Sonntag, 22. November 2015 - 21:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt-History - 1967: Kopplungsmanöver von Kosmos 186 und Kosmos 188


Kosmos 186 und Kosmos 188 waren Sojus-Raumschiffe, die am 30. Oktober 1967 die erste automatische Kopplung der Raumfahrtgeschichte durchführten.


Kosmos 186 (Russian: Космос-186 meaning Cosmos 186) and Kosmos 188 (respectively, Cosmos 188) were two unmanned Soviet spacecraft that incorporated a Soyuz programme descent module for landing scientific instruments and test objects. The two USSR spacecraft made the first fully automated space docking in the history of space exploration on October 30, 1967. Mutual search, approach, mooring, and docking were automatically performed by the IGLA-system on board Kosmos 186. After 3.5 h of joint flight, the satellites parted on a command sent from the earth and continued to orbit separately. Both made a soft landing in a predetermined region of the USSR - Kosmos 186 on October 31, 1967 and Kosmos 188 on November 2, 1967.
quelle: CENAP-Archiv

Tags: Raumfahrt 


Sonntag, 22. November 2015 - 20:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - COMMERCIAL RAUMFAHRT TRAINING für zukünftige XCOR Lynx Flüge


Citizens in Space and Starbase Operations Complete Flight-Test Campaign

Reno, Nevada – Citizens in Space, a project of the United States Rocket Academy, and Starbase Operations LLC have successfully completed a series of flight tests that will help advance commercial spaceflight training.
Over the past several months, Citizens in Space and Starbase Operations have developed and tested a technique to simulate the landing profile of the XCOR Lynx spacecraft using an L-39C Albatros jet trainer.
During the test flights, pilots configured aircraft controls to achieve approach angles and sink rates similar to those of a Lynx spacecraft. The test approaches were conducted at an abandoned military air field in Nevada.
During the Space Shuttle program, NASA modified a Grumman Gulfstream II business jet to fly simulated Shuttle landing profiles for astronaut training. The flight tests showed that the L-39C can perform similar training missions for the Lynx spacecraft.
Pilots for the test flights were Major Erik Anderson (USAF-ret.) and airline Captain Bob Ray. Anderson is an Iraq War veteran and an engineer-pilot for XCOR Aerospace. Ray is a Boeing 737, 757, 767 captain for a major airline and a US Navy veteran who served as an A-4 Skyhawk squadron pilot, service test pilot, and instructor pilot. He is one of the few American pilots to hold type ratings in both the L-39C and MiG-21 aircraft.
Science mission specialists, flying in the rear seat, were Edward Wright, project manager for Citizens in Space, and Dr. Justin Karl, chief payloads officer for Citizens in Space. The two mission specialists operated onboard experiments to collect biomedical data and test new wearable-electronic hardware developed by Citizens in Space.
The first flight test was conducted on Friday, July 24, with Anderson and Wright as flight crew. During that flight, Citizens in Space also tested a Hexoskin “smart shirt” manufactured by Carre Technologies, recording biomedical data including EKG, respiration rate, and respiration volume. The Hexoskin shirt is one of several biomedical sensor devices Citizens in Space is evaluating for potential use in biomedical experiments to be flown on the Lynx spacecraft.
The L-39 was built in Czechoslovakia by Aero Vodochody as a military trainer for Eastern-bloc air forces. The aircraft was imported into the United States and modified for air racing. It was flown in the National Championship Air Races by Captain Robert “Hoot” Gibson (USN-ret.), former head of the NASA astronaut office, and later acquired by Starbase Operations LLC, the current owner/operator.
Quelle: Citizens in Space

Tags: Raumfahrt 


Sonntag, 22. November 2015 - 16:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt-History - NASA-flickr-Archiv: Apollo-15 Teil-3


Fotos: NASA

Tags: Raumfahrt 


Samstag, 21. November 2015 - 22:15 Uhr

Astronomie - Leoniden-Feuerkugeln über England und Austria



Quelle: UK Meteor Network

Quelle: Hermann Korberger, Austria

Tags: Astronomie 


Samstag, 21. November 2015 - 21:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Kosmische Konzepte: Space Balls rollen über Titan


To travel to outer solar system and eventually to the stars, we're going to need some big breakthroughs in propulsion, protection from cosmic radiation, and more. Our Cosmic Concepts series looks at the far-out ideas that will take us there.

The vehicle circles Saturn's largest moon, Titan, skating near the cloud level. It opens a hatch and deploys a series of rods connected by cables, with a mission payload of scientific instruments in the middle, which descend toward the surface. Prior to impact, the rods and cables form up into a kind of tight, protective cage around the payload that will not only absorb the shock of landing, but also take on the extreme terrain of this bizarre place, allowing scientists to explore vast swaths of the surface of Titan.

The concept is called the Super Ball Bot, and if NASA robotics scientists Vytas SunSpiral and Adrian Agogino are right, the probe could become a new model of future robotic explorers capable of going where rovers and stationary probes cannot. The proposal is one of six that was awarded funding through the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts Program for 2013. The NIAC funding provides two years during which Agogino and SunSpiral can refine the components and controls, and can be thought of as a feasibility study of the technology.
Obstacles such as rocks or soft soil, the kind of problems that doomed the Mars Spirit rover and trapped its twin, Opportunity, for more than a month, can't stop the structure. It doesn't have wheels in the traditional sense. Rather, the probe is one giant wheel capable of bounding along the surface, with the added capability of using its rods to push and pull itself out of complex terrain—and even walk as needed. This is all accomplished by controlling the cables to change shape and create motion.
Super Ball Bot works on a concept known as a tensegrity structure, and SunSpiral and Agogino's design draws a little inspiration from futurist Buckminster Fuller and artist Kenneth Snelson. SunSpiral compares the mechanics of tensegrity to a skeletal structure. Rather than having rigid connections, such as a wheel on an axle, the ball's network of rods and cables is under tension but has no rigid hinges, and the components are free to move relative to each other.
"They're under compression, they're being squeezed, they're doing their job as rods, but they don't touch each other, so the way that force propagates through the tensegrity structure is very different," SunSpiral says. "Forces diffuse through it, and they have some very interesting properties, because tension elements behave very differently. You don't have lever arms in them, so you get a lot of neat qualities such as this very inherent compliance and flexibility in the structure that is exactly what you need in a robot that's really going to interact with the real world."
The structure itself allows for 50 percent of the mission weight to be devoted to the scientific instruments, compared with 22 percent for the Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity). Because the rolling bots can stow in a compact size, the team envisions having the ability to deploy a few at a time.
And since the structure itself protects the payload from impact, the cost for a potential mission is reduced—engineers don't have to rig up a complicated soft landing à la Curiosity's 7 minutes of terror. SunSpiral and Agogino have been doing experiments out of a high school physics class—dropping the spheres from three stories up with an egg inside to see if it breaks—hoping to simulate terminal velocity the spheres would encounter landing on Titan. With NASA's planetary science budget dwindling, cost savings matter. The agency's Discovery program already bypassed a poetntially awesome Titan mission in favor of sending another mission to Mars.
"When you think of how a traditional robot works, you have these powerful motors, you grind away, you go somewhere and you don't get back any of the energy, and when you stop, you waste more energy again," Agogino says. "Instead, a heck of a lot of energy can be stored in a tension network. When people move forward and back, we give energy, we take energy. These compliant robots can really just kind of oscillate and bounce into place, so they're really fantastic."
The two engineers have been using Titan as a target for potential missions because of the moon's incomparable terrain. It's one of the few places besides Earth known to have a thick atmosphere and liquid lakes, though it replaces water with hydrocarbons. The uncertain terrain makes it a challenge for rovers, with potential mud and other physical terrain not found on drier surfaces such as the moon or Mars.
The biggest technical obstacle for Super Ball Bot might be the controls. As it's not a traditional wheeled structure, an entirely new set of controls were needed to ensure that each component of the structure crawl the way it's supposed to, moving the structure along. (See the below video.) The ball walks with each rod just as much as it rolls, hewing closer to biological locomotion than traditional rovers—and with that comes the need for fine motor skills.
"If you had tried to invent the Super Ball Bot in the 1990s, you just wouldn't have been able to do it," Agogino says. "The control theory wasn't there, the machine learning wasn't there. The biologically inspired control theory just wasn't mature enough. So, sure, you'd have built the ball, but it wouldn't have done anything you wanted it to do back then. But now we finally have control theory to match the hardware, which is really fantastic.
Quelle: PM

Tags: Raumfahrt 


Samstag, 21. November 2015 - 20:30 Uhr

Raumfahrt - ULA bietet CubeSat Launch Program Mitfahrzentrale für Atlas-Starts


United Launch Alliance Reveals Transformational CubeSat Launch Program
America’s Ride to Space Offers University Competition for Free STEM CubeSat Rides on Future Launches
Centennial, Colo., (Nov. 19, 2015) –  As the most experienced launch company in the nation, United Launch Alliance (ULA) announced today it is taking CubeSat rideshares to the next level by launching a new, innovative program offering universities the chance to compete for free CubeSat rides on future launches. 
“ULA will offer universities the chance to compete for at least six CubeSat launch slots on two Atlas V missions, with a goal to eventually add university CubeSat slots to nearly every Atlas and Vulcan launch,” said Tory Bruno, ULA president and CEO. “There is a growing need for universities to have access and availability to launch their CubeSats and this program will transform the way these universities get to space by making space more affordable and accessible.” 
"This is exactly the kind of collaborative innovation that we celebrate in Colorado," said Lt. Gov. Joseph Garcia. “Here, we have a Colorado company giving Colorado students at a Colorado university an unbelievable opportunity to send a satellite into space. What a great day for our state."
Rideshare is a flight-proven, innovative approach that provides customers a low-cost way to achieve various mission objectives without the need for a dedicated launch vehicle. CubeSats are miniaturized satellites originally designed for use in conjunction with university educational projects and are typically 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm (4 inches x 4 inches x 4 inches) and approximately 1.3 kg (3 lbs). 
“Since its inception, ULA has been committed to science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education initiatives and programs such as this help to motivate, educate and develop our next generation of rocket scientists and space entrepreneurs,” said Bruno. “We are making the announcement today with University of Colorado President Bruce Benson and University of Colorado Boulder Chancellor Philip DiStefano, key partners in STEM education, and are pleased to offer the university the first free CubeSat launch slot in 2017.”
"CU-Boulder students have been building and operating small satellites for 20 years, including the Colorado Student Space Weather CubeSat launched on a ULA Atlas rocket in 2012," DiStefano said. "The ability to provide science and engineering students with the opportunity to fly the satellites they build is an invaluable motivational and educational tool. We are thrilled to partner with ULA, a visionary organization that is helping to facilitate a nationwide STEM effort."
Interested universities should email by Dec. 18, 2015 to notify ULA they are interested in participating. In early 2016, ULA will release a request for proposal (RFP) for the first competitive CubeSat launch slots. The selected universities will be announced in August 2016.
In addition, ULA is offering the nation’s universities the chance to help name the new CubeSat program. Universities, educators and students can submit names for consideration to using a campus-issued email address. Submissions are due by Dec.18, 2015. The winning name will be announced early next year, and the institution will receive a free CubeSat launch slot on a future mission. 
As America’s ride to space, ULA has launched 102 missions, including 55 CubeSats, with 100 percent mission success. 
CubeSats are miniaturized satellites originally designed for use in conjunction with university educational projects. ULA is taking CubeSat rideshare to the next level by launching a new, first-of-its-kind program in the commercial industry to allow universities and students to compete for the opportunity to be awarded a free CubeSat launch slot. 
ULA will offer universities the chance to compete for at least six CubeSat launch slots on two Atlas V missions, with a goal to eventually add university CubeSat slots to nearly every Atlas and Vulcan launch.
Since it began operations, ULA has been committed to science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education initiatives. Innovative programs such as this help motivate, educate and develop our next generation of rocket scientists and space entrepreneurs, while making space more affordable and accessible for 100s of rides in the coming years.  
Compete for a CubeSat Launch
The CubeSat launch program will be available to all U.S. accredited colleges and universities. These colleges are encouraged to team with K-12 schools to further expand these opportunities throughout the science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) community.
Interested in receiving the RFP? Email us at 
Are you a K-12 school interested in launch? Learn about submitting a Student Rocket Launch payload.
Competition Timeline
Early 2016: Initial request for proposal (RFP) released
May 2016: Proposals due
August 2016: Award announcement
Frequently Asked Questions
Q) Who can participate?
A) The program will be available to all U.S. accredited colleges and universities. These colleges are encouraged to team with K-12 schools to further expand these opportunities throughout the STEM community.
Q) What is the size of the CubeSat launch slot?
A) The volume is the standard 1U CubeSat at 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm (4” x 4” x 4”) and approximately 1.3 kg (3 lb). 
Q) Does the college or university have to be accredited?
A) Yes, the college or university must be accredited. The college or university also must provide undergraduate degrees; graduate and/or doctorate-only universities are not eligible to participate.
Q) How many free slots are available?
A) Targeted in earlier 2017, a total of six 1U CubeSat launch slots will be offered on two selected Atlas V missions.
Q) What if a group of students want to submit a proposal? Do they have to be from a university or have the backing or support of the university?
A) Yes, students submitting a proposal must be associated with and have support of their college or university. In addition, students are encouraged to gain support from industry and USG programs that provide financial assistance to CubeSat developers.
Q) Can middle and high schools, as well as elementary schools, submit proposals?
A) No, not at this time. Competing colleges and universities are strongly encouraged to partner with local elementary, junior and senior high schools and include students on their teams.  Proposals with local K-12 student participation will be assessed higher under the selection criteria. K-12 teams may be interested in submitting a Student Rocket Launch payload.
Q) Where do the CubeSats ride?
A) The CubeSats will ride in the Aft Bulkhead Carrier (ABC), which is located at the aft-end of the Atlas V Centaur second-stage. 
Q) Can a university be awarded multiple CubeSat launch slots?
A) No, for each RFP process, a university only can receive one award. 
Q) What are the selection criteria?
A) The proposals will be evaluated on quality, feasibility, innovativeness and outreach opportunities. 
Q)  How is ULA's CubeSat initiative different from other CubeSat launch programs?
A) There are a number of U.S. government-sponsored CubeSat programs that provide launch opportunities, including NASA's CubeSat Launch Initiative and the US Air Force's University Nanosat Program.  ULA's CubeSat program complements these efforts. Additionally, ULA's initiative is the first major U.S. launch service provider to move forward with commercially manifesting and launching CubeSats directly onto ULA vehicles.
Quelle: ULA

Tags: Raumfahrt 


Samstag, 21. November 2015 - 17:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - ISRO arbeitet an 4-D, 5-D Bildverarbeitungstechnologie


The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is working on 4-D and 5-D imaging technology.
Disclosing this after inaugurating the 6{+t}{+h}International Conference on Health GIS here on Friday, distinguished scientist and professor at ISRO, A. Sivathanu Pillai said work on 4-D and 5-D imaging technology was part of the space agency’s engagement with “hyperspectral imaging,” which is a new and emerging area in Geographic Information System (GIS).
“Using the satellite, we are trying to process and view the five-dimensional images,” said Dr. Pillai, who is also the former Managing Director of BrahMoS Aerospace, Ministry of Defence.
Pointing out that 4-D and 5-D imaging technology would be coming out in a big way, Dr. Pillai said researchers, doctors and students would soon be able to use the most advanced GIS tool for welfare activities.
He appealed to institutions and others to make use of the valuable spatial data available at ISRO facilities for preventing epidemics and improving healthcare.
Dr. Pillai, who recalled how the images of coconut trees in Kerala, obtained from remote sensing satellites, helped tackle the spread of a viral disease a few decades ago, pointed out that spatial data patterns can be used for public health interventions in a cost-effective manner.
Healthcare and prevention of diseases can be better addressed if all relevant data and analyses are provided in GIS maps through an institutionalised arrangement involving the government agencies.
Vice-Chancellor of JSS University B. Suresh referred to the recent rains in Chennai and said GIS could be used to address a possible outbreak of post-flood epidemic. The breeding space for diseases can be identified through GIS and necessary healthcare measures can be taken.
The theme of the international conference on GIS organised by JSS University in association with Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok and Khon Kean University, Bangkok, is “Geo ICT for Epidemic Control and Healthcare.”
Quelle: The Hindu

Tags: Raumfahrt 5-D Bildverarbeitungstechnologie 


Samstag, 21. November 2015 - 16:40 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Neue IFO-Akten von der CENAP UFO-Meldestelle und Fotoabteilung


2.11.2015 - Saalfeld


Aus Saalfeld meldete sich Frau S.M. gegen 1.32 MEZ, da sie ein grelles Licht am Südosthimmel sehe und welches "Lichtstrahlen" aussende.

Nach kurzer Überprüfung ergab dann auf dem Astro-Programm, es einmal wieder Sirius war, welcher für Verwirrung sorgte:

Astro-Karte vom 2.November gegen 1.33 MEZ:

Frau S.M. war dann vorab informiert und auch darüber das es in klaren Nächten zu dem Funkeln der hellsten Sterne und Planeten kommt und sie gerade Sirius sehe.

Und dennoch kam es Srtunden später zu einem weiteren Anruf gegen 23.35 MEZ, da sie jetzt wieder in der Nähe vom Mond "komische helle Sterne sehen, die sich bei längerem Hinsehen, bewegen würden. Da sie nun nicht so genau die Himmels-Stelle angeben konnte am Telefon, bat ich in der Richtung in welcher die vermeintlichen hellen Sterne wären zu fotografieren, was sie auch machte. Von 15 Fotos waren 3 Aufnahmen dabei welche dann für Überprüfung mit der Astro-Karte OK waren.

Nachfolgend Zeugen-Foto von Frau S.M.:

Aus diesem Foto heraus welches gegen Südost gemacht wurde, ergab sich dann, Frau S.M. die Zwilling-Sterne: Castor (Oben im Bild) und Pollux sah und diese nicht als Sternbild kannte. Weiter wurde auch knapp über dem Horizont dann noch Procyon "ein strahlendes Objekt". Aber auch hier konnten wir dann  helfen und Frau S.M. darüber informieren.

Identifizierung: Sterne Castor, Pollux, Procyon


2.11.2015 - Bütschelegg/Schweiz


Herr C.T. meldete sich bei uns per E-mail mit folgenden Schreiben und Anhang-Fotos:

Sehr geehrter Herr Köhler
Hiermit melde ich Ihnen eine Sichtung eines unbekannten Objektes welches ich erst bei der Analyse der
Aufnahmen bemerkt habe.
Am vergangenen Montag 02.1.2015 habe ich eine Belichtungsreihe bewusst als Gegenlichtaufnahmen
mit Blickrichtung zu den Berner Hochalpen gemacht. Ziel war die Leistungsfähigkeit des neuen
hochauflösenden Bildsensors in Verbindung mit der Software von Canon zur RAW-Bearbeitung zu testen.
Es entstand eine Belichtungsreihe aufgenommen mittels schwerem Stativ. Die schwachen Reflexe habe
ich bewusst in Kauf genommen. Das Objekt steht in keiner logischen Linie zu den Reflexen und bei einer
Vergrösserung von 1000% glaube ich eine schwache flache Kegelform zu erkennen mit einem Lichteinfall
welcher mit dem Sonnenstand korreliert. Diese Tatsachen haben mich bewogen, im Internet nach einer
Meldestelle zu suchen um meine Sichtung zu mitteilen.
Nachfolgend Melder-Fotos:
Da wir neben etwaigen Insekten oder Vögeln den Herbst haben, schlossen wir auch ein zufällig ins Bild geflogenes Baumblatt auch nicht aus und schauten uns den Standort des Fotografen an, welcher im direkten Aufnahmebereich keine Bäume hatte:
Hier ergaben sich beim Standort, dann doch reichhaltigen Baumbestand und so brachte auch der Wetterbericht Windböen zwischen 9-15km/h, welche Baumblätter verwehen können.
Vergleichsaufnahmen aus dem CENAP-Archiv, zeigen dann auch die gleichen Licht-Reflexionen wie auf dem Melder-Foto:
Bei dem direkten Vergleich, kann man gut die "Blattwölbung-Licht und Schatteneffekt" sehen.
Identifizierung: Herbstblatt
6.11.2015 - Stuttgart
Aus Stattgart bekamen wir am 7.11. über das UFO-Meldestelle-Telefon die Nachricht von Herrn K. welcher zusammen mit mehreren Kunden vor seinem Geschäft am frühen Abendhimmel ca. 18 konstant leuchtende weiße Lichter über den Himmel ziehen sah und nun gerne wüsste WAS das war.
Auf Grund der Beschreibung und Flugverhalten der Lichter sehen wir "Stilles Feuerwerk" Heliumballons mit LED-Leuchten als Ursache. Nachfolgend Aufnahme von Stillen Feuerwerk aus dem CENAP-Archiv:

Identifizierung: Stilles Feuerwerk
3.10.2015 - Schleswig
Über unser Meldestelle-Telefon meldete sich Herr J. welcher zusammen mit seiner Frau über mehrere Stunden ein "Grelles Objekt" am sternklaren Himmel beobachteten welches sich zu drehen oder bewegen würde und dabei Strahlen aussenden würde. Auf unsere Frage ob es in der Nähe auffällige Sterne zu sehen gab oder man Sternzeichen welche in der Nähe gewesen wären nennen kann wurde verneint. Nach dem wir die Himmelsrichtung und den Beobachtungswinkel herausgefunden hatten, ergab dann beim Blick auf die Astro-Karte das es sich um Stern Capella gehandelt hat. Nachfolgend die aktuelle Astro-Karte von Beobachtungszeitpunkt:
Identifizierung: Stern Capella
31.10.2015 - Berlin-Tempelhof
Am 2.November bekamen wir nachfolgende E-mail mit Anhangfoto von Frau A.B.:
Schaut man sich das Foto an, sieht man einen relativ kurzen Kondensstreifen welcher von der untergegangenen Sonne angestrahlt wurde. Da diese kurzen Kondensstreifen bei einer Boeing-747 entstehen, überprüften wir nach dem wir die genauere Uhrzeit erfahren hatten die Flugbewegungen über Berlin.
Und wurden dann auch fündig, zu der genannten Uhrzeit befand sich eine Boeing-B-747F-Cargo-Maschiene der Frachtfluglinie  AirBridgeCargo im Überflug von Berlin:
Identifizierung: Boeing-B-747F
31.10.2015 - Großmehring
Am 16.November erreichte und nachfolgende E-mail von Herrn A. aus Großmehring:
ich befand mich am 31.10.2015 in meiner Sternwarte (48° 47' 25" N, 11° 31' 30" O), zusammen mit einer
Freundin. Wir sahen in den Himmel in Blickrichtung Norden. In etwa 30° Elevation aus Richtung NNO
(ebenfalls etwa 30°) tauchte dann ein Objekt auf, welches sich lautlos über uns hinweg bewegte und in
ca. 60° Elevation in Richtung 210° plötzlich nicht mehr zu sehen war. Das Objekt befand sich in etwa
100m bis 200m über uns. Der Überflug dauerte etwa drei bis vier Sekunden, zu schnell also um eine
Kamera zu holen und auszulösen.
Wir sahen uns beide an und fragen uns fast gleichzeitig "hast du das auch gesehen?". Ich fertigte
anschließend mit Hilfe eines Planetarium-Programmes und einem Grafikprogramm eine "Skizze" an,
welche sich auch im Anhang dieser Mail befindet.
Ich habe die Fluglinie in eine Sternkarte und in eine Karte aus Google Maps eingezeichnet. Beides
befindet sich ebenfalls im Anhang der Mail.
Einen Satelliten kann ich ausschließen, da zu dieser Zeit, laut, keiner direkt über uns
geflogen ist. Einen Multicopter (ugs. Drohne) schließe ich ebenfalls aus, da ich selbst solche Fluggeräte
habe und diese auch in 100m Entfernung/Höhe NICHT lautlos sind und auch nich t so schnell fliegen.
Vom Objekt sah man nur drei schwach orange leuchtende punktförmige Lichtquellen, welche jeweils von
einem ebenso orange leuchtenden Ring umgeben waren. Diese drei Punkte befanden sich in einer
Dreieckformation, welche sich langsam zu drehen schien. In der "Skizze" wird diese Formation ebenfalls
Vielleicht haben Sie eine Erklärung für uns!?
Vielen Dank und einen schönen Sonntag.
H. Altmann
Nachfolgend Zeugen-Skizze und Beobachtungort-Karte:
Auf Grund der Angaben und Beantwortung weiterer Detailfragen zur Beobachtung sind wir  sicher durch das Erscheinungsbild es sich hierbei um die "eigentlich unter Flugverbot stehenden Mini-Heißluftballons kurz MHB" gehandelt hat. Die Beschreibung das man nur eine schwache Lichtquelle in der Mitte umgeben von schwachen Lichtkranz bei den drei langsam fliegenden Objekten ausmachte, beschreibt die typische optische Ansicht von Unten auf solche MHBs und da sie kurz vor dem "Verschwinden" sprich Verlöschen waren, ist auch die Leuchtkraft schwach gewesen im Gegensatz zu unseren Vergleichs-Aufnahmen aus dem CENAP-Archiv welche diese typische Erscheinungsweise mit Lichtquelle in der Mitte und einem Leuchtkranz zeigen:
Identifizierung: Mini-Heißluftballons (MHB)
12.11.2015 - Geesthacht/Elbe
Diese E-mail von Frau I.U. erreichte uns am 13.November:
Sehr geehrte Damen und Herren,
bei meinem gestrigen Spaziergang an der Elbe (es war so gegen 15.oo Uhr) machte ich mit meinem
Smartphone diese Aufnahme. Den hellen Fleck mit rotem Rand entdeckte ich erst zu Hause. Darüber ist
auch noch ein grünlicher Schimmer zu erkennen. Vielleicht haben Sie eine Idee, worum es sich dabei
handeln könnte.?
Nachfolgend das Melder-Foto:
Diese Aufnahme welche  gegen die Sonne aufgenommen wurde, zeigt eine typische Linsen-Reflexion der Digital-Kamera. 
Nachfolgend Vergleichs-Aufnahme aus dem CENAP-Archiv von vergleichbarer Reflexion:
Identifizierung: Linsen-Reflexion
CENAP-Mannheim, hjkc

Tags: UFO-Forschung 


Samstag, 21. November 2015 - 11:30 Uhr

Raumfahrt - SpaceX erhielt gerade NASA's OK für Astronauten ins All zu starten


After years of test launches under NASA's watchful eye, Elon Musk's rocket company SpaceX finally got clearance to launch astronauts to the International Space Station.
Only one other company — Boeing — has NASA's permission to do so.
"It's really exciting to see SpaceX and Boeing with hardware in flow for their first crew rotation missions," Kathy Lueders, manager of NASA's Commercial Crew Program, said in a statement.
"It is important to have at least two healthy and robust capabilities from U.S. companies to deliver crew and critical scientific experiments from American soil to the space station throughout its lifespan."
NASA handed SpaceX its first crewed mission order on Friday, clearing the path for the California-based company to regularly ferry astronauts to and from space.
In spite of an explosive launch failure over the summer, it has been an unusually good year for SpaceX. NASA's announcement comes about a month after the company secured two big contracts to launch communications satellites sometime in 2017 or 2018. Musk is also vying for part of the US military's $70 billion spy satellite industry — and SpaceX is currently the only company in the running.
SpaceX will use its Crew Dragon spacecraft to ferry up to seven astronauts per launch. Boeing, meanwhile, is polishing up its CST-100 Starliner spacecraft.
Though Boeing was the first private company to receive a mission order with its CST-100 Starliner back in May, NASA's determination of whether to send astronauts up in the Starliner or Dragon first has not yet been decided.
The first private company-led mission to launch astronauts to the space station is being planned for 2017.
Quelle: techinsider

Tags: Raumfahrt 


Samstag, 21. November 2015 - 11:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - NEW HORIZONS bei Pluto - Update-17



Letzter Mysteriöser Pluto-Mond Kerberos - von New Horizons enthüllt
Kerberos Revealed. This image of Kerberos was created by combining four individual Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) pictures taken on July 14, approximately seven hours before New Horizons’ closest approach to Pluto, at a range of 245,600 miles (396,100 km) from Kerberos. The image was deconvolved to recover the highest possible spatial resolution and oversampled by a factor of eight to reduce pixilation effects. Kerberos appears to have a double-lobed shape, approximately 7.4 miles (12 kilometers) across in its long dimension and 2.8 miles (4.5 kilometers) in its shortest dimension.
Images of Pluto’s tiny moon Kerberos taken by NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft –and just sent back to Earth this week – complete the family portrait of Pluto’s moons.
Kerberos appears to be smaller than scientists expected and has a highly-reflective surface, counter to predictions prior to the Pluto flyby in July. “Once again, the Pluto system has surprised us,” said New Horizons Project Scientist Hal Weaver, of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland.
The new data, downlinked from the New Horizons spacecraft on Oct. 20, show that Kerberos appears to have a double-lobed shape, with the larger lobe approximately 5 miles (8 kilometers) across and the smaller lobe approximately 3 miles (5 kilometers) across. Science team members speculate from its unusual shape that Kerberos could have been formed by the merger of two smaller objects. The reflectivity of Kerberos’ surface is similar to that of Pluto’s other small moons (approximately 50 percent) and strongly suggests Kerberos, like the others, is coated with relatively clean water ice.
Before the New Horizons encounter with Pluto, researchers had used Hubble Space Telescope images to “weigh” Kerberos by measuring its gravitational influence on its neighboring moons.  That influence was surprisingly strong, considering how faint Kerberos was. They theorized that Kerberos was relatively large and massive, appearing faint only because its surface was covered in dark material. But the small, bright-surfaced Kerberos--now revealed in these new images--shows that the idea was incorrect, for reasons that are not yet understood. 
“Our predictions were nearly spot-on for the other small moons, but not for Kerberos,” said New Horizons co-investigator Mark Showalter, of the SETI Institute in Mountain View, California. The new results are expected to lead to a better understanding of Pluto’s fascinating satellite system.
Family Portrait of Pluto’s Moons: This composite image shows a sliver of Pluto’s large moon, Charon, and all four of Pluto’s small moons, as resolved by the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on the New Horizons spacecraft. All the moons are displayed with a common intensity stretch and spatial scale (see scale bar). Charon is by far the largest of Pluto’s moons, with a diameter of 751 miles (1,212 kilometers). Nix and Hydra have comparable sizes, approximately 25 miles (40 kilometers) across in their longest dimension above. Kerberos and Styx are much smaller and have comparable sizes, roughly 6-7 miles (10-12 kilometers) across in their longest dimension. All four small moons have highly elongated shapes, a characteristic thought to be typical of small bodies in the Kuiper Belt.
Quelle: NASA

Pluto in 3-D

Global stereo mapping of Pluto’s surface is now possible, as images taken from multiple directions are downlinked from NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft. Stereo images will eventually provide an accurate topographic map of most of the hemisphere of Pluto seen by New Horizons during the July 14 flyby, which will be key to understanding Pluto’s geological history.
This example, which requires red/blue stereo glasses for viewing, shows a region 180 miles (300 kilometers) across, centered near longitude 130 E, latitude 20 N (the red square in the global context image). North is to the upper left. The image shows an ancient, heavily cratered region of Pluto, dotted with low hills and cut by deep fractures indicating extension of Pluto’s crust.
Analysis of these stereo images shows that the steep fracture in the upper left of the image is about 1 mile (1.6 kilometers) deep, and the craters in the lower right part of the image are up to 1.3 miles (2.1 km) deep. Smallest visible details are about 0.4 miles (0.6 kilometers) across.
Quelle: NASA
Update: 30.10.2015

The Youngest Crater on Charon?

This composite image is based on observations from the New Horizons Ralph/LEISA instrument made at 10:25 UT (6:25 a.m. EDT) on July 14, 2015, when New Horizons was 50,000 miles (81,000 kilometers) from Charon. The spatial resolution is 3 miles (5 kilometers) per pixel. The LEISA data were downlinked Oct. 1-4, 2015, and processed into a map of Charon’s 2.2 micron ammonia-ice absorption band. Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) panchromatic images used as the background in this composite were taken about 8:33 UT (4:33 a.m. EDT) July 14 at a resolution of 0.6 miles (0.9 kilometers) per pixel and downlinked Oct. 5-6. The ammonia absorption map from LEISA is shown in green on the LORRI image. The region covered by the yellow box is 174 miles across (280 kilometers).
New Horizons scientists have discovered a striking contrast between one of the fresh craters on Pluto’s largest moon Charon and a neighboring crater dotting the moon’s Pluto-facing hemisphere.
The crater, informally named Organa, caught scientists’ attention as they were studying New Horizons’ highest-resolution infrared compositional scan of Charon. Organa and portions of the surrounding material ejected from it show infrared absorption at wavelengths of about 2.2 microns, indicating that the crater is rich in frozen ammonia – and, from what scientists have seen so far, unique on Pluto’s largest moon. The infrared spectrum of nearby Skywalker crater, for example, is similar to the rest of Charon's craters and surface, with features dominated by ordinary water ice.
Using telescopes, scientists first observed ammonia absorption on Charon in 2000, but the concentrations of ammonia around this crater are unprecedented.
"Why are these two similar-looking and similar-sized craters, so near to each other, so compositionally distinct?" asked Will Grundy, New Horizons Composition team lead from Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona. "We have various ideas when it comes to the ammonia in Organa. The crater could be younger, or perhaps the impact that created it hit a pocket of ammonia-rich subsurface ice. Alternatively, maybe Organa’s impactor delivered its own ammonia."
Both craters are about the same size – roughly 5 kilometers [3 miles] in diameter – with similar appearances, including bright wisps or rays of ejected material, or ejecta. One apparent difference is that Organa has a central region of darker ejecta, though from the map created with data from New Horizons’ Ralph/LEISA instrument, it appears that the ammonia-rich material extends beyond this dark area.
“This is a fantastic discovery,” said Bill McKinnon, deputy lead for the New Horizons Geology, Geophysics and Imaging team from Washington University in St. Louis. “Concentrated ammonia is a powerful antifreeze on icy worlds, and if the ammonia really is from Charon’s interior, it could help explain the formation of Charon’s surface by cryovolcanism, via the eruption of cold, ammonia-water magmas.”
Quelle: NASA
Plutos Sichel schimmert in neue NASA-Foto
A new NASA picture of Pluto shows the dwarf planet as a thin crescent enveloped in a film of haze.
The photo, released Thursday, was taken by NASA's New Horizons spacecraft just 15 minutes after the spacecraft made its closest pass by Pluto in July 2015, the space agency said. The photo is a more complete version of a partial image of Pluto's crescent released earlier this year.
"The wide-angle perspective of this view shows the deep haze layers of Pluto's atmosphere extending all the way around Pluto, revealing the silhouetted profiles of rugged plateaus on the night (left) side. The shadow of Pluto cast on its atmospheric hazes can also be seen at the uppermost part of the disk," NASA said in a statement.
For scientists, there's a lot to ogle over in the high-resolution image.
The peaks of some of the dwarf planet's giant ice mountains can also be seen in the image on the sunlit side, NASA said, and the photo also shows stars — which look like bright, thin lines — in the black sky behind the small world captured as New Horizons sped past.
New Horizons is now making its way deeper into the Kuiper Belt — the area of space where Pluto sits. The spacecraft has successfully performed three of four maneuvers to get it on a course to meet up with another target in that part of space by 2019.
If NASA chooses to extend New Horizons' mission, the probe should meet up with the small body called 2014 MU69 by 2019, beaming back images of the world as it flies by.
Quelle: Mashable
Update: 9.11.2015

At Pluto, New Horizons Finds Geology of All Ages, Possible Ice Volcanoes, Insight into Planetary Origins

From possible ice volcanoes to geologically diverse surfaces to oddly behaving moons that could have formed through mergers of smaller moons, Pluto system discoveries continue to surprise scientists on NASA’s New Horizons mission team.
“The New Horizons mission has taken what we thought we knew about Pluto and turned it upside down,” said Jim Green, director of planetary science at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “It’s why we explore – to satisfy our innate curiosity and answer deeper questions about how we got here and what lies beyond the next horizon.”
Ice Volcanoes on Pluto?
Release Date: November 9, 2015
Keywords: LORRI, Pluto
The informally named feature Wright Mons, located south of Sputnik Planum on Pluto, is an unusual feature that's about 100 miles (160 kilometers) wide and 13,000 feet (4 kilometers) high. It displays a summit depression (visible in the center of the image) that's approximately 35 miles (56 kilometers) across, with a distinctive hummocky texture on its sides. The rim of the summit depression also shows concentric fracturing. New Horizons scientists believe that this mountain and another, Piccard Mons, could have been formed by the 'cryovolcanic' eruption of ices from beneath Pluto's surface. 
The New Horizons team is discussing numerous findings at the 47th Annual Meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) this week in National Harbor, Maryland. Just four months after the spacecraft encountered Pluto, science team members are presenting more than 50 reports on exciting discoveries.
“It’s hard to imagine how rapidly our view of Pluto and its moons are evolving as new data stream in each week. As the discoveries pour in from those data, Pluto is becoming a star of the solar system,” said mission Principal Investigator Alan Stern of the Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, Colorado. “Moreover, I’d wager that for most planetary scientists, any one or two of our latest major findings on one world would be considered astounding. To have them all is simply incredible.”
In one such discovery, New Horizons geologists have combined images of Pluto’s surface to make 3-D maps that indicate that two of Pluto’s most distinctive mountains could be cryovolcanoes—ice volcanoes that may have been active in the recent geological past.
The two cryovolcano candidates are large features measuring tens of miles (tens of kilometers) across and several miles or kilometers high. “These are big mountains with a large hole in their summit, and on Earth that generally means one thing—a volcano,” said Oliver White, New Horizons postdoctoral researcher with NASA’s Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. While their appearance is similar to volcanoes on Earth that spew molten rock, ice volcanoes on Pluto are expected to emit a somewhat melted slurry of substances such as water ice, nitrogen, ammonia, or methane on Pluto.
White stresses that the team’s interpretation of these features as volcanoes is tentative. However, “If they are volcanic, then the summit depression would likely have formed via collapse as material is erupted from underneath. The strange hummocky texture of the mountain flanks may represent volcanic flows of some sort that have travelled down from the summit region and onto the plains beyond, but why they are hummocky, and what they are made of, we don't yet know.”  
If Pluto is proven to have volcanoes, it will provide an important new clue to its geologic and atmospheric evolution. “After all, nothing like this has been seen in the deep outer solar system,” said Jeffrey Moore, New Horizons Geology, Geophysics and Imaging team leader, also from NASA Ames. 
Ice Volcanoes and Topography
Release Date: November 9, 2015
Keywords: LORRI, Pluto, Ralph
Scientists using New Horizons images of Pluto's surface to make 3-D topographic maps have discovered that two of Pluto’s mountains, informally named Wright Mons and Piccard Mons, could possibly be ice volcanoes. The color is shown to depict changes in elevation, with blue indicating lower terrain and brown showing higher elevation; green terrains are at intermediate heights. 
Pluto’s Long History of Geologic Activity
Another of the more surprising findings from New Horizons is the wide range of surface ages found on Pluto, from ancient to intermediate to relatively young in geological terms. Crater counts used to determine surface unit ages indicate that Pluto has ancient surface areas dating to just after the formation of the planets, about 4 billion years ago. In addition, there’s a vast area that was geologically born “yesterday,” meaning it may have formed within the past 10 million years. This area – informally named Sputnik Planum – appears on the left side of Pluto’s “heart” and is completely impact-free in all images returned to date.
Scientists wondered if Sputnik Planum’s smooth, icy plains were an oddity; did a recent geological episode form the plains long after all other geologic activity ceased?Apparently not. New data from crater counts reveal the presence of intermediate or “middle-aged” terrains on Pluto as well. This suggests that Sputnik Planum is not an anomaly—that Pluto has been geologically active throughout much of its more than 4-billion-year history. “We’ve mapped more than a thousand craters, which vary greatly in size and appearance,” said postdoctoral researcher Kelsi Singer, of the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in Boulder, Colorado. “Among other things, I expect cratering studies like these to give us important new insights into how this part of the solar system formed.”
Craters of All Ages and Sizes
Release Date: November 9, 2015
Keywords: LORRI, Pluto
Locations of more than 1,000 craters mapped on Pluto by NASA's New Horizons mission indicate a wide range of surface ages, which likely means that Pluto has been geologically active throughout its history. 
Building Blocks of the Solar System
Crater counts are giving the New Horizons team insight into the structure of the Kuiper Belt itself. The dearth of smaller craters across Pluto and its large moon Charon indicate that the Kuiper Belt likely had fewer smaller objects than some models had predicted. This leads New Horizons scientists to doubt a longstanding model that all Kuiper Belt objects formed by accumulating much smaller objects of less than a mile wide. The absence of small craters on Pluto and Charon support other models theorizing that Kuiper Belt objects tens of miles across may have formed directly, at their current—or close to current—size.    
In fact, the evidence that many Kuiper Belt objects could have been “born large” has scientists excited that New Horizons’ next potential target – the 30-mile-wide (40-50 kilometer wide) KBO named 2014 MU69 – which may offer the first detailed look at just such a pristine, ancient building block of the solar system.
Spinning, Merged Moons
The New Horizons mission is also shedding new light on Pluto’s fascinating system of moons and their unusual properties. For example, nearly every other moon in the solar system, including Earth’s moon, is in synchronous rotation, but not so of Pluto’s small moons. These small satellites are spinning much faster, with Hydra – the most distant moon - rotating an unprecedented 89 times during a single lap around Pluto. Scientists believe these spin rates could be chaotic (i.e., variable) because Charon exerts a strong torque that prevents each small moon from settling down into synchronous rotation, which means keeping one face toward the planet.
Another oddity of Pluto’s moons: scientists expected the satellites to wobble, but not to this degree. “Pluto’s moons are behaving like spinning tops,” said co-investigator Mark Showalter of the SETI Institute in Mountain View, California.
Images of Pluto’s four smallest satellites also indicate that several of them could have been born from mergers of two or more former moons, suggesting the presence of more moons at some point. “We suspect from this that Pluto had more moons in the past, in the aftermath of the big impact that also created Charon,” said Showalter.
New Horizons data indicates that at least two (and possibly all four) of Pluto’s small moons may be the result of mergers between still smaller moons. If this discovery is borne out with further analysis, it could provide important new clues to the formation of the Pluto system.
Pluto’s Frigid, Extended Atmosphere
The New Horizons team is presenting new data at DPS that reveal Pluto’s upper atmosphere is significantly colder and therefore more compact than Earth-based models had indicated. As a result, scientists have discovered that Pluto’s atmospheric escape rate is thousands of times lower than had been thought. It now appears that Pluto’s atmosphere escapes by the same mechanism as do gases from the atmospheres of Earth and Mars – rather than the previously believed escape process that more resembled escape from cometary atmospheres.
New Horizons is part of NASA's New Frontiers Program, managed by the agency's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland, designed, built, and operates the New Horizons spacecraft and manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. The Southwest Research Institute leads the science mission, payload operations, and encounter science planning.
Quelle: NASA
Update: 13.11.2015

Psychedelic Pluto

New Horizons scientists made this false color image of Pluto using a technique called principal component analysis to highlight the many subtle color differences between Pluto's distinct regions. The image data were collected by the spacecraft’s Ralph/MVIC color camera on July 14 at 11:11 AM UTC, from a range of 22,000 miles (35,000 kilometers). This image was presented by Will Grundy of the New Horizons’ surface composition team on Nov. 9 at the Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) meeting of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) in National Harbor, Maryland.
Quelle: NASA
Update: 21.11.2015

This Is What a Day on Pluto and Charon Looks Like

On approach in July 2015, the cameras on NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft captured Pluto rotating over the course of a full “Pluto day.” The best available images of each side of Pluto taken during approach have been combined to create this view of a full rotation. NASA/JHUAPL/SWRI
Although the NASA New Horizons mission’s close encounter with the Pluto system lasted a matter of hours, the probe was still able to image a full “day” on Pluto and largest moon Charon.
Both Pluto and Charon are a tidally locked system — i.e. the same hemisphere of Charon always faces the same hemisphere of Pluto — so their days span the same amount of time. One rotation of the Pluto-Charon system is 6.4 Earth-days long, so as New Horizons began its approach, it was already taking photos.
The flyby would only reveal one side of Pluto and Charon, but as shown in these sequences, the probe started taking observations long before point of closest approach, allowing us a glimpse — albeit a blurry glimpse — of the “binary planet’s” far side.
New Horizons used its Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) and Ralph/Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera to capture observations from 5 million miles (8 million kilometers) distant on July 7 to 400,000 miles (645,000 kilometers) on July 13. Closest approach occurred on July 14, when the mission came within 7,800 miles (12,500 kilometers) of the dwarf planet’s surface. But in the lead-up to close approach, New Horizons was able to see an entire day in the Pluto-Charon system.
Most striking are the peculiar cluster of (what appear to be) impact craters on the “far side” of Pluto (the images shown at the 10 o’clock to 2 o’clock positions). These features were quickly sighted as New Horizons began its dive into the Pluto system, but mission scientists knew that this would be the best view they’d get of the small world’s far side.
The rest of the mission’s imagery would be filled with the vast dynamic plains and frozen mountain ranges we are becoming intimately familiar with in the months since flyby. The observation in the 6 o’clock position is what is known as the mission’s “encounter hemisphere”, showcasing Pluto’s now-famous “heart” — informally known as Tombaugh Regio.
On approach to the Pluto system in July 2015, the cameras on NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft captured images of the largest of Pluto’s five moons, Charon, rotating over the course of a full day. The best currently available images of each side of Charon taken during approach have been combined to create this view of a full rotation of the moon.
As for Charon, its surface contrasts greatly with the variations visible on Pluto’s surface. In this sequence of images, Charon’s “encounter hemisphere” is showcased at the 12 o’clock position. The most distant image of the moon’s far side is at the 9 o’clock position.
Quelle: D-News

Tags: Raumfahrt 


Weitere 10 Nachrichten nachladen...