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Sonntag, 23. Februar 2014 - 22:26 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Mysteriöse Wolke (DE-mystifiziert): durch Delta-IV-Start

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MYSTERY CLOUD (DE-MYSTIFIED): On the night of Feb. 20/21, photographer Dennis Mammana was stationed on Pedro Dome near Fairbanks, Alaska, in hopes of recording the Northern Lights. "I caught this instead—a tiny and bright cloud that rose from the western sky and spread slightly and faded over an hour or so," says Mammana. Here is a composite of two of his shots:

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The cloud resembles a rocket fuel dump. Scientists from the University of Alaska frequently launch rockets from the nearby Poker Flat Research Range to study auroras. But on this night there were no rocket launches on Poker Flat.

Update: There was, however, a launch thousands of miles away. A Delta 4 rocket blasted off from Cape Canaveral carrying a GPS satellite.

Veteran satellite watcher Marco Langbroek of the Netherlands says this is it: "The mystery object on the Mammana photo is a fuel vent from the Feb 20 launch of GPS 2F-05 (USA 248, 20114-008A, #39533)."

"Although the satellite is in an orbit with a 54.98 degree inclination, that does not mean it was not visible from Mammana's location at 65N," he continues. "It is in a very high orbit and was at an altitude of over 20,000 km at the time of the photo. At such an altitude it is visible from 65 N, low in the west in this case."

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A sky map prepared by Langbroek shows the position of the satellite (labeled "Object A") in the sky above Alaska when Mammana saw the cloud. The sky map and the photo are a good match.

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Update #2: Another sighting of the cloud has been reported, by David Cartier, Sr. located 30 km. east of Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada.

Taken from near Whitehorse , Yukon on the night of Feb. 20,
while doing Astronomy ... It appeared like a small naked eye Orion Nebula, but rocket fuel dump immediately came to mind, as it was similar to something I saw 25 yrs. ago, which turned out to be fuel venting from a Soviet Spy satellite launch ( Kopsmos 1833 from Baikonur, Kazakhstan.
When I first saw this it was centered over Almach (Gamma Andromedae), giving it a comet-like experience, but was obviously in rather low Earth orbit since the stars moved rather rapidly behind it.
I initially suspected a small weird patch of isolated Aurora, bt photography quickly disproved this theory.
WHAT was THIS ????

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Quelle: Spaceweather


2644 Views

Sonntag, 23. Februar 2014 - 19:10 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Virgin Galactic - Space flight 'ready this year'

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UK businessman Sir Richard Branson has reiterated his claim that the first Virgin Galactic flight into space will take place later this year.

The launch date for the much-delayed project has been put back repeatedly from the original 2007 forecast, but the Virgin entrepreneur has confirmed he will fly with his children on the inaugural flight later in 2014.

Celebrities including Hollywood actors Tom Hanks and Angelina Jolie have apparently reserved spaces to become space tourists, with tickets costing six figures and including brief periods of weightlessness during the two-hour trip to 100km above the Earth.

Branson says in an interview with the Guardian that the first unmanned test flight will take place soon.

The inaugural flight - due later this year - will be televised live by American broadcaster NBC.

'Without a doubt, Sir Richard and his children taking the first commercial flight into space will go down in history as one of the most memorable events on television,' NBC said in a statement to the newspaper.

Last month Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo made its third rocket-powered supersonic flight in the Mojave Desert, soaring to a record 21,600 metres.

The company says the reusable space vehicle was carried by aeroplane to 14,000 metres the day before, and then released.

The craft used its rocket motor the rest of the way to reach its highest altitude to date. SpaceShipTwo and its two-member crew then glided to a safe landing in the desert north of Los Angeles.

Virgin Galactic says the 10-minute test flight moves the company closer to its goal of flying paying passengers into space.

No date has been set for the first commercial flight but hundreds of would-be tourists have made down payments of more than STG125,000 ($A232,000) for the chance to fly.

Virgin Galactic is owned by Branson's Virgin Group and Abu Dhabi's Aabar Investments PJS.

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Quelle: Sky-News

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Branson: the man who fell to earth

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So much depended on Virgin Galactic – not just the brand and the finances of Virgin but also Richard Branson’s credibility. Ever since the entrepreneur had bought into the space business in 2004, he had used the rocket to promote the Virgin brand.

Originally, Branson had committed himself to starting commercial space flights in 2007 with a rocket that would blast into space with six passengers.

“My gut feeling,” he explained, “was that we would get millions and millions of dollars of [free] publicity around the world by being the first people to take tourists into space.”

Branson had been trying to shift the focus of Virgin’s expansion from Britain to America, but so far a commercial breakthrough had eluded him.

Staging stunts for free publicity had been Branson’s prime weapon over the previous 30 years but his flamboyant feats in America – for Virgin Cola and Virgin Mobile – had barely registered. And after the September 11, 2001 attacks, and without being able to afford a multi­million-dollar advertising budget, Virgin Atlantic was also struggling.

Virgin Galactic, Branson hoped, would change everything, glorifying the corporation’s image.

For three years, he touted $US200,000 tickets to the super-rich, eager to experience four minutes of weightlessness and a glimpse of the globe before tilting back towards Earth.

Death in the desert

But there were delays. And in July 2007, there was a terrible and fatal explosion during an experiment at the project’s test site in the Mojave desert. Three rocket engineers who had been watching the test were killed.

To mask the technical problems, which continued to bug and delay the Virgin Galactic dream, Branson staged events to signal the imminence of take-off.

Usually, he hosted a celebration. Most were successful, but his party on December 7, 2009, in California was peculiarly timed.

Gusts of cold wind were blowing across the dark Mojave desert into the faces of 400 people waiting to see the twin-fuselaged plane WhiteKnightTwo trundle along the runway, with the rocket, SpaceShipTwo hanging underneath.

To shelter from the howling winds, the guests squeezed into a silver marquee.

The majority were journalists, but ­scattered among the crowd were prospective passengers.

Standing at the front was Branson. Peering into the darkness, he wanted to share the first public glimpse of the rocket – or the VSS Enterprise, as it was named – suspended beneath the catamaran-type plane.

The ceremony was carefully choreographed. Purple lasers and the booming soundtrack from Close Encounters of the Third Kind flashed and rolled across the runway.

California Governor Arnold Schwarze­negger was standing beside Branson as the guest of honour.

“Chuck Yeager broke the sound barrier right here,” Schwarzenegger reminded his audience. Branson enjoyed the governor’s allusion to The Right Stuff heroes.

Thanking an “astronaut” for a mock ray gun, he encouraged everyone to drink Vodka martinis at the Absolut ice bar – a free promotion organised by Virgin’s publicists.

“Isn’t that the sexiest spaceship ever?” Branson cried out, as the plane appeared, crawling towards the marquee. “This is a truly momentous day,” continued Branson. “The team has created not only a world first, but also a work of art.”

Grandiose vision

Branson’s magic conjured for his guests a grandiose vision. Within a decade, competing spaceship companies would be shuttling into space from spaceports dotted across the globe. With unhesitating certainty, he described rockets flying passengers in 2019 from Los Angeles to Australia and on to the Middle East.

No fewer than 50,000 people, he promised, would be flown by Virgin during the first decade. Prices would be low and Virgin would be safer than the American space agency NASA.

Even his disclosure that his 92-year-old father and 85-year-old mother would accompany him on the first flight caused no surprise. He was the master of projecting total credibility.

Branson was acutely sensitive about the effect of his words on his audience. Although he often mumbled and looked downwards, his eyes rose at appropriate moments to judge his performance. His hesitations were interpreted charitably. Despite the unusual secrecy imposed upon the venture, no one showed any doubts about the inevitable eventual triumph of his project, which so far had cost $US400 million.

“There is this pent-up demand for access to space,” Virgin’s media-relations supremo Will Whitehorn chipped in during one of his employer’s pauses.

Virgin had collected $US42 million from about 300 people, Whitehorn said, including $US4 million within the last few months. Just weeks earlier, Virgin publicists had said that 430 aspiring astronauts had signed up.

The numbers do not appear to have been independently verified, and none of the hand-picked guests embarrassed Whitehorn by countering that Virgin’s income was insignificant compared to the billions of ­dollars NASA had offered other private operators for flights to the International Space Station.

(The agency, in a bid to reduce costs, was encouraging American entrepreneurs to develop cheap rockets to place satellites in orbit and to deliver payloads and people to the station. Profits would depend on building a reusable rocket or capsule, so space travel would resemble journeys by conventional aircraft; they would repeatedly take off, fly, and land back on a runway.)

To seal Virgin’s credibility, a publicist read the roll call of those who had signed up – by then a familiar list including Victoria Principal, the former Dallas star, Professor Stephen Hawking and James Lovelock, the 90-year-old environmentalist who had been promised a ride on the inaugural flight.

Although Lovelock preached a doom-laden warning that the world’s growing population was creating excessive carbon dioxide, he had spoken emotionally five months earlier about his anticipation of gazing down on “my first love Gaia, our blue planet, later this year”.

Lovelock had no reason to doubt ­Branson’s timetable for take-off. At the beginning of 2009, Whitehorn had told Flight International, “We are optimistic that we will be flying into space with passengers by the end of the year.”

Months later, Whitehorn was un­ashamed that his confident prediction remained unfulfilled.

He even repeated his unequivocal description: “It’s a trip of a lifetime. Reserve your place in space now. Travelling at over four times the speed of sound to a distance of around 360,000 feet above the Earth’s surface, experience weightlessness and enjoy the breathtaking view.”

Misplaced confidence

Whitehorn and Branson should have known that their confidence was misplaced; Branson’s guests could not imagine the problems troubling Virgin’s designers as they battled difficulties including how to develop a bigger reusable rocket motor. Above all, firing the motor at full thrust for one minute had so far proved to be impossible.

But aspiration rather than certainty had attracted many invited to Mojave, including Governor Bill Richardson of New Mexico. The politician’s trust in Branson had so far cost the state $US203 million in building America’s first spaceport.

The justification, said Richardson, was the guaranteed $US150 million income for New Mexico. Virgin’s version disputed that certainty: although the company had, at the end of 2008, signed a 20-year lease for using the spaceport, the terms allowed Branson to escape any commitment at the cost of a minuscule penalty.

Another guest at the party represented Aabar Investments of Abu Dhabi. Principally owned by the emirate’s government and controlled by Sheikh Mansour bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Aabar owned stakes in major German and Swiss industries and Manchester City Football Club.

Branson had visited the Gulf on many occasions to seek finance for Virgin’s projects, and in 2008 had despatched Virgin’s financial chief Stephen Murphy to elicit an investment in Virgin Galactic.

Murphy pitched a scenario of Abu Dhabi enhanced by a spaceport, a facility to launch satellites, an Earth Observation Space Centre and a technical college. At the end of July 2009, Aabar bought a 32 per cent stake in Virgin Galactic for $US280 million.

Five months later, WhiteKnightTwo, with VSS Enterprise suspended underneath, was rolling down the runway.“When I saw it,” Branson beamed later, “I was as near to being reduced to tears as is possible without actually crying.”

Moved by that confession, one journalist would ascribe those words to “Virgin’s gleaming entrepreneur, Richard Branson”. Branson’s credibility was enhanced by the announcement that Virgin had ordered five SpaceShipTwos and three WhiteKnightTwo mother ships.

“Virgin Galactic is the world’s first commercial spaceline,” Branson exclaimed.

“When will you do the first trip into space?” he was asked on Sky TV. “2011,” he replied with certainty. Virgin’s publicists later quietly explained to the interviewer, “Richard really meant 2012. That’s more likely.”

Three months later, Reuters headlined a dispatch from Los Angeles, “Virgin Galactic Almost Ready for Space Tourists”. Shortly after, the news agency reported the “first flight” of VSS Enterprise, the “spaceship”.

In reality, WhiteKnightTwo had taken off for a three-hour flight around Mojave with the spaceship strapped underneath, and then returned to the spaceport.

Balancing act

Outbursts of confidence had become necess­ary to balance the successes recorded by Branson’s competitors. XCOR, a small neighbouring space-flight outfit in Mojave, had announced a $US28 million contract with a South Korean company to take passengers and cargo into space.

More importantly, SpaceX, owned by Elon Musk, the inventor of PayPal, had launched a Dragon spacecraft from a Falcon 9. After orbiting the globe, the rocket was recovered from the Pacific. SpaceX’s safe return triggered Musk’s negotiations with NASA for a $US1.6 billion contract to shuttle 12 payloads to the International Space ­Station. In the future, he hoped to ferry ­astronauts to the orbiting station for $US20 million a trip, compared to the $US65 million charged by the Russians.

Unlike Virgin Galactic’s sub-orbital tourism, Musk’s venture was a serious orbital business replacing wasteful government spending. Even Branson understood the distinction between Musk and himself.

“Now I know what $1 billion looks like going up in smoke,” he had texted after watching the launch of a NASA rocket from Cape Kennedy.

To prove Virgin Galactic’s commercial credibility, Branson needed NASA’s imprim­atur. In late 2010, NASA distributed about $US270 million between Boeing, SpaceX, Sierra Nevada and Blue Origin – the four principal non-governmental space contractors. Virgin was not included. An emissary was despatched to extract a morsel and returned with a booking to fly a payload on SpaceShipTwo for $US4.5 million.

The gesture was announced by Virgin and embellished with legends about Branson’s past. Branson no longer regarded reminiscences to journalists about his remarkable career as a journey around his memory. Rather, his narrative had become a tool to project the brand.

The businessman coloured his story to refashion his image and justify his investments, not least in Virgin Galactic.

“It’s just like launching Virgin Atlantic,” he explained to a journalist comparing his journey into space with his love for new adventures. “I had a record company and I went to my partner and said, ‘I’m fed up flying on those awful airlines’ and listed the bad food, unsmiling crews, no entertainment and ‘horrible’ lighting. I said, ‘I want to buy a second-hand 747 and start an airline’.”

His stories were rarely consistent. The demeanour was hesitant, but his control never slipped.

A year later, he told another interviewer that Virgin Records “wasn’t focused on making money, but on an urge to do something new. I only tried to make money to pay bills.”

In truth, Virgin Records was created by Branson, his cousin and a group of friends, and they did enrich themselves. As some of his friends and employees discovered to their cost, their contribution was ultimately ignored by Branson.

Mother of invention

Warming to his theme, Branson presented another version of Virgin Atlantic’s invention to a Forbes interviewer. “The idea for Virgin Airways came when he got bumped from an American Airlines flight,” reported the magazine. “He was already wealthy so he went back to the UK, called up Boeing, and told them he’d like to buy a 747.”

He was asked, “What did you say your company’s name was again?” “Virgin,” he repeated. There was a pause. “Well, with a name like that, we certainly hope you plan to have this new enterprise go all the way,” the Boeing rep quipped.

The pay-off line in the Forbes article was: “Today he runs 300 different companies and he says he employs 60,000 people.”

Branson’s genius was his convincing performance. The story had gained something in the telling, as the idea for Virgin Atlantic was offered out of the blue to Branson by Randolph Fields, an American lawyer.

Branson snapped up the idea, so long as Fields did much of the preparatory work, including organising the lease and finance for a second-hand Boeing 707 – not a 747.

As an equal partner, Branson added important tweaks and organised a spectacular launch, including a vicious campaign against British Airways.

His second offensive was against Fields who, after being squeezed to accept a minority shareholding, accused Branson of double­-crossing him to get total ownership of the airline. Branson repeatedly delayed signing a partnership agreement with Fields, who complained that Branson’s aggressive negotiation tactics were overwhelming. Branson denied Fields’s complaint, his manner simply disarming all but the most resilient complainants.

Performing as the genial English toff while promoting Virgin in America was a sturdy shield. Sceptics were appeased by Branson’s self-deprecation, mumbled politeness, diligence and unostentatious clothing. If all else failed, he deflected his vulnerability by hosting meetings on his houseboat moored in central London.

Boy’s Own folly

As a result, nothing critical was published in America, other than equating Virgin Galactic with a billionaire’s Boy’s Own folly.

And one occurred as Branson stood with Governor Richardson in Las Cruces in New Mexico in October 2010 as they watched another test. It stemmed from a report published in Geophysical Research Letters describing the environmental damage caused by Virgin Galactic.

For years Branson had asserted that space travel was “very environmentally friendly. The carbon cost of us putting someone into space will be about 30 per cent less than flying to London and back on a commercial plane”.

He added, “By launching in air, you save a lot of carbon from the ground blastoff.”

Martin Ross of the Aerospace Corporation described the opposite. Virgin Galactic’s fuel (nitrous oxide pumped into a tank lined with rubber and ignited, the burning rubber creating high pressure for propulsion), he wrote, caused more damage than conventional rockets.

The rubber particles that flew out of the hybrid motor during the flight would remain in the atmosphere for 10 years and cause the temperature of the Earth’s surface to increase.

By contrast, conventional rockets, burning hydrogen and oxygen, shed only debris on take-off, which fell to the Earth.

Whitehorn’s skill was to suffocate any comments about damage and delays by orchestrating a stream of good news from Los Angeles. Virgin, his publicity team announced, would be opening “up to 25 hotels within seven years” in America’s gateway cities; actor Robert Pattinson would be portraying Branson in a Hollywood biopic; Branson was producing his own Hollywood film about Christopher Columbus; and ­Virgin – via another project, Virgin Oceanic – would beat Titanic and Avatar director James Cameron in a record-breaking ­submarine dive to the bottom of the Pacific Ocean.

On the morning of April 11, 2011, even Branson’s critics were struck by a remarkable photograph. Against the backdrop of San Francisco’s Golden Gate bridge, a Virgin America Airbus was flying alongside WhiteKnightTwo with VSS Enterprise strapped beneath. The beautiful image of invincible Virgin – in both business and exploration – zoomed around the globe.

At midday, both aircraft were parked on the tarmac outside Terminal Two at San Francisco Airport. Some 600 guests, led by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, were celebrating the opening of the refurbished building, which would be used by Virgin America. Among those mingling with the local celebrities were Virgin Galactic’s pilots – and Buzz Aldrin, the second person to walk on the moon. Even in Branson’s publicity lexicon, this was a moment to shine.

Virgin, he said, was trailblazing in space and as an airline. But just as important, Virgin was a leading campaigner for the envir­onment. He was proud that together with Governor Schwarzenegger, he had stipulated that Terminal Two should be rebuilt to the highest environmental standards.

Virgin also cared for the poor. Virgin Unite and Galactic Unite, he said, would encourage underprivileged Californian children, helped by Virgin America pilots, to pursue careers in space exploration and aviation. “I hope 18 months from now, we’ll be sitting in our spaceship and heading off into space.”

Serious mishap

Cheers and clapping punctuated each statement. Not mentioned by Branson was a serious mishap during an unpowered flight by SpaceShipTwo in May. The rocket, reported Space Safety magazine, had stalled and, according to people watching from the ground, “dropped like a rock and went straight down” until the crew regained control.

“The tail stall was a nail-biter,” said an eyewitness.

Although George Whitesides, Virgin Galactic’s chief executive, dismissed the scare as consistent with any new development, particularly in rocket science, professional designers repeated their doubts about the rocket’s mastermind and pioneering designer Burt Rutan, Branson’s partner in the Virgin Galactic venture.

Why, they wondered, had he not discovered the error earlier during computer tests?

Four months later, in September 2011, just before flying to New Mexico to celebrate the formal opening of the spaceport, Branson appeared on British news star Piers Morgan’s CNN TV show to declare victory in the space race.

Virgin Galactic’s first passengers, Branson told Morgan on air, would soon be passing through the Space Operations Center, a building designed by Norman Foster.

“The rocket tests are going extremely well,” Branson told Morgan, “and so I think that we’re now on track for a launch within 12 months of today.”

He did not mention the reports from New Mexico claiming that the building was two years behind schedule, and the news from Mojave about further setbacks to the rocket motor’s development.

“We are now very close to making the dream of suborbital space a reality for thousands of people at a cost and level of safety unimaginable even in the recent past,” Branson told the TV audience.

“Virgin Galactic has shown in the past few years how private-sector investment and innovation can lead to a rapid transformation of stagnant technologies.”

Worship of fantasy

Branson was taken at his word, even though he had recently disclosed his worship of fantasy: “Peter Pan is my favourite character, and I don’t really want to grow up. I’m just ridiculously lucky and just love to live my dreams.”

From Morgan’s studio, Branson headed to New Mexico in his jet. Branson’s publicists had arranged a stunt to entertain the 800 guests, some of whom owned tickets for the eventual ride, and to provide the media with a photograph: Branson would be abseiling down the side of Norman Foster’s massive glass windows while swigging a bottle of champagne.

Flights, Branson confirmed, would start the following year.

Richardson’s successor, Governor Susana Martinez, beamed, but as a ­Republican committed to cutting costs, she had misgivings.

Richardson’s original plan, she lamented privately, had been derailed. The expected 140,000 tourists had not materialised and the spaceport’s $US6 million annual costs had not been covered by charging mourners $1500 to launch a canister of cremated remains into space.

To limit the taxpayers’ exposure to a white elephant, Martinez instructed staff to halve spending and privatise the spaceport. An unforeseen problem had also arisen: other states like Virginia and Texas had also entered the spaceport business and were offering better terms.

But Branson’s euphoric speech glided over those doubts. In 2012, he said, two flights would taking off every day from the spaceport. One week later, David Mackay, Virgin Galactic’s chief pilot, revealed that passenger flights would not start until 2013. And, he added, there would be one flight every week, not two per day.

Branson’s mistake was ignored.

Doubters among an audience of journalists in early 2012 were silenced by the latest roll call of Hollywood celebrities who had allegedly bought $US200,000 tickets to fly: Tom Hanks, Brad Pitt, Demi Moore and, more recently, Ashton Kutcher, reportedly Virgin Galactic’s 500th customer since 2004.

Only one complaint was formally recorded. Bassim Haidar, a Lebanese tycoon, wrote that although he had paid his deposit six years earlier, his chance for a flight was receding: “I can’t get Branson to say when we will fly. I’m very disappointed in him. He’s not the ‘can-do’ businessman he likes to project to the media.”

Delays,doubts, grow

Instead of receiving details of his space flight, continued Haidar, Virgin sent him advertisements for other Virgin products – a game safari in South Africa, a hotel in Morocco and flights on Virgin Atlantic. To his disappointment, even the lunch arranged to meet Branson soon after he signed up was cancelled.

To divert attention from the delays, ­Branson approved a conference in Palo Alto, California, on February 26, 2012, focusing on the “Next Generation of Suborbital Researchers”.

Virgin’s publicists arranged for their test pilot, David Mackay, to be photographed with Neil Armstrong, the first man on the moon. Although their meeting was brief, Armstrong did curtly endorse Virgin Galactic. “In the suborbital area,” he said, “there are lots of things to be done.”

Virgin Galactic, announced a company vice-president, “hopes” to perform the first rocket-powered test flight by the end of 2012, and “commercial flights will begin one or two years later”.

At best, Virgin Galactic was by then seven years late and, on its own account, was holding over $US40 million of deposits without paying any interest.

Branson’s genius was to profit from unchallenged ambitions.

In April 2013, he promised an audience of 5000 at a Las Vegas conference that he would be travelling to space with his family in early 2014.

Six days after that Las Vegas appearance and after yet another test, Branson had told Abu Dhabi radio euphorically, “I will be going up on the first flight, which I hope will be December 25th of this year. So maybe I’ll dress up as Father Christmas.”

Virgin Galactic had now taken $US80 million in deposits from 610 people; in June 2013 Justin Bieber had signed up as a passenger.

On May 17, 2013, there was another explosion during a test of a hybrid motor. The ­devastation resembled the scene in 2007, except this time there were no casualties.

A decade ago, Branson’s ownership of global music, media and airline businesses ranked him alongside the Silicon Valley billionaires as an inspirational star. But since then, his empire has shrunk and his relative wealth has diminished. He no longer owns any of the principal Virgin businesses.

In normal circumstances, a fading idol is of little consequence But Branson is ­special. For a new generation of aspiring entrepreneurs, the master still maintains his mystique.

Over 45 years, the deal-maker has hit gold, but then, like his rocket, his trajectory has faltered.

Branson’s next target for a space flight is later this year.

This is an edited extract from Branson: Behind the Mask by Tom Bower, Faber & Faber, $29.99, and distributed in Australia by Allen & Unwin, available now. Since the book’s publication in Britain, Branson has told journalists that he will prove sceptics wrong “in the next few months”.

Quelle: The Australian Financial Review


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Samstag, 22. Februar 2014 - 17:49 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Zukünftige Roboter-Operationen in Raumstation und auf Mars Reisen

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The humanoid robot, Robonaut, developed by NASA, is in training at the Houston Methodist Research Institute to perform medical procedures in space -- someday. (Photo: NASA)

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Scalpel. Check. Robot. Check. NASA bots, one day, may operate in space

Humanoid robot in training to put in IVs, sutures and perform surgeries on space station, Mars voyages

NASA wants a humanoid robot that can perform CPR, draw blood and operate on astronauts aboard the International Space Station or en route to Mars.

A doctor at the Houston Methodist Research Institute is working to make that happen.

"We're trying to get the best care for our astronauts, who are risking their lives to push the boundaries in space," said Dr. Zsolt Garami, an instructor at the Houston Methodist Research Institute, an arm of Houston Methodist Hospital. "Our motivation was really when we saw astronauts perform ultrasounds on each other or on themselves. They just could use an extra hand.... Why not have a robot help? There's already a robot up in the space station, and he's already shown that he can switch buttons reliably. Why not make him a nurse or a physician?"

Garami is working with NASA to teach robots how to perform medical procedures. He said the robots are quick learners -- much quicker than his human students.

Robonaut, the robot Garami is working with, learned in two hours what humans take a week to learn. That hasn't been a popular observation with his colleagues.

"Robonaut is learning extremely fast," he told Computerworld. "His motions, without shaky hands, are very precise and gentle. There were no sudden motions."

The humanoid robot that Garami is working with is a twin to Robonaut 2, or R2, which was brought to the space station early in 2011.

It took about 11 years to build the 300-lb. robot, which runs on 38 PowerPC processors, including 36 embedded chips that control its joints. Each of the embedded processors communicates with the main chip in the robot.

Garami said he hasn't yet worked with Robonaut 2 on the space station, but he is confident that the space-dwelling robot won't have any trouble. His work with Robonaut on the ground has gone extremely well.

So far, the doctor has taught Robonaut to perform ultrasounds, start an IV and give medications. It also can stop bleeding and put in sutures. The robot is just about ready to perform CPR on its own.

Garami also said the robot, at some point, will be able to perform surgery. "Say you're sending two people to Mars and one has a medical emergency," he said. "One astronaut needs help but they're going to be 15 to 20 minutes with no video signal. They're left alone with no connection to Earth.... I feel Robonaut could be a partner for them, helping them."

Quelle: COMPUTERWORLD


Tags: one day may operate in space 

2752 Views

Samstag, 22. Februar 2014 - 14:30 Uhr

Raumfahrt - One-Way- Trip zum Mars im Islam verboten!

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Fatwa committee under the General Authority of Islamic Affairs and Endowment in the UAE says such a journey poses a real risk to life. 

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Promoting or being involved in a one-way trip to the Red Planet is prohibited in Islam, a fatwa committee under the General Authority of Islamic Affairs and Endowment in the UAE has ruled.
“Such a one-way journey poses a real risk to life, and that can never be justified in Islam,” the committee said.  “There is a possibility that an individual who travels to planet Mars may not be able to remain alive there, and is more vulnerable to death.”
Whoever opts for this “hazardous trip”, the committee said, is likely to perish for no “righteous reason”, and thus will be liable to a “punishment similar to that of suicide in the Hereafter”.
The committee, presided by Professor Dr Farooq Hamada, said: “Protecting life against all possible dangers and keeping it safe is an issue agreed upon by all religions and is clearly stipulated in verse 4/29 of the Holy Quran: Do not kill yourselves or one another. Indeed, Allah is to you ever Merciful.”
Late in April 2013, Mars One, a Dutch company, invited volunteers to fly and live on the Red Planet, but there is no technology so far that would enable a return trip from Mars to Earth.  The company is planning the first such trip to Mars in 2023 and another crew every two years afterwards with the goal of establishing a permanent human colony.
The applicants must be aged between 18 and 40 years and in good physical condition.  They have to pay only $38 for the trip. Thousands of volunteers, including some 500 Saudis and other Arabs, have reportedly applied for the mission which costs $6 billion. The committee indicated that some may be interested in travelling to Mars for escaping punishment or standing before Almighty Allah for judgment.
 “This is an absolutely baseless and unacceptable belief because not even an atom falls outside the purview of Allah, the Creator of everything.  This has also been clearly underscored in verse 19&20/93 of the Holy Quran in which Allah says: There is no one in the heavens and earth but that he comes to the Most Merciful as a servant. (Indeed) He has enumerated them and counted them a (full) counting.”
Echoing the same, Islamic researcher Dr Shaikh Mohammed Al Ashmawy said there is no debate in this issue. “Almighty Allah said in verse 2/195 in the Holy Quran: Do not throw yourselves with your own hands into destruction.”
Sheikh Mohammed Yusuf, Imam of the Amena mosque, said: “Man’s life is not his or her own property; it is God’s creation, and therefore suicide is prohibited in all religions, and of course by law.”
Quelle: Khaleej Times
(Die Khaleej Times ist eine der größten englischsprachigen Tageszeitungen im Raum des persischen Golf. Die Zeitung wurde 1978 in Dubai in den Vereinigten Arabischen Emiraten gegründet)

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Update: 22.02.2014

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Mars One Antwort auf  The Fatwa issued by the General Authority of Islamic Affairs and Endowment

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The General Authority of Islamic Affairs and Endowment (GAIAE) in the United Arab Emirates issued a Fatwa against Muslims going on a one-way journey to Mars. The committee argued that an attempt to dwell on the planet would be so hazardous as to be suicidal and killing oneself is not permitted by Islam.

Mars One's mission is to extend to all humans, including Muslims, the chance to become the Neil Armstrong of Mars. Mars One has no political or religious interests, but hopes that this great honor will be achievable for anyone in the world, no matter what their religion or nationality is.

Do the dangers associated with exploration merit a Fatwa?

And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the variations in your languages and your colors: verily in that are Signs for those who know. (Quran 30: 22)

The Muslim world has a rich tradition of exploration. The verse from the Quran above encourages Muslims to go out and see the signs of God’s creation in the ‘heavens and the earth’. The most influential example of this was the Moroccan Muslim traveller, Ibn Battuta, who from 1325 to 1355 travelled 73,000 miles, visiting the equivalent of 44 modern countries. Among the countries Ibn Battuta visited were Russia, Afghanistan, India, the Maldives, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines and China.

His travels, documented in his famous journal, Rihla, have taught us more about the medieval societies in those countries than dozens of other historical texts put together. In that book, he wrote about seeing the signs of God’s creation wherever he travelled. He told us ‘Never, so far as possible, to cover a second time any road’.

The mission to Mars is a road that has never been walked before, even though the first settlers will be walking in the footsteps of Ibn Battuta, Marco Polo, Neil Armstrong, or any of the other great explorers in history.

Space Exploration, just like Earth exploration throughout history, will come with risks and rewards. We would like to respectfully inform the GAIAE about elements of the Mars One mission that reduce the risk to human life as much as possible. It may seem extremely dangerous to send humans to Mars today, but the humans will be preceded by at least eight cargo missions. Robotic unmanned vehicles will prepare the habitable settlement. Water and a breathable atmosphere will be produced inside the habitat and the settlement will be operational for two years, even before the first crew leaves Earth. Each of the cargo missions will land in a system very similar to the human landing capsule. An impressive track record of the landing technology will be established before risking human lives. It should be noted that the moon lander was never test on the Moon before Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed successfully on the Moon.

If we may be so bold: the GAIAE should not analyze the risk as they perceive it today. The GAIAE should assess the potential risk for humans as if an unmanned habitable outpost is ready and waiting on Mars. Only when that outpost is established will human lives be risked in Mars One's plan. With eight successful consecutive landing and a habitable settlement waiting on Mars, will the human mission be risk-free? Of course not. Any progress requires taking risks, but in this case the reward is 'the next giant leap for mankind'. That reward is certainly worth the risks involved in this mission.

Mars One respectfully requests GAIAE to cancel the Fatwa and make the greatest Rihla, or journey, of all times open for Muslims too. They can be the first Muslims to witness the signs of God’s creation in heaven, drawing upon the rich culture of travel and exploration of early Islam.

The lives and journey of the first Mars settlers will tell us more about our place in the universe than any other humans before us.

The Fatwa prohibits Muslims from going to Mars, but not from applying to Mars One's mission or training for the mission. In the next ten years, Mars One is open to working with the GAIAE to assess the risk of the mission as the unmanned settlement is under construction. Hopefully before departure of the first crew, the GAIAE will cancel the Fatwa and support the Mars One mission.

As Ibn Battuta also wrote: ‘Travelling - it leaves you speechless, then turns you into a storyteller.”

Quelle: MARS ONE


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Samstag, 22. Februar 2014 - 12:10 Uhr

Raumfahrt - USAF´s neue G- SAP -Spionage-Satelliten

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AFA WINTER, ORLANDO: The Air Force revealed today the existence of a new set of classified electro-optical satellites — the Geosynchronous Space Situational Awareness Program (GSAP) — designed to spot other satellites and space debris.

What effect might this have on nations, such as, say, China, who realize the enormous military advantage that space provides the United States?

Brian Weeden, one of the few people around who speaks space fluently and doesn’t have a dog in this fight, said the new satellites appear to resemble an upgraded version of DARPA’s  MiTEx  (Micro-satellite Technology Experiment) satellite. They were reportedly used, among other things, to get close to and observe other satellites.

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The new G-SAP satellites may raise Chinese or Russian hackles, Weedon thinks.

“Having these satellites drifting by everything in GEO [geosynchronous orbit, which allows a satellite to hover one spot of the globe] would like be a big source of information. Of course, that’s exactly the sort of thing the U.S. military is extremely worried another country will do to figure out what the U.S. has in GEO. So it’s likely other countries, especially Russia and China, are going to consider this a threat,” he said in an email after reading the Air Force Fact Sheet on G-SAP. Weeden is the technical advisor for the Secure World Foundation, which focuses on the peaceful uses of outer space.

Among the interesting facts about the new satellites:

They can be moved once they get to orbit to maintain watch on an area of interest to the U.S., Gen. William Shelton told the audience here. Satellites designed to be moved around in geosynchronous orbit are not common. The weight of fuel is an enormous operational and cost constraint so the commitment to including it is a mark of just how important this mission is to the Air Force.

They are electro-optical. This probably means they use a combination of sensors and telescopes to spy on objects. Since most details of the program remain classified we won’t know for a while.

We don’t know how much they cost. Gen. Shelton was not willing to disclose that and Orbital Sciences Corp., who built the satellites, politely referred me to the Air Force. That probably means cost could provide a competitor with a good estimate of just what sensors are on board.

The first two birds will launch “later this year,” Shelton told reporters after his remarks.

Why is the US building and revealing the existence of these satellites?

“As far as why they’re doing this, I think China is probably part of it but not all of it,” Weeden says.”The U.S. has always been concerned about the security of its assets in GEO, particularly the satellites used for missile warning, protected SATCOM [satellite communications], ELINT [electronic intelligence], and SIGINT [signals intelligence]. Recent activities by China, including a launch last May that some have claimed to be a test of a direct ascent ASAT [anti-satellite] system that could reach GEO, have certainly heightened their concerns. But the Russians developed a co-orbital ASAT system that could reach to GEO back in the late 1990s and early 2000s, so a Chinese ASAT is not the only potential threat.”

One of the really intriguing questions that we can’t answer yet is why Gen. Shelton released this information now, and why at AFA? Presumably the decision to declassify the existence of G-SAP was made at the White House level, probably an interagency decision involving the the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the State Department, Defense Department, Director of National Intelligence.

Unless these satellites are as small as MiTEx, they would be visible to observers like Ted Molczan, a keen observer in Canada who is part of a group of enthusiasts who track spy satellites using hard-won knowledge of launches, orbital modeling and telescopes. So the government might have wanted to forestall a “gotcha” moment if news reports had broken word of the satellites after launch.

Weeden added that he thinks this program is “about more than just detecting potential threats. I think part of it is also the ability to collect better intelligence on what other countries have in GEO.”

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Quelle: BREAKING DEFENSE


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Samstag, 22. Februar 2014 - 11:45 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Wenn Iridium Flare heller als Planeten werden

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The constellation of Iridium communication satellites provides global coverage for special satellite phones. Each satellite is precisely positioned in an orbit designed to mesh with the rest of the satellites in the constellation. Even their orientation toward the Earth is carefully controlled.

Because the position and angle of a satellite can be predicted, the reflection of sunlight off the large, polished, door-sized antennae can also be closely determined. When the bouncing beam reaches the Earth, it has spread into a large spot a couple of miles in diameter.

The strongest part of the beam is in the center, with the light fading out to an indefinite edge. To get the brightest flare, you have to be stationed within one-half mile of the center of the beam.

Last week, I wrote about an Iridium flare that wasn’t the brightest. It only got about as bright as Jupiter. But this week, there is an Iridium flare that can be seen at maximum brightness at the Eastern Florida State College (EFSC) campus in Cocoa. This flare should be about 40 times brighter than the one I reported on last week. At magnitude -8, Iridium 60 will be brighter than any planet, even Venus.

The Iridium flare will occur in the large, but dim, constellation Camelopardalis, The Giraffe. It is named from the Greek words meaning camel-leopard. The flare-up occurs at 7:10 p.m. and 34 seconds. Since Camelopardalis is hard to recognize, I’ll try to describe its location using two other methods.

The first method is the horizontal coordinate system, also called the altazimuth system (from the name of the altazimuth mount for telescopes). It is based upon the observer’s local horizon and the direction of north. The first coordinate is the altitude, which is an angle measured up from the horizon toward the zenith. It is between 0 (on the horizon) and 90 degrees (at the zenith).

If you are just given the altitude, you only know that the position is on some circle parallel to the horizon.

The azimuth is the angle measured clockwise from north to the point on the horizon which is directly below the position under consideration. By clockwise, we mean that east is 90 degrees and west is 270 degrees. If you look up at the zenith, however, you have changed your orientation, and the angles seem to increase around the zenith in a counter-clockwise direction, since you are looking at it from “below.”
Tonight’s flare will be altitude 53 degrees and azimuth 20 degrees. That’s almost two-thirds of the way to the zenith (53 degrees is almost 60 degrees, which is two thirds of straight up). It is close to the NNE direction (22.5°).

So if you put your left arm pointing north, and your right arm pointing NE, your head should be about in the NNE direction. Look up two-thirds of the way to the zenith and you will be in position to see the Iridium flare. (You can lift your eyes, you don’t have to crane your neck too much.)

If you know some stars, you can find the spot another way. The point of flare-up is very nearly at the intersection of two lines in the sky. The first line rises up from Dubhe, the star at the end of the bowl of the Big Dipper. The bowl of the Big Dipper will be extending up from the NE, but the last of the seven stars is still below the horizon.

Connect Dubhe with the bright star Capella, which is nearly overhead but still in the NE direction.

Do not get distracted by Jupiter, which will be nearby but in the East direction. That is the first line, Dubhe to Capella. The second line is from Castor to Polaris. Castor and Pollux are the pair of equally bright stars near Jupiter, but lower to the E (or ENE perhaps).

It doesn’t really matter if you pick Castor or Pollux.

Polaris is the North Star, which is at the tip of the tail of Ursa Minor, or is the end of the handle of the Little Dipper.

It is, of course, in the north direction, and happens to be about the same altitude as Dubhe.

If you make a big X between those four stars, the intersection is where you can expect to see the Iridium flare. It should be visible throughout Brevard County, but the times will vary by up to 10 seconds.

Quelle: Florida Today


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Samstag, 22. Februar 2014 - 11:30 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Vorbereitungen für Indiens zweite Mond-Mission Chandrayaan -2 sind im vollem Gange

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The launch pad of India’s first unmanned moon mission Chandrayaan-1 in Sriharokota

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Preparations are in full swing for India's second moon mission Chandrayaan-2, as potential landing spots on the lunar surface for the spacecraft have been identified. The spots for landing the craft were zeroed in on the basis of photographs taken by Chandrayaan-1, launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) in 2008.

Chandrayaan-2 is an advanced version of Chandrayaan-1, and it aims to demonstrate Isro's capability to soft-land on the lunar surface. Minister of state for PMO V Narayanaswamy recently announced in the Parliament that the mission, which is likely to take place in 2016-17, is progressing well with Isro having identified landing spots on the lunar surface.

The two scientific payloads onboard the Chandrayaan-1 terrain mapping camera had captured a number of images of the lunar surface, which have been used for zeroing in on the designated spots. Chandrayaan-2 is configured as a two module system comprising an orbiter craft module and a lander craft module carrying the rover.

According to Isro, the orbiter craft with payloads onboard will orbit around the moon and perform the objectives of remote sensing the moon. The payloads on the orbiter will conduct mineralogical and elemental studies of the Moon's surface.

The lander craft with scientific payloads will soft land on the lunar surface. A rover released by the lander craft will perform mobility activities on low gravity and vacuum of the Moon's surface with semi-autonomous navigation and hazard avoidance capability. The spacecraft will be launched onboard the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV).

Quelle: dna


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Samstag, 22. Februar 2014 - 11:00 Uhr

Astronomie - Weltraumteleskop Spitzer sieht eine riesige Schockwelle bei Cassiopeiae

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The red arc in this infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope is a giant shock wave, created by a speeding star known as Kappa Cassiopeiae. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

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Roguish runaway stars can have a big impact on their surroundings as they plunge through the Milky Way galaxy. Their high-speed encounters shock the galaxy, creating arcs, as seen in this newly released image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

In this case, the speedster star is known as Kappa Cassiopeiae, or HD 2905 to astronomers. It is a massive, hot supergiant moving at around 2.5 million mph relative to its neighbors (1,100 kilometers per second). But what really makes the star stand out in this image is the surrounding, streaky red glow of material in its path. Such structures are called bow shocks, and they can often be seen in front of the fastest, most massive stars in the galaxy.

Bow shocks form where the magnetic fields and wind of particles flowing off a star collide with the diffuse, and usually invisible, gas and dust that fill the space between stars. How these shocks light up tells astronomers about the conditions around the star and in space. Slow-moving stars like our sun have bow shocks that are nearly invisible at all wavelengths of light, but fast stars like Kappa Cassiopeiae create shocks that can be seen by Spitzer's infrared detectors.

Incredibly, this shock is created about 4 light-years ahead of Kappa Cassiopeiae, showing what a sizable impact this star has on its surroundings. (This is about the same distance that we are from Proxima Centauri, the nearest star beyond the sun.)

The Kappa Cassiopeiae bow shock shows up as a vividly red color. The faint green features in this image result from carbon molecules, called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in dust clouds along the line of sight that are illuminated by starlight.

Delicate red filaments run through this infrared nebula, crossing the bow shock. Some astronomers have suggested these filaments may be tracing out features of the magnetic field that runs throughout our galaxy. Since magnetic fields are completely invisible themselves, we rely on chance encounters like this to reveal a little of their structure as they interact with the surrounding dust and gas.

Kappa Cassiopeiae is visible to the naked eye in the Cassiopeia constellation (but its bow shock only shows up in infrared light.)

For this Spitzer image, infrared light at wavelengths of 3.6 and 4.5 microns is rendered in blue, 8.0 microns in green, and 24 microns in red.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., manages the Spitzer Space Telescope mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Science operations are conducted at the Spitzer Science Center at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Spacecraft operations are based at Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Littleton, Colorado. Data are archived at the Infrared Science Archive housed at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at Caltech. Caltech manages JPL for NASA.

Quelle: NASA


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Freitag, 21. Februar 2014 - 10:17 Uhr

Astronomie - NASA findet Anomalien durch Sonnenwind bei Venus

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Giant perturbations called hot flow anomalies in the solar wind near Venus can pull the upper layers of its atmosphere, the ionosphere, up and away from the surface of the planet.

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Researchers recently discovered that a common space weather phenomenon on the outskirts of Earth’s magnetic bubble, the magnetosphere, has much larger repercussions for Venus. The giant explosions, called hot flow anomalies, can be so large at Venus that they’re bigger than the entire planet and they can happen multiple times a day.
"Not only are they gigantic," said Glyn Collinson, a space scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "But as Venus doesn’t have a magnetic field to protect itself, the hot flow anomalies happen right on top of the planet. They could swallow the planet whole."
Collinson is the first author of a paper on these results that appeared online in the Journal of Geophysical Research in February 2014. The work is based on observations from the European Space Agency's Venus Express. The results show just how large and how frequent this kind of space weather is at Venus.
Earth is protected from the constant streaming solar wind of radiation by its magnetosphere. Venus, however, has no such luck. A barren, inhospitable planet, with an atmosphere so dense that spacecraft landing there are crushed within hours, Venus has no magnetic protection.
Scientists like to compare the two: What happened differently at Earth to make it into the life-supporting planet it is today? What would Earth be like without its magnetic field?
At Earth, hot flow anomalies do not make it inside the magnetosphere, but they release so much energy just outside that the solar wind is deflected, and can be forced to move back toward the sun. Without a magnetosphere, what happens at Venus is very different.
Venus's only protection from the solar wind is the charged outer layer of its atmosphere called the ionosphere. A sensitive pressure balance exists between the ionosphere and the solar wind, a balance easily disrupted by the giant energy rush of a hot flow anomaly. The hot flow anomalies may create dramatic, planet-scale disruptions, possibly sucking the ionosphere up and away from the surface of the planet.
Quelle: NASA

2749 Views

Freitag, 21. Februar 2014 - 09:48 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Start von USAF Delta-4 Rakete mit GPS 2F-3 Satelliten-Update

 

Frams von ULA-Start-Video:

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Quelle: ULA

 


Tags: USAF Delta-4 Rakete GPS 2F-3 Satelliten 

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