Blogarchiv

Sonntag, 20. September 2015 - 21:45 Uhr

UFO-Forschung-History - 1953: How to Expose Flying Saucers

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Aus dem CENAP-Archiv:

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Quelle: CENAP-Archiv


Tags: UFO-Forschung 

1468 Views

Sonntag, 20. September 2015 - 21:32 Uhr

Astronomie - Aurora über Lofoten

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Quelle: Frank Olsen


Tags: Astronomie 

1597 Views

Sonntag, 20. September 2015 - 21:18 Uhr

Luftfahrt - Die Wild-Card für kleine UAS in den USA

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Public concerns about invasions of privacy could result in complicated legal limits on use of smaller drones.

A camera mounted on a DJI Phantom (superimposed here) took this nighttime photo from a height
of 150 ft. Such small UAS capabilities concern privacy advocates.
Photos by Mark Colborn When a vacationing 39-year-old California man flew a Parrot Bebop Drone 100 ft above Washington’s Lafayette Park May 14, the U.S. capital took notice.
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The park, a popular spot for protesters, is directly across Pennsylvania Avenue from the front door of the White House. The District of Columbia has been blanketed with a no-fly zone for most aircraft since September 2001, and on May 13 the FAA kicked off a publicity campaign urging tourists headed for D.C. to “leave your drone at home.” None of that deterred the errant operator of that small unmanned aircraft system (UAS). Federal officers quickly detained the hobbyist. He was arrested and given a June court date.
UAS incidents that might be seen as threats to national security are not taken lightly by law enforcement or, especially, lawmakers, who often call for more rules and restrictions in response. This understandably concerns professional pilots and helicopter operators, many of whom already question how UAS will affect their careers and the entire helicopter industry and wonder whether a drone will come through their windshield tomorrow.
But another UAS issue is starting to grab the attention of the public, politicians and legislators: privacy.
This has not been a driving issue for helicopters. People may complain about the noise from takeoffs, flights, descents and landings, but unless helicopters hover long, people are not likely to complain seriously about invasions of privacy. But UAS, particularly small ones, are quieter and legally can fly at much lower altitudes. If a UAS operator doesn’t consider personal privacy, you can bet that legislators will.
With drones seemingly tracking our every move, an Orwellian police state may be upon us. This, at least, is what privacy advocates want us and our legislators to believe. They have managed to convince legislators in 13 states to enact laws regulating police use of drones. Eleven of those states require a warrant before the government may use a drone. (California nearly became the 12th in November, but Gov. Jerry Brown vetoed the bill.).
Several states and municipalities also have drafted restrictions or prohibitions on private drone operators conducting surveillance of people or private property. These laws pose problems.
According to one expert on drones, security, technology and crime, Gregory McNeal, new laws tend to focus on limiting drone technology, not the potential harm that can be accomplished with them. A professor at Pepperdine University’s School of Law, McNeal has testified before Congress and has written about drone-related issues. In a 2014 paper for Washington think tank The Brookings Institution, he writes that, in many cases, the approach of legislators “creates perverse results, allowing the use of extremely sophisticated, pervasive surveillance technologies from manned aircraft, while disallowing benign uses of drones for mundane tasks like accident and crime-scene documentation.”
In that paper, “Drones and Aerial Surveillance: Considerations for Legislators,” McNeal makes five recommendations for drafting drone laws. At the top of the list is a “property-rights approach” to aerial surveillance. This would provide “landowners with the right to exclude aircraft, persons and other objects” in an airspace column from the surface of their land up to 350 ft agl. (McNeal is currently drafting a new proposal with a much-lower ceiling recommendation of 200 ft agl.) Such an approach, he claims, may solve most public and private concerns associated with drones. (On June 2, Nevada Gov. Brian Sandoval signed a law making a drone operator liable for trespass if the UAS is flown lower than 250 ft over private property.)
However, there are a number of problems in adopting such an arbitrary figure as a ceiling on private property. For one, the approach does not consider the reasonable expectation that a person’s activities will remain private. It also does not consider that the person’s use of the property could be curtailed or whether the duration of any nuisance created is acceptable.
You can imagine how difficult an arbitrary ceiling would be to enforce when a property owner would have to figure by eye the altitude at which a drone is operating.
An arbitrary-altitude approach also doesn’t take into consideration a person’s or business’ liability risk. If the land in question is leased, for instance, the lease agreement may impose an obligation to keep activities on the land safe. That could be difficult if the lessor cannot prohibit unauthorized UAS from overflying those activities. This is a concern of the 330 members of the National Ski Areas Assn. in the U.S., many of whom lease government land. The group said it fully supports the FAA’s proposed rule allowing commercial small-UAS use at ski areas, but it wants small hobby UAS banned from them.
The U.S. Supreme Court set a precedent in a 1946 ruling (in U.S. vs. Causby) that a landowner “owns at least as much of the space above the ground as he can occupy or use in connection with the land.” The ruling said the ceiling of that space was the floor of what the U.S. government had set as navigable airspace’s minimum safe altitude, or 500 to 1,000 ft agl.
In a 1989 ruling ( Florida v. Riley), the Supreme Court determined a police helicopter crew flying at 400 ft agl did not need a warrant when they observed marijuana plants poking out of the defendant’s greenhouse. The helicopter did not create a nuisance, the Court said, and the surveillance’s short duration did not detract from the property’s use and enjoyment. Since 500 ft is the lower limit of navigable U.S. airspace for fixed-wing aircraft, the Court found that the helicopter’s operation at 400 ft was safe and reasonable. Trial courts since have found manned observation flights as low as 400 ft rare and unsafe, except near an airport. Police still will need a warrant to fly a small UAS at that altitude for surveillance of both private and public spaces.
But the U.S. government still is navigating the tricky privacy issues raised by the UAS. President Obama in February directed the National Telecommunications and Information Administration to develop and communicate best practices for privacy, transparency and accountability in commercial and private UAS use. When the agency sought public comment on that task, more than 50 individuals and organizations replied. Several news groups said longstanding state privacy laws provide sufficient protections by prohibiting trespass and intrusive photography and videography. They argued that new guidelines would conflict with those laws and that restrictions on media use of drones could violate the First Amendment. But UAS will allow news outlets to capture spectacular video and images from vantage points never before possible.
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The hand controller for the Phantom 3 uses direct USB connection to Android or iOS devices to display real-time camera video overlaid with flight telemetry.
Photo by Mark Colborn
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When I was moonlighting for a local TV news station, I gained a unique perspective on the news media business. Some photojournalists say liability risks are the main obstacles to using small UAS in newsgathering. No TV station would allow an employee to send up a drone without first fully assessing the risk to the public, they argue, thus ensuring a journalistic UAS code of conduct is followed (and the flights are cleared by insurance carriers).
Perhaps a solution would be to allow the insurance industry to police this new commercial UAS market by setting clear operational guidelines. On May 27, insurance underwriter Transport Risk Management said it delivered its first-ever all-inclusive UAS packages to clients, with full hull and liability coverage for the operator.
The U.S. is not the only country struggling with UAS privacy issues. In December, a select committee in the U.K. House of Lords heard testimony from an under secretary of state for transport that someone taking photos or videos with a UAS should be treated the same as “somebody going up a stepladder with a camera” or using closed-circuit TV.
Currently, inexpensive small UAS do not have the endurance for the kind of persistent, long-term surveillance that worries most privacy advocates around the world. However, as designs advance, as sensor packages are further miniaturized, and as battery technology improves, this could change. If government agencies or a private small UAS operator could conduct persistent surveillance on an individual, even in a public place, perhaps it would violate that person’s reasonable expectations of privacy.
The Supreme Court likely would agree. In the 2012 U.S. v. Jones ruling, it concluded that police using a secretly planted GPS transmitter to track a suspected narcotics dealer’s car over four weeks was unconstitutional, even though the car was publicly visible the entire time. The Court said it would have ruled otherwise if police had used more expensive or conventional methods (such as constantly following a suspect) instead of the simple device.
Need To Know: Thirteen U.S. states have some regulation of public and private UAS use.Establishing altitude restrictions on drones over private property can pose legal challenges.
U.S. Seeks Drone Privacy Benchmarks
The U.S. National Telecommunications and Information Administration held its first “stakeholder” meeting Aug. 3 to begin fulfilling a presidential order to develop small UAS privacy and transparency standards.
The purpose of the Washington meeting was to discuss and understand relevant issues within the UAS industry.
In it, that agency identified UAS benefits, including those for newsgathering and parcel delivery. But the agency also cited the importance in consumer trust and responsibility when operating the aircraft.
Some stakeholders suggested the agency’s work process should address data security requirements, reporting obligations and privacy issues such as de-identification.
Attendees included representatives from the FAA, the Small UAV Coalition, the National Association of Broadcasters and the Center for Democracy and Leadership.
The next meeting is scheduled for Sept. 24 at the American Institute of Architects in Washington.
Quelle: Rotor&Wing

Tags: Luftfahrt 

1635 Views

Sonntag, 20. September 2015 - 18:00 Uhr

Planet Erde - 2,3 Millionen Arten: Stammbaum vereint alle Lebewesen der Erde

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Forscher haben einen riesigen Stammbaum mit allen bekannten Lebensformen der Erde aufgestellt. Das Mammutprojekt umfasst 2,3 Millionen Tiere, Pflanzen, Pilze und Mikroben. Der "Baum des Lebens" ist frei im Internet abrufbar.

2012 haben Wissenschaftler über 7500 Studien über die Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen von Arten publiziert. Doch jede dieser Arbeiten zeigte nur einen Teil des Gesamtbilds, etwa nur jene Äste mit allen Vögeln. Ein internationales Forscherteam hat die vorliegenden Daten nun zusammengeführt und daraus einen Stammbaum für alle bekannten Arten von Tieren, Pflanzen, Pilzen und Mikroben erstellt.
Damit lässt sich erstmals die Abstammung und Verwandtschaft aller Arten, die heute einen wissenschaftlichen Namen tragen, bis an den Ursprung des Lebens vor etwa 3,5 Milliarden Jahren zurückverfolgen. Der "Open Tree of Life" (Offener Baum des Lebens) reicht von den urtümlichen Archaebakterien bis zum Menschen und ist im Internet frei verfügbar. Er umfasst 2,3 Millionen Arten.
Ein besseres Verständnis der Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen zwischen den Arten sei etwa wichtig, um neue Medikamente zu entwickeln, landwirtschaftliche Erträge zu steigern oder der Herkunft und Verbreitung von Krankheiten wie Aids, Ebola und Grippe nachzuspüren, erklären die Forscher im Fachblatt "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences"."Dies ist der erste ernsthafte Versuch, alle Punkte zu verbinden und zu einem Ganzen zusammenzufügen", erklärt Projektleiterin Karen Cranston von der Duke Universität in Durham, USA. "Betrachten Sie es als Version 1.0." Der Stammbaum zeige aber nicht nur, was über die verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen der Arten bekannt ist, betonen die Forscher. Er offenbare ebenso deutlich die zahlreichen Wissenslücken.
"Wir hoffen, das unsere Veröffentlichung andere Forscher dazu ermutigt, ihre eigenen Ergebnisse hinzuzufügen", sagt Stephen Smith von der University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, USA. Denn eines der größten Probleme bei der Arbeit sei gewesen, dass viele vorhandene Studien und Daten nicht digital verfügbar seien.
Millionen Arten bislang unbekannt
Einen Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit stellen Smith und seine Kollegen ohnehin nicht. Schließlich sind nur wenige Prozent der vermutlich zigmillionen Arten, die auf der Erde leben, überhaupt in wissenschaftlichen Datenbanken verzeichnet.
"Vor 25 Jahren noch hielt man es für unmöglich, einen so umfassenden Stammbaum zu erstellen", betont Mitautor Douglas Soltis von der University of Florida. "Der Open Tree of Life ist ein wichtiger Ausgangspunkt für andere Forscher, die ihn in kommenden Jahrzehnten verfeinern und verbessern können."
Quelle: SpiegelOnline

Tags: Planet Erde 

1397 Views

Sonntag, 20. September 2015 - 16:45 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Edward Snowden: Wir können nie Außerirdische Nachrichten entschlüsseln

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Former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden says encryption could get in the way of any communication with aliens. Photograph: Frederick Florin/AFP/Getty Images

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Edward Snowden: we may never spot space aliens thanks to encryption
And extraterrestrials may never notice us, either, if our technology is sufficiently sophisticated, whistleblower tells Neil deGrasse Tyson
The US government whistleblower Edward Snowden believes encryption might make it difficult or even impossible to distinguish signals from alien species from cosmic background radiation.
On Friday night, Snowden appeared from Moscow on the astrophysicist and science communicator Neil deGrasse Tyson’s StarTalk podcast, via a robot video link called a “beam remote presence system”.
In 2013, after leaking documents on National Security Agency surveillance to media outlets including the Guardian, and under threat of US prosecution under the Espionage Act, Snowden sought asylum in Russia.
In a candid interview with Tyson, Snowden said he signed up for the US army following the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001.
“It took a very long time for me to develop any kind of skepticism at all even to the most over-extended claims of the extension of programs or policies [by the US security services],” he said.
The conversation turned to the possibility that data encryption might be making it harder to intercept communications from aliens.
“If you look at encrypted communication, if they are properly encrypted, there is no real way to tell that they are encrypted,” Snowden said. “You can’t distinguish a properly encrypted communication from random behaviour.”
Therefore, Snowden continued, as human and alien societies get more sophisticated and move from “open communications” to encrypted communication, the signals being broadcast will quickly stop looking like recognisable signals.
“So if you have an an alien civilization trying to listen for other civilizations,” he said, “or our civilization trying to listen for aliens, there’s only one small period in the development of their society when all their communication will be sent via the most primitive and most unprotected means.”
After that, Snowden said, alien messages would be so encrypted that it would render them unrecognisable, “indistinguishable to us from cosmic microwave background radiation”. In that case, humanity would not even realise it had received such communications.
“Only,” Tyson replied jovially, “if they have the same security problems as us.”
Quelle: theguardian

Tags: UFO-Forschung 

1658 Views

Sonntag, 20. September 2015 - 10:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Vorbereitung für Cobenhagen Suborbitals Raketenstart

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5.06.2015

Wir berichteten schon vor drei Jahren über das kleine aber feine Raumfahrtunternehmen Cobenhagen Suborbitals in Dänemark ( http://www.hjkc.de/_blog/2012/07/28/raumfahrt---erfolgreicher-start-von-daenemark-smaragd-1-rakete/), welches sich nun durch viele Raketentriebwerk-Tests auf sich aufmerksam macht:

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Bad weather has forced us to move the test to Sunday (May 31st)
Dear readers
Just a small update on the progress during the last week. More details on the upcoming test further down in this text.
 
GO for testing!
I am happy to announce that we are still ready for testing on Sunday – first burn will be at 13.30 CEST.
The doors will open to the test range at 12.30 CEST, and the crowd area will just like the last time be here.
We urge you to book your tickets in advance. The tickets costs 50 kroner. Kids and supporters have free access. Read more at the ticket service.
Nexø design
There’s great progress in this area: the jet vane servo system has been designed and the internal piping is almost complete. Hopefully there should be no more than a couple of working days left for the design to ready enough for the components to be ordered.
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All departments have been sworn in with regards to the total weight budget, and we are currently within 1 kg of our requirements. Maybe it’s time to re-introduce the lead coated main parachute? :-)
BPM-5 Static test
As written above, things are progressing as planned towards this weekends test. The injector, with serial number 002 has been readied for the test, and we are eagerly looking forward the characterise its behaviour.
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The copper vane to the right, next to a plastic- graphite look-a-like. Photo: Flemming Rasmussen

Flemming Rasmussen working on the graphite jet vane and he has proudly sent us this picture:

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The graphite jet vane is ready for some beating on Saturday. Foto: Flemming Rasmussen
 
The graphite jet vane is ready for some beating on Saturday. Foto: Flemming Rasmussen
The purpose of literally putting the the two jet vanes into the fire is to test their durability, and measure the temperatures they reach during a burn. We will also measure their weight before and after the test, to measure how much the fire has corroded them.
What will be tested on Sunday
The planning has come to a point where we can present to you the wish list below.
Commissioning of the new injector (sn. 002) with larger LOX channels than injector 001. 7 sec burn
Commissioning of automated pre-to-main stage transition. 2-3 runs of 7 seconds at different prestage angles of the main valve.
Trimming the operation point to a chamber pressure at 15 bar. 2-3 runs of seven seconds.
Injector mode characterization. 1 run at > 20 sec blow-down burn with the starting chamber pressure of 15 bar.
DPR–based automated pressurization (the function we will make use of on the Nexø 1). 1-2 runs of 7 seconds. (DPR omay not be ready for Saturday, but we are struggling to reach it)
So we are looking at up to 10 burns!
 
Do notice that this is a wish list. Lack of time, engine breakdown or other unforeseen events can change the number. But there’s nothing wrong with our ambitions.
production of Ballute sn-002
The parts for the next ballute have been laser cut, and assembly will now commence.
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The parts for the next ballute are ready, and all that is left is a bit of sewing. Photo: Mads Stenfatt
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VTC3 water sound suppression system being tested
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This is the Vertical Test Cell three – better known as VTC-3.
VTC-3 is a 160 ton steel and concrete structure. It consists of 60 large 2,5 ton concrete blocks. These make up the flame bucket and fragment containment. Inside the massive structure we find the flame deflector. Its job is to divert the hundreds of cubic meters of exhaust gasses that are generated each second during a main stage test of the HEAT 1600 single TM260 rocket engine. The flame deflector is water cooled. Two diesel engine powered centrifugal pumps supply cooling water at a rate of 20 ton pr. minute – to prevent the structure from melting. The flame deflector is cooled by a waterfall on the front and by dual “showerheads” on the back side. The cooling water enters the test stand via two six inch pipelines. To control the coolant flow, two remotely operated six inch butterfly valves are installed in the pipelines.
The big test stand sits on the grounds of a derelict shipyard. Its 55.000 cubic meter large drydock basin is used for cooling water. It also prevents fire from spreading in the southern direction. To the north, a ten meter pile of gravel contains the test stand area. To the east we find the sea, and to the vest we have a large open space, with the command post placed 300 meters away. The VTC-3 is designed to contain any imaginable test anomaly.
Above the flame pit a steel girder bridge made of IPE 400 profiles holds the booster. The steel structure has all the same hold down positions as the launch pad, and indeed – VTC-3 could act as a HEAT 1600 launch complex if it was not for the lack of frangible nuts in the hold down system. The HEAT 1600 booster is held down by four 40 mm bolts. They lock it to the IPE 400 profiles via four 30 mm thick triangular steel plates.
In the event of a serious engine mishap, the tank structure may be damaged. To contain this, it is held down by four additional hardpoints mounted on the intertank, just below the LOX tank.
VTC-3 is not an engine test stand – instead it’s designed to test entire flight stages. All the umbilicals and support systems mimic the ones on the launch pad, so the tests are also verification of the functionality of the ground support systems. One difference is, however, that the VTC-3 does not have a service / umbilical tower like Sputnik. We can do this because, unlike flights, we don’t have either spacecrafts or potential upper stages during a static test.
VTC-3 can accommodate other rocket stages, and other types of rocket engines than the HEAT 1600. This is done using a number of adapters that make smaller rockets like the HEAT 2X fit the test stand. The very powerful solid fuel launch escape system motor will also be testfired on this site. In fact, the very first test ever conducted at the VTC-3 site was a solid propellant miniature launch escape system test motor.
It has been decided that the maximum allowable propellant load on the VTC -3 will be 2000 kg. This makes it possible to conduct full duration static test on HEAT 2X, but for HEAT 1600 it will give us a maximum test duration of sixteen seconds. The HEAT 2X and HEAT 1600 rocket motors are basically the same design except for the size, making it easier to accept this limitation.
During tests, the entire area around the test stand is covered by water from the cooling system. In the event of a fuel (alcohol) spill, the alcohol will be dissolved and not be able to ignite.
Together with the construction facilities in HAB2, the VTC-3 is the most important land based Copenhagen Suborbitals structures.
Our Test facility
HEAT 1600 – Copenhagen Suborbitals big liquid fueled booster – is destined to become the most powerful amateur rocket ever devised. At 260 kN, its thrust will exceed that of the V2 missile or the X-15 space plane.
Let’s get the numbers right here…
Amateur rocketry uses a letter classification of motor size. It starts with A motors at 2,5 newton seconds. However, amateurs practically do fly larger M, N end O size motors at up to 40 thousand newton seconds. This numbers was exceeded by the total impulse of the HEAT 1X back in 2011. In its 16 second powered phase of its flight it produced some 75 thousand newton seconds. It lifted off with potential for 135 thousand newton second, but the engine had to be shut down during flight due to a trajectory anomaly.
By 2012, the flight of the two stage Smaragd marked the end of the phase with passive stable rockets in CS.
By 2013 we had successfully flown Sapphire with active guidance, and we are now aiming for the flight of the 260 thousand newton seconds HEAT 2X. This pressure feed ten meter by 65 cm diameter rocket is scheduled for lift off in mid 2014
However, the HEAT 1600 under construction takes this to a whole new level. Its total  impulse during flight will be an unbelievable 26 million newton seconds.
To conduct flight qualification of this massive turbo pump feed liquid propellant propulsion system – a test stand on a similar scale is needed.
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Our Launch sites
Virtually all space companies launch their rockets from land based launch pads, as, from obvious reasons, land based infrastructure has the big advantage of easy accessibility. The launch of rockets – be it small or huge – demand a lot of surrounding space, and typically a large area has to be cleared of people prior to launch. This restricts rocket launch sites (spaceports) to military or otherwise controlled or uninhabited areas.
Very few spaceports are located in Northern Europe, as most areas are densely populated. We have considered established spaceports like Andøya Rocket Range in Norway, or Esrange in Sweden, but they are both very remote from our facilities in Copenhagen, and Esrange do not accommodate non-flight proven hardware.
In Denmark, the land based military controlled shooting ranges are far too small to fit our needs, though they are often used by amateur rocket clubs, launching sounding rockets to 1-4 km altitude.
This leaves Copenhagen Suborbitals with only one remaining realistic option – sea launch!
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Sea launch
Though burdened with logistical impracticalities, sea launch also offers many advantages. Outside the national territorial waters – typically 12 nautical miles off the coast – things, as an example, get a lot simpler from a legal perspective.
Few landmasses on the planet are as empty as the open sea – and as easy to monitor. This makes the whole issue of range safety relatively simple compared to the conditions on land. For the same reason, most spaceports are located on a coastline. Finally – operating out of Copenhagen, Denmark – the logistic challenge of launching rockets from Sahara or some place in the Arctic is much larger than sailing a couple of hundred nautical miles out to sea.
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The positions of our launch sites ESD138, ESD139 and EK R 16
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As a result, in 2009, we decided to commit Copenhagen Suborbitals to sea launch.
ES D 138/139
Our primary launch area is the military firing practice areas ES D 138/ES D 139 in the Baltic Sea, east of Bornholm, Denmark. The combined area is approximate 70×35 km.
These areas are provided to us by the Admiral Danish Fleet for a specific time period (launch window), and with help from the Danish and Swedish authorities, the airspace above is closed for any traffic in the hours of the actual launch.
During launch campaigns, we operate from the town of Nexøe on the eastern coast of Bornholm, and the site is now known as Spaceport Nexøe.
To help us clear the area of fishermen and other vessels, we get help from the local Marine National Guard on Bornholm, typically by means of the MHV 903 Hjortø, which until the acquisition of our command ship Vostok, served as launch control center.
EK R 16
Though suitable for high altitude launches, operations from Spaceport Nexøe involves a lot of logistics and expenses. For minor launch operations, such as LES tests and 1/3 scale TDS launches, a better alternative is the EK R 16 shooting range in the bay of Sejerø, on the western coast of Sealand in Denmark. This area is only 100 km from our facilities in Copenhagen, and the area is approximate 6×14 km.
We have yet to try this area out, and as opposed to the remote offshore shooting ranges in the Baltic Sea, the EK R 16 area enables a direct sight possibility for spectators at the shore.
NEWSLETTER
Email address:
LATEST NEWS
27.05.2015
There will be MANY rocket engine tests on Sunday!NOTICE: Bad weather has forced us to move the test to Sunday (May 31st) Dear readers Just a small update…
21.05.2015
When streaming failsDear readers, We have previously promised to describe what caused our streaming from the BPM2 test weekend on the 2nd…
19.05.2015
Next BPM-5 rocket engine test: Sunday May 31NOTICE: madtruck.dk will be selling delicious burgers and fries at the event.   We love the smell of rocket fuel in…
07.05.2015
42!Dear readers Sunday was one of those days where you really have to try hard to find something to complain…
06.05.2015
May 10th we’ll test fire a BPM-5 rocket engine for the first time.Sunday May 10th we'll test fire a BPM-5 rocket engine for the first time. This is the engine type that will fly…
23.04.2015
Come and see us test rocket enginesOn Saturday May 2nd we'll testfire several rocket engines. The viewing area is open from 12.00. The plan is to…
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Quelle: Copenhagen Suborbitals
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Update: 23.07.2015
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Quelle: Copenhagen Suborbitals
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Update: 1.08.2015
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Tonight at 18:00 CEST:
The final roar of the  BPM-5 engine before flight

Final roar before the launch of Nexø I. Watch it online.
Final engine test before flight:
This evening at from approx 18:00 CEST we will perform the final tests of the BPM-5 engine before flight.
Due to the urgency of these test and reduced manpower there will not be public access.
 
Live streaming:
We will stream via youtube here:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=crffeP7u2rc
Estimated testplan:
A short qualification burn with the BPM-5/3 (Flight engine)
Two long burns with the BPM-5/2
As you know, this is rocket science, so delays are part of a day like this. Lots of things and events has to occur timely to be able to ignite a rocket engine, be it static tests like these, or a real launch. We will do our best to keep you informed on any delays og last minute changes.
Quelle: The Copenhagen Suborbitals Team
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Update: 7.08.2015
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Rocket launch coming up!
We have booked the last two weekends of August (2015) and the first two weekends of September as our launch window for the Nexø I rocket. Once ready, and the weather forecast is okay, we'll launch. Typically we launch early in the day, CEST, and our activity will be broadcast live on our youtube channel
Quelle: The Copenhagen Suborbitals Team
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Update: 9.09.2015
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Launch postponed until September 19th-20th:

Unfortunately, the weather forecast for this weekend is looking quite bad, so we won't be able to launch the rocket as planned. We've extended our launch window and are hoping for better weather on September 19th-20th.
The weather forecast for sailing our launch platform Sputnik to Spaceport Nexø is looking quite good over the next couple of days. Sputnik embarked towards Spaceport Nexø on the island of Bornholm this morning!
Quelle: The Copenhagen Suborbitals Team
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Update: 20.09.2015
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Nexø I launch attempt postponed to September 26th - 27th.
Even through the weather is getting better at Spaceport Nexø there will not be a launch this weekend. We have had a visit from good old Murphy. Some of the checkout tests needed before the rocket can be flight qualified has taken longer than expected.
This weekend we will perform the final tests and after that the engine section will be disassembled for LOX cleaning, reassembled and final checkout procedures performed. We aim for launch the weekend 26th -27th of september. The long term weather prognoses look promising!
Quelle: The Copenhagen Suborbitals Team


Tags: Raumfahrt 

2052 Views

Sonntag, 20. September 2015 - 09:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Chinesische Raumfahrt beginnt erfolgreich mit Long March 6 Start eine neue Ära

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19.09.2015 / 15.18 MESZ

A booster of the upcoming Long March 7, one of China's next generation rockets, in Tianjin, North China. (Photo: CASC)

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At 0700 Beijing time on Saturday (2300 UTC on Friday), China will perform the first ever launch of a Long March 6 rocket. Neither its size nor its payload – including a number of small amateur radio satellites – are notable, yet the event will mark a new era in Chinese spaceflight.
 
China’s established Long March series has helped the country go from putting its first satellite into space in 1970, to achieving human spaceflight in 2003, establish communications and navigation systems, Earth observation constellations, and put its first space lab into low Earth orbit.
 
However, after beginning development in the 2000s, the Long March 6 is the first of a long-waited new generation of Chinese launch vehicles, designed to take China’s space ambitions to the next level.
 
Together with the Long March 5 and 7 rocket families, Long March 6 has been designed to meet China’s future requirements for its space programs, providing increased reliability and adaptability, lower costs and preparation, and allow much heavier payloads to be put in orbit.
 
“The Long March 6 is for relatively light payloads and intended to give them a quick turnaround time capability. It gives them more flexibility in satellite launches, but it is the Long March 5 that will really signal a leap forward in Chinese capabilities,” says Joan Johnson-Freese, Professor of National Security Affairs at the US Naval War College, but expressing her own views.
New possibilities - including Moon mission?
Saturday’s launch will be the first real flight test of the YF-100 engine, based on Russia’s RD-120. The YF-100 will also power the heavy-lift Long March 5, which will be capable of lifting 25 tonnes to Low Earth Orbit.
Having a rocket comparable to the American Delta-IV Heavy will treble China’s payload lifting capacity, and bring many new possibilities, and possibly a trip to the Moon.
 
“China’s three step human spaceflight program, Shenzhou, relies on the Long March 5 to lift its large space station to orbit, and in order to do a human lunar mission - anticipated as their “next step” - the Long March 5 is needed as well,” Johnson-Freese explains.
 
The Long March 5 will also launch the ambitious Chang’e-5 lunar mission, which aims to put a lander on the Moon and return samples to Earth in 2017.
 
Long March 5 and medium-lift Long March 7 missions will lift off from a massive new space port constructed in Wenchang on the island province of Hainan.
 
The Wenchang Satellite Launch Centre, from which launches will take advantage of the Earth’s greater rotational speed at lower latitudes, took six years to construct and cost an estimated five billion yuan (US$800 million) and is another crucial component in China’s plans.
 
“What this means for the US and all space faring nations is another indicator that China is a long-term player in space with expanding capabilities. It cannot be denied or ignored, as the US has tended to do,” notes Johnson-Freese.
Technological advance 
Professor Huang Jun at the Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics told gbtimes that the new rockets mark a major technological development for China.
 
“My opinion is that, despite the fact that China has made great progress in its series rocket and space launches in the past few decades, there is still a big gap between China and the world's advanced level,” says Huang.
 
“Therefore, the development of these new launch vehicles is to meet the further space and deep space exploration on one hand, and to catch up the world's most sophisticated space technologies.”
 
“This new generation of Chinese launch vehicle series uses universal modularized design which can be easily combined into new rocket variants for various missions. The reliability and launch preparation time are improved and the launching cost will be lowered.”
 
Huang also notes that the incendiary agents used for these rockets are kerosene and liquid hydrogen which are non-toxic, low or non-polluting compared with the highly toxic unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH) used in the current Long March 2-4 series.
 
Due to strategic concerns of the early days of the Cold War, China’s three operational launch centres are inland, meaning rocket debris – and remaining hydrazine fuel – poses a threat to those downrange of launches. The new rockets and launch centre will help reduce these risks.
Inspiring China; military concerns
Huang notes that the development of China’s next-generation rockets and their uses can have a major impact on China, and including on national economic construction and the defence industry, and the new rockets may promote related industries progress and economic prosperity.
 
“The successes of manned spaceships and deep space explorers such as Chang'e lunar probes would inspire the morale of Chinese people to build a better China.”
 
Outside of the China, the interpretation of the meaning of tomorrow’s launch will be somewhat different, says Joan Johnson-Freese:
 
“Since more than 90 percent of space technology is dual use – of value to both the military and civilian space communities - the Long March 6 will be heavily analysed in terms of what types of military capabilities it will afford the PLA (People’s Liberation Army), and I’m sure there will be some. Just giving it increased rapid access to space will be important.”
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Long March 6 maiden flight
The run-up to the launch of the Long March 6 itself has been low-key, with a number of postponements so far this year. Finally however, 2300 UTC on Friday (0700 Beijing time on Saturday), will see the maiden flight
 
Images of the rocket itself have been scarce, with a view of the new launch tower at the Taiyuan launch centre in North China's Shanxi province only being provided via a distance, leaked image:
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The 29m long, 108 tonne Long March 6 can lift 1,080kg to Sun synchronous orbit, and was developed by the Shanghai Academy of Space Technology and China Academy of Space Technology. 
This first flight will send the payload of 20 small satellites, including nine amateur satellites, to Sun synchronous orbit at an altitude of 530 km, with a 97 degree inclination. The payload somewhat reflects the higher risks and unknowns associated with a maiden flight.
 
Those participating include Zhejiang University, Tsinghua University, the National University of Defence Technology and other space research institutes.
 
One of these, LilacSat-2, is an 11kg amateur radio nano-satellite developed by 15 students at the Harbin Institute of Technology in Heilongjiang province.
 
Wang Feng, the professor in charge of LilacSat-2, told gbtimes that the mission is giving students a chance to gain an experience they would otherwise not get, and for them to learn corresponding designs and help in future job hunting. Other details about the mission, especially concerning the rocket, were off limits until after launch.
 
While the mission objectives are modest, a successful first flight of the YF-100 would bode well for China’s next generation of launch vehicles.
 
The Long March 5, with a huge five metre diameter, is scheduled to make its debut flight early next year. The ambitious Chinese space program depends on its success. 
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Quelle: gbtimes
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Long March 6 carrier rocket to send 20 small satellites into space
China's Long March 6 (CZ-6) carrier rocket is set to be launched in Taiyuan, in North China's Shanxi Province on Saturday, sending 20 small satellites into space, media reported Thursday. 
Designed by the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, developer of the Shenzhou VII spacecraft, the CZ-6 is a non-toxic and pollution-free rocket which features a number of next-generation technologies, including a liquid oxygen kerosene engine. 
The rocket was wholly developed in China at low cost, high reliability, strong adaptability and good safety, Chinese media reported.
The 20 satellites were developed by prestigious universities in China including Zhejiang University, Tsinghua University and other research institutes.
According to previous report, CZ-6 is capable of placing not less than 1 ton of payload into a sun-synchronous orbit at a height of 700 kilometers.
Another rocket, the Long March 11 carrier rocket (CZ-11) is expected to be launched in Jiuquan, in Northwest China's Gansu Province on September 25, carrying three satellites.
The CZ-11 is the first solid launch vehicle designed by the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, and takes mere hours to launch in comparison to other rockets which usually take months to prepare.
China outlined its five-year space mission in 2011. Among the items outlined are the launch of manned spaceships, next-generation rockets and the use of cleaner fuel, all of which are expected to help the country realize its goal of building a space station by 2020.
Two more rockets, the Long March-5 and Long March-7, will be launched in 2016. 
The former, under development by the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, uses non-toxic and pollution-free propellant, and is capable of placing 25-ton payloads into near-Earth orbit, or placing 14-ton payloads into geostationary orbit. 
The latter is capable of placing 5.5-ton payloads into orbit at the same altitude as CZ-6.
Quelle: GLOBAL TIMES
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Update: 21.15 MESZ 
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China delayed todays launch of the Long March 6 Rocket which first in a new generation of Long March Rockets

China's Long March 6 (CZ-6) carrier rocket was set to be launched in Taiyuan, in North China's Shanxi Province on Saturday, sending 20 small satellites into space. It appears the launch may have been postphoned
Designed by the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, developer of the Shenzhou VII spacecraft, the CZ-6 is a non-toxic and pollution-free rocket which features a number of next-generation technologies, including a liquid oxygen kerosene engine.
The rocket was developed in China at low cost, high reliability, strong adaptability and good safety.
Another rocket, the Long March 11 carrier rocket (CZ-11) is expected to be launched in Jiuquan, in Northwest China's Gansu Province on September 25, carrying three satellites.
The CZ-11 is the first solid launch vehicle designed by the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, and takes mere hours to launch in comparison to other rockets which usually take months to prepare.
China outlined its five-year space mission in 2011. Among the items outlined are the launch of manned spaceships, next-generation rockets and the use of cleaner fuel, all of which are expected to help the country realize its goal of building a space station by 2020.
Two more rockets, the Long March-5 and Long March-7, will be launched in 2016.
The LM-7, along with the lighter Long March 6 and heavier Long March 5, will act as China's next generation of space launch vehicles
The LM-7 is a mid-heavy weight, 600 ton launch rocket, similar to the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket. It is likely to replace the man-rated Long March 2 rocket, which is currently used to launch China's manned Shenzhou space missions. However, the LM-7 is estimated to carry 13.5 tons (depending on booster rocket configuration) of cargo in low earth orbit, which is a 50% increase over the LM-2.
China developed the YF-100 engine based on the Russian RD-120. Staged combustion is also used for the 18-ton-thrust kerosene second-stage engine of the Long March 7.
China has used help from Ukraine to develop the engines.
Still, with a thrust of 120 metric tons (260,000 lb.), the YF-100 is not a very large engine. Engineers of China's Academy of Aerospace Propulsion Technology—Li Ping, Li Bin and Yu Zou—emphasized in a paper published last year that China was still behind in space propulsion. Their proposal, probably representing official thinking, is to develop the largest kerosene-oxygen rocket that China could use commercially—with up to three times the thrust of the YF-100—and then give it double combustion chambers to create an engine twice as large again. This, it appears, is China's path to propulsion for a Moon rocket. 
Quelle: NBF
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Update: 20.09.2015
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China's new carrier rocket succeeds in first trip
A new model of China's carrier rocket Long March-6 carrying 20 micro-satellites blasts off from the launch pad at 7:01 a.m. from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center in north China's Shanxi Province, Sept. 20, 2015
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TAIYUAN, China successfully launched a new model of carrier rocket, Long March-6, at 7:01 a.m. Sunday from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center in north China's Shanxi Province.
The rocket carried 20 micro-satellites into the space, which will be used for space tests.
The new rocket is fueled by liquid propellant made of liquid oxygen and kerosene. It is China's first carrier rocket that uses fuel free of toxicity and pollution, said the source with the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology with the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, which designed the rocket.
The launch has tested the feasibility and accuracy of the rocket's design as well as other new technologies.
The new carrier rocket will be mainly used for the launch of micro-satellites.
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Quelle: Xinhua
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Tags: Raumfahrt 

1432 Views

Sonntag, 20. September 2015 - 08:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt-History - 1955: Raumstation Enthusiasten

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Aus dem CENAP-Archiv:

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Quelle: CENAP-Archiv


Tags: Raumfahrt 

1373 Views

Samstag, 19. September 2015 - 22:00 Uhr

Astronomie - Sonnenfleck AR-2415, AR-2418, AR-2419 durch Wolkenfilter

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Am Vormittag des 17.09.2015 setzte ich bei der Fahrt über die Rossfeld-Hochstraße in Bayern bei bester Wetterlage auf die Cirruswolken welche am blauen Himmel einen starken Kontrast boten, sie als Wolkenfilter für Fotoaufnahmen von Sonnenflecken zu nutzen. Und wie schon bei Sonnenflecken-Aufnahmen in Vergangenheit gelang es auch diesmal:

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Der Wolkenschleier von Cirrus-Wolken sind nutzbar als Filter für nachfolgende Aufnahmen von Sonnenflecken:

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Fotos: ©-hjkc


Tags: Astronomie AR-2418 AR-2419 durch Wolkenfilter 

1478 Views

Samstag, 19. September 2015 - 17:34 Uhr

Astronomie - Bruder Guy Joseph Consolmagno, SJ ist als Neuer Direktor für Vatikanische Sternwarte ernannt

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Pope Francis on Friday named Brother Guy Joseph Consolmagno, SJ as the new director of the Vatican Observatory. Jesuit Br Consolmagno is the current President of the Vatican Observatory Foundation, as well as curator of the Vatican meteorite collection in Castel Gandolfo, one of the largest in the world.
His research explores the connections between meteorites and asteroids, and the origin and evolution of small bodies in the solar system.
Br Guy Consolmagno SJ was born in 1952 in Detroit, Michigan. He obtained his Bachelor of Science in 1974 and Master of Science in 1975 in Earth and Planetary Sciences from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and his PhD in Planetary Science from the University of Arizona in 1978. From 1978-80 he was a postdoctoral fellow and lecturer at the Harvard College Observatory, and from 1980-1983 continued as postdoc and lecturer at MIT.
In 1983 he left MIT to join the US Peace Corps, where he served for two years in Kenya teaching physics and astronomy. Upon his return to the US in 1985 he became an assistant professor of physics at Lafayette College, in Easton, Pennsylvania, where he taught until his entry into the Jesuit order in 1989. He took vows as a Jesuit brother in 1991, and studied philosophy and theology at Loyola University Chicago, and physics at the University of Chicago before his assignment to the Vatican Observatory in 1993.
In spring 2000 he held the MacLean Chair for Visiting Jesuit Scholars at St Joseph's University, Philadelphia, and in 2006-2007 held the Loyola Chair at Fordham University, New York. He has also been a visiting scientist at the Goddard Space Flight Center and a visiting professor at Loyola College, Baltimore, and Loyola University, Chicago.
Br. Consolmagno has served on the governing boards of the Meteoritical Society; the International Astronomical Union's (IAU) Division III, Planetary Systems Science (secretary, 2000 - present) and Commission 16, Moons and Planets (president, 2003-2006); and the American Astronomical Society Division for Planetary Sciences (chair, 2006-2007).
He has coauthored five astronomy books: "Turn Left at Orion" (with Dan M. Davis; Cambridge University Press, 1989); "Worlds Apart" (with Martha W. Schaefer; Prentice Hall, 1993); "The Way to the Dwelling of Light" (U of Notre Dame Press, 1998); "Brother Astronomer" (McGraw Hill, 2000); and "God's Mechanics" (Jossey-Bass, 2007). He also edited "The Heavens Proclaim" (Vatican Observatory Publications, 2009).
Br Consolmagno is curator of the Vatican meteorite collection in Castel Gandolfo, one of the largest in the world. His research explores the connections between meteorites and asteroids, and the origin and evolution of small bodies in the solar system. In 1996, he spent six weeks collecting meteorites with an NSF-sponsored team on the blue ice of Antarctica, and in 2000 he was honored by the IAU for his contributions to the study of meteorites and asteroids with the naming of asteroid 4597 Consolmagno.
Quelle: ICN

Tags: Astronomie 

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