatial distribution of the magnetic flux line of the X-ray aurora at the Jupiter’s magnetosphere. [Click for large image]
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The long-time observation by the Chandra also elucidated the fine spatial structure of the X-ray aurora and precise measurement of time variations. Kimura says, “Using the observational data and a numerical model of the Jupiter’s magnetic field, we studied the spatial distribution of the magnetic flux line of the X-ray aurora at the Jupiter’s magnetosphere. Our estimation shows the lines of magnetic force piercing the X-ray aurora connect with the boundary surface between the Jupiter’s magnetosphere and the solar wind. Together with this and the correlation between the velocity of the solar wind and the strength of the X-ray aurora, we believe the solar wind causes the X-ray aurora.”
Another study out today, led by William Dunn from UCL and co-authored by the JAXA research team also analyzed the X-ray data taken in 2011. Despite the complete difference in condition of the solar wind observed in 2014, the team found the similar trends, i.e., the correlation between the solar wind and the strength of the X-ray aurora, and the lines of magnetic force connected with the outer region of the Jupiter’s magnetosphere. These are consistent with the results based on the observations in 2014.’
So you are aware, we’ve included the following paragraph in our release about Tomoki’s paper (as well as including a full list of authors and bibliographic information of the paper):
‘Another study out today, led by Tomoki Kimura from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and co-authored by the UCL researchers, reports that the X-ray aurora responds to quieter ‘gusts’ of solar wind, deepening this connection between Jupiter and the solar wind.’
Observation by HISAKI and the Hubble Space Telescope in January 2014 focused on precipitations of the Jupiter’s aurora in UV. This research concluded the Jupiter’s high spin resulted in the precipitations of the UV aurora. The results of the X-ray and UV aurora suggest that the both mechanisms, the Jupiter’s rapid spin and the solar wind, cause the Jupiter’s powerful aurora phenomenon.
Yamazaki, the HISAKI project manager tells, “Auroras in atmospheres of other planets can be formed by the mechanisms similar to the Jupiter. For example, there is a high possibility of similar phenomena in the atmosphere of Saturn, because plasma particles originated from water of the Saturn’s satellite Enceladus are captured by the Saturn’s magnetic field and turn rapidly around the Saturn. Of course, auroras can form in the atmosphere of an exoplanet. In some day, our research may apply to study aurora phenomena of exoplanets.“
Kimura tells about his future researches as follows, “We plan further observations of the Jupiter’s auroras by the X-ray Astronomical Satellite “HITOMI” (ASTRO-H) and JUNO probe which will perform a polar orbit insertion. By using HISAKI’s data complementary, we would like to understand the acceleration mechanism of particles inducing the Jupiter’s aurora phenomena. “
Quelle: JAXA

Tags: Astronomie 

1379 Views

Samstag, 26. März 2016 - 18:30 Uhr

Astronomie - York University Astrophysiker entdecken ultraschnelle Winde in der Nähe von supermassiven Schwarzen Loch

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York University astrophysicists detect ultra-fast winds near supermassive black hole
TORONTO, New research led by astrophysicists at York University has revealed the fastest winds ever seen at ultraviolet wavelengths near a supermassive black hole.
“We’re talking wind speeds of 20 per cent the speed of light, which is more than 200 million kilometres an hour. That’s equivalent to a category 77 hurricane,” says Jesse Rogerson, who led the research as part of his PhD thesis in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at York U. “And we have reason to believe that there are quasar winds that are even faster.”
Astronomers have known about the existence of quasar winds since the late 1960s. At least one in four quasars have them. Quasars are the discs of hot gas that form around supermassive black holes at the centre of massive galaxies – they are bigger than Earth’s orbit around the sun and hotter than the surface of the sun, generating enough light to be seen across the observable universe.
“Black holes can have a mass that is billions of times larger than the sun, mostly because they are messy eaters in a way, capturing any material that ventures too close,” says York University Associate Professor Patrick Hall, who is Rogerson’s supervisor. “But as matter spirals toward a black hole, some of it is blown away by the heat and light of the quasar. These are the winds that we are detecting.”
Rogerson and his team used data from a large survey of the sky known as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to identify new outflows from quasars. After spotting about 300 examples, they selected about 100 for further exploration, collecting data with the Gemini Observatory’s twin telescopes in Hawaii and Chile, in which Canada has a major share.
"We not only confirmed this fastest-ever ultraviolet wind, but also discovered a new wind in the same quasar moving more slowly, at only 140 million kilometres an hour," says Hall. "We plan to keep watching this quasar to see what happens next."
Much of this research is aimed at better understanding outflows from quasars and why they happen.
“Quasar winds play an important role in galaxy formation,” says Rogerson. “When galaxies form, these winds fling material outwards and deter the creation of stars. If such winds didn’t exist or were less powerful, we would see far more stars in big galaxies than we actually do.”
The team's findings were published today in the print edition of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
This research was done in collaboration with scientists at Humboldt State University, Pennsylvania State University, and Erciyes University (Turkey). It was supported by the National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Government of Ontario, TUBITAK (Turkey), and the National Science Foundation (USA).
Please note: Jesse Rogerson is available by phone, Face Time or Skype.
Quelle: York University

Tags: Astronomie 

1345 Views

Samstag, 26. März 2016 - 18:00 Uhr

Astronomie - Die kosmische Strahlung hilft Jupiters Großer Roter Fleck seine Farbe zu geben

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Cosmic rays help give Jupiter’s Great Red Spot its color
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A persistent whirling feature in Jupiter’s atmosphere large enough to swallow Earth, aptly dubbed the Great Red Spot (upper right, above), may get some of its namesake color from sulfur compounds generated when cosmic rays and ultraviolet light zap a common substance in the planet’s clouds, new research suggests. That little-studied compound, ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH), is typically a clear and colorless solid, and at the conditions prevalent high in the jovian atmosphere it would either form the core of ice grains or a frosty coating on other particles. New lab tests show that when NH4SH is bombarded with high-energy cosmic rays—in this study, protons accelerated to about 14,000 kilometers per second—it breaks down into several varieties of chemical shrapnel, including negatively charged ions of S3 and S6. UV light irradiating the substance probably generates the same breakdown products, the researchers suggest. A detailed analysis of the lab-zapped substance reveals that the mixture strongly absorbs blue, violet, and near-UV wavelengths of light (300 to 500 nanometers), leaving relatively higher proportions of wavelengths from the center and red end of the visible spectrum in the light that’s reflected, the researchers report online and in a forthcoming Icarus. Because the absorption spectrum measured in the lab doesn’t exactly match that observed by the Hubble Space Telescope and other instruments, the light-absorbing characteristics of other atmospheric constituents such as methane may help contribute to the perceived color of the Great Red Spot. Future tests that also include other common jovian gases may help better recreate the distribution of wavelengths astronomers actually observe, the researchers say.
Quelle: Science AAAS

Tags: Astronomie 

1350 Views


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