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Sonntag, 7. September 2014 - 14:20 Uhr

Astronomie - 3 Meteoriten-Fragmente von Explosion über Russland (2013) zu verkaufen.

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A fragments of the Feb. 15, 2013, Russian meteorite will hit the AUCTION block this month.
CREDIT: Heritage AUCTIONS
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When a meteor exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia on Feb. 15, 2013, many of world's most avid meteorite collectors were gathered on the other side of the world, in Arizona, at the Tucson Gem and Mineral Show.
"A lot of the meteorite guys were scrambling to leave the show early to go to Russia," said Craig Kissick of Heritage AUCTIONS.
Chunks of the meteorite that lay scattered in the snow in central Russia made it to the commercial market just months after the blast. A few fragments were even incorporated into some gold medals given out at the 2014 Olympic Games in Sochi, Russia. This month, Heritage Auctions is selling three pieces of the Chelyabinsk space rock as part of its latest natural history sale.
The meteor blast produced a shockwave that shattered WINDOWS and injured more than 1,000 people in Chelyabinsk region. Scientists who have analyzed samples of the Chelyabinsk meteorite have said it appears to be an ordinary chondrite, the most common type of meteorite found on Earth.
"I wouldn't consider it that attractive," Kissick said, but the fragments have stirred up interest among collectors because they are tied to the biggest meteorite blast in more than a century, and perhaps the most witnessed one on record.
Opening bids for the three Chelyabinsk meteorite fragments start at $500, $2,500 and $4,000. The sale will take place on Sept. 28 at Heritage AUCTION'S Nature and Science Signature Auction in Dallas, Texas.
Quelle: SC

2100 Views

Sonntag, 7. September 2014 - 11:30 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Erfolgreicher Start von Falcon 9 mit ASIASAT-6 Satelliten

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23.08.2014

Launch of AsiaSat-6 on a Falcon 9 rocket from Cape Canaveral AFB, FL launch complex LC-40
Launch scheduled for 26 Aug 14 5:50:00 GMT
Local Time : 26 Aug 14 1:50:00 EDT
AsiaSat-6 is based on Space Systems/Loral 1300 platform, and is designed to provide excellent power and wide C-band coverage over Asia, Australia, Central Asia and the Pacific islands. This new satellite will carry 28 high-powered C-band transponders, with a design life of 15 years. It will be positioned at the 120 degrees East orbital SLOT, with a global beam and a regional beam to offer enhanced power and look angles for video distribution and broadband network services in the region. 
NOTE: SpaceX will NOT attempt a vertical soft-landing test of the rocket for this launch. 
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Mission Live Updates
Aug 26 - Falcon 9 : AsiaSat-6 Launch site Cape Canaveral AFB, FL
Launch Date Aug 26
From Launch Pad LC-40
Launch Window : 12:50am - 4:05am EDT (04:50 - 08:05GMT)
AsiaSat-6 is based on Space Systems/Loral 1300 platform, and is designed to provide excellent power and wide C-band coverage over Asia, Australia, Central Asia and the Pacific islands. This new satellite will carry 28 high-powered C-band transponders, with a design life of 15 years. It will be positioned at the 120 degrees East orbital slot, with a global beam and a regional beam to offer enhanced power and look angles for video distribution and broadband network services in the region. 
NOTE: SpaceX will NOT attempt a vertical soft-landing test of the rocket for this launch. 
Quelle: AS
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Update: 25.08.2014
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SpaceX now targeting Wednesday launch from Cape

SpaceX has confirmed it is now targeting early Wednesday for launch of the AsiaSat 6 commercial communications satellite from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, a day later than previously planned.
The launch is set for 12:50 a.m. Wednesday from Launch Complex 40, at the opening of a window to 4:05 a.m.
The weather outlook is uncertain given the potential development of a tropical storm that could influence local conditions. An early forecast predicts a 60 percent chance of favorable conditions.
"The weather at launch time will likely be dependent on the exact track, intensity, size and speed of this system," said the report released Saturday by the Air Force's 45th Weather Squadron.
The launch had been planned early Tuesday.
SpaceX said the mission was pushed back a day after Friday's failed flight of a test rocket in Texas.
Company spokesman John Taylor said that while the three-engine, single-stage "F9R" development vehicle and its McGregor, Texas, launch site are very different from the Falcon 9 being readied for launch from Cape Canaveral, "we are taking some additional time to review the circumstances that caused the test vehicle to auto terminate to confirm that there is not a risk to orbital flight."
"SpaceX prizes mission assurance above all," he said in a statement. "This action is consistent with that philosophy."
Pending the Air Force's approval of the dates, SpaceX and Asiasat would have Thursday as a backup date if the mission did not launch on its first attempt Wednesday.
Quelle: Florida Today
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Update: 26.08.2014
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Update: 27.08.2014 
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Mission Live Updates
26Aug2014 22:00:27 EDT
OFFICIAL SCRUB STATEMENT FROM SPACEX
SpaceX has decided to postpone tomorrow's flight of AsiaSat 6. We are not aware of any issue with Falcon 9, nor the interfaces with the Spacecraft, but have decided to review all potential failure modes and contingencies again. We expect to complete this process in one to two weeks. 
The natural question is whether this is related to the test vehicle malfunction at our development facility in Texas last week. After a thorough review, we are confident that there is no direct link. Had the same blocked sensor port problem occurred with an operational Falcon 9, it would have been outvoted by several other sensors. That voting system was not present on the test vehicle. 
What we do want to triple-check is whether even highly improbable corner case scenarios have the optimal fault detection and recovery logic. This has already been reviewed by SpaceX and multiple outside agencies, so the most likely outcome is no change. If any changes are made, we will provide as much detail as is allowed under U.S. law.�
26Aug2014 16:56:20 EDT
SpaceX launch scrubbed for tonight
There will not be a launch of the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket tonight. After rolling out to the launch pad and being erected to the vertical launch position a scrub was called. 
There has been no official reason for the halt in proceedings, nor has a new launch date been published yet. 
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Quelle: AS
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Update: 4.09.2014
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SpaceX targeting Saturday launch from Cape

SpaceX is targeting a 12:50 a.m. Saturday launch from Cape Canaveral of the AsiaSat 6 commercial communications satellite.
There's a 60 percent chance of favorable weather during a window extending to 4:04 a.m., according to an Air Force forecast.
The launch had been planned early last week, but was postponed following the Aug. 22 explosion of one of the company's development rockets during a test flight in Texas.
SpaceX took time to "triple check" the test failure to be sure that a similar problem would not pose a risk to the 224-foot Falcon 9 set to launch the satellite for Hong Kong-based AsiaSat.
That review apparently now is complete.
SpaceX did not say if it made any adjustments to the Falcon 9 carrying the satellite.
CEO Elon Musk attributed the failure of the three-engine, single-stage test rocket to a blocked sensor that resulted in computers automatically blowing up the rocket.
Musk said the Falcon 9 is equipped with backup sensors that would have overcome a faulty one, but the development vehicle had no backups.
The vehicle was testing systems aimed at making Falcon 9 boosters reusable, enabling them to land vertically on legs.
Quelle: Florida Today
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Update: 5.09.2014
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SpaceX launch moved to Sunday

SpaceX's upcoming launch of a commercial communications satellite from Cape Canaveral has moved back at least one day, to early Sunday, according to the Air Force's latest weather forecast.
The launch is now targeted for 12:50 a.m. Sunday, according to today's forecast from the 45th Weather Squadron, which shows a 60 percent chance of favorable conditions during the window to 4:04 a.m.
The odds improve to 70 percent "go" on Monday.
SpaceX and AsiaSat have not confirmed a launch time for the AsiaSat 6 satellite.
The launch was postponed from last week after a SpaceX development rocket failed during a test flight in Texas.
SpaceX said the test failure likely was not a concern for its Falcon 9 rocket, but the company took time to "triple-check" its systems.
The Eastern Range is open for about another 10 days before United Launch Alliance's planned Sept. 16 launch of an Atlas V rocket.
Quelle: Florida Today
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Update: 7.09.2014
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LIFTOFF von FALCON 9 nit ASIASAT 6
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Falcon 9 lifts off from LC-40 at Cape Canaveral.
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Quelle: SpaceX
 
 

Tags: Raumfahrt 

2169 Views

Donnerstag, 4. September 2014 - 23:15 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Projekt Blue Book - Teil-10

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The 701 club
Case 6663 Feb 27, 1960 Rome, New York
Don Berlinner’s list describes it as follows:
Feb. 27, 1960; Rome AFB, New York. 6:27 p.m. Witnesses: control tower officer Capt. J. Huey and four other tower operators. One light trailing a white fan shape, made a mild descent for 3-4 minutes. 5:55 p.m. 1
The Blue Book record card gives the following description:
Round object size of large head of a pin at arm’s length passed in front of star Cirus (sic). Elevation 20 deg Azimuth at 170 deg. Moved to 150 deg at disappearance behind cloud bank. Looked like white fan trailing.2
The duration was listed as 3-4 minutes and the direction of travel is listed as “West”.
Blue Book investigation
There seems to be confusion on the part of Blue Book in their investigation. The record card says the motion was to the west but the direction describing on the record card indicates an eastward motion (azimuth 170 to 150). This is confirmed in the UFO analysis sheet where the direction of motion was SSE. They dismissed aircraft (too slow), Satellites (wrong direction - even though they got the direction of motion wrong), balloon (wind heading at right angles to the object), and a mirage (too distant an object and motion too constant). The UFO analysis sheet suggested a possible refraction of the star Canopus, which isn’t even visible from this far north.3
The message traffic also corrected another error on the record card. While the record card stated the fan trailing the UFO was white, the UFO analysis sheet stated it was “...white with an orange or red fan shaped streamer behind...”. 4 Blue Book was stumped. However, as we will discover, their investigation was inadequate. There was a vital clue that was readily available to them if they had simply read the papers.
The explanation
Had Blue Book’s investigator’s simply looked at some news papers for the date in question or contacted NASA, they would have been quick to label the sighting as “Identified”.
On February 27, 1960, NASA launched, from Wallops island, a 100-foot diameter test of the Echo balloon satellite. The tests from Wallops Island were referred to as “Shotput” tests. This one was launched to an altitude of over 200 miles and was to test the inflation of the balloon and see if it was possible to reflect radio transmissions off of it. The launch was announced ahead of time with the Associated Press (AP) stating it would be visible from a distance of 500 miles or more in good weather.5
According to the Astronautix web site, the time of the launch was 2320 GMT (Zulu). 6 This is 6:20 PM EST, just seven minutes prior to time recorded for the sighting. This coincidence hinted that it might have been the source of the sighting.
The question remains, could this launch have been visible from Rome, New York, about 400 miles from Wallops Island? The press release prior to launch suggested it was possible but was this the case. Many of the press reports after the test indicated it was visible from most of the east coast. One news report stated it was even visible from Canada!
It was visible as far north as Montreal as it hung in the clear evening sky, reflecting the rays of the setting sun, already below the horizon at sea level. Druval Airport at Montreal reported many telephone calls from residents who sighted it. Switchboards were jammed at New York, Stanford, Conn. and other cities as ground viewers called to report a “star-like glowing object” or a white light trailed by rocket smoke. 7
The Lowell, Massachusetts newspaper contained a local story where residents called the local authorities about a strange sighting in the sky that night. The test was obvious to casual observers in the area. Lowell had a better viewing angle of the launch but was at the same approximate distance as Rome, New York.
LOWELL — Greater Lowell residents deluged police and fire department switchboards and The Sun with telephone calls last night concerning
a bright object in the skv which turned out to be a balloon released by the Nationa1 Aeronautics and Space Agency from Wallops Island, Va.
The NASA announced the 100-foot “radio mirror” balloon was fired into space at 6:20 p. m. to test the ejection and inflation of the sphere, which was folded into a 26-inch container. The ‘test’ was similar to the ones conducted Oct. 28 and Jan. 16, when the balloon was visible along the eastern seaboard.
Residents in the Lowell area reported seeing the object, bearing a red hue and trailed by a bright flash is it sped across the sky.8
So it was visible from these locations far to the north of Wallops island. If one looks at the azimuths listed in the Blue Book file for the sighting, we see that they line up correctly with the trajectory of the rocket launch/satellite test launched eastward from Wallops Island.
What about the red “hue” or “fan shaped streamer” reported by the witnesses? Recall that this is a preliminary test of the, soon to be launched, Echo satellite. The previous two tests had problems with the sphere. On the initial launch, the balloon had exploded after inflating. The test had used water to inflate the balloon and it was believed that there had been a leaky container for the water and it had not filled slowly but rapidly. The water had boiled explosively, bursting the balloon. In order to help identify problems with the balloon, it was decided to add a red fluorescent powder to help identify any tears that might occur. The February 27, 1960 launch did have such a tear in the balloon and it produced a display for observers on the ground to see. Despite the tear, the balloon still acted well enough to be used by Bell labs to transmit a voice message from New Jersey to Massachussets.9
Blue Book classified another sighting of the test incorrectly
It is interesting to note that there is another Blue Book sighting from Vermont on the same date around the same time (2328Z). The sighting was towards 170 degrees and it moved towards the east just like the Rome, New York sighting. It was incorrectly identified as an airplane afterburner since there was a nearby air base.10 Again, Blue Book missed the most important clues (date, time, direction) that could correctly identify this case.
As was the case in most Blue Book investigations, the degree of effort put into the identifying a cause was usually determined by the officers at the individual commands. Blue Book was far too undermanned to conduct its own investigations and, as a result, misidentifications like this occurred. However, there was nothing sinister behind these failed identifications. It was more of an apathetic approach to these reports by the investigating officers.
Case closed?
There seems to be every reason to conclude that this UFO sighting was caused by the Echo Shotput test from Wallops island. The times are correct, the direction of observation is correct, and it was possible to see the test from Rome, New York. This one should be considered “IDENTIFIED” and removed from the list of Blue Book “UNKNOWNS”.
I want to thank Herb Taylor for pointing me towards this case. I had originally overlooked it until he noticed that the UFO report sounded a lot like a familiar IFO and asked me to look at it. Herb’s instincts proved correct and the case should now be considered “closed”.
Quelle: SUNlite 1/2014

Tags: UFO-Forschung 

2497 Views

Donnerstag, 4. September 2014 - 18:00 Uhr

Mars-Curiosity-Chroniken - Curiosity-News Sol 672-690

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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 672 (2014-06-27 15:12:39 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 672 (2014-06-27 13:56:32 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 672 (2014-06-27 15:20:27 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 672 (2014-06-27 15:19:25 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Left B (FHAZ_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 672 (2014-06-27 14:58:46 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 673 (2014-06-28 17:26:33 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 673 (2014-06-28 17:28:38 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 673 (2014-06-28 17:32:33 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 673 (2014-06-28 17:36:28 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 673 (2014-06-28 17:42:26 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 673 (2014-06-28 18:05:53 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 674 (2014-06-29 18:09:13 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 674 (2014-06-29 18:32:26 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 674 (2014-06-29 18:51:25 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Right B (FHAZ_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 675 (2014-06-30 14:01:15 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 676 (2014-07-01 17:30:11 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 676 (2014-07-01 16:36:42 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 676 (2014-07-01 17:37:59 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 676 (2014-07-01 17:38:54 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Right B (FHAZ_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 677 (2014-07-02 15:09:24 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 678 (2014-07-03 16:31:59 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 679 (2014-07-04 20:14:46 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 683 (2014-07-08 19:41:41 UTC).
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 683 (2014-07-08 19:46:10 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 683 (2014-07-08 21:30:40 UTC). 
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NASA's Mars rover Curiosity acquired this image using its Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, on July 13, 2014, Sol 687 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 01:41:07 UTC.
When this image was obtained, the focus motor count position was 13020. This number indicates the internal position of the MAHLI lens at the time the image was acquired. This count also tells whether the dust cover was open or closed. Values between 0 and 6000 mean the dust cover was closed; values between 12500 and 16000 occur when the cover is open. For close-up images, the motor count can in some cases be used to estimate the distance between the MAHLI lens and target. For example, in-focus images obtained with the dust cover open for which the lens was 2.5 cm from the target have a motor count near 15270. If the lens is 5 cm from the target, the motor count is near 14360; if 7 cm, 13980; 10 cm, 13635; 15 cm, 13325; 20 cm, 13155; 25 cm, 13050; 30 cm, 12970. These correspond to image scales, in micrometers per pixel, of about 16, 25, 32, 42, 60, 77, 95, and 113.
Most images acquired by MAHLI in daylight use the sun as an illumination source. However, in some cases, MAHLI's two groups of white light LEDs and one group of longwave ultraviolet (UV) LEDs might be used to illuminate targets. When Curiosity acquired this image, the group 1 white light LEDs were off, the group 2 white light LEDs were off, and the ultraviolet (UV) LEDS were off. 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 687 (2014-07-13 01:58:02 UTC). 
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Using an onboard focusing process, the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) aboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity created this product by merging two to eight images previously taken by the MAHLI, located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm.
Curiosity performed the merge on July 13, 2014, Sol 688 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 22:55:12 UTC. The focus motor count position was 13978. This number indicates the lens position of the first image that was merged.
The onboard focus merge is sometimes performed on images acquired the same sol as the merge, and sometimes uses pictures obtained on an earlier sol. Focus merging is a method to make a composite of images of the same target acquired at different focus positions to bring all (or, as many as possible) features into focus in a single image. Because the MAHLI focus merge is performed on Mars, it also serves as a means to reduce the number of images sent back to Earth. Each focus merge produces two images: a color, best-focus product and a black-and-white image that scientists can use to estimate focus position for each element of the best focus product. Thus, up to eight images can be merged, reducing the number of images returned to Earth to two. 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 689 (2014-07-15 02:04:45 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 690 (2014-07-16 01:11:18 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 690 (2014-07-16 02:36:35 UTC). 
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Fotos: NASA

2120 Views

Donnerstag, 4. September 2014 - 12:15 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Start von China Long March 2D Trägerrakete mit 2 Satelliten

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China launched a Long March 2D rocket Thursday with a data relay satellite and a payload to conduct multimedia telecommunications experiments, according to state media reports.

The 13-story launcher lifted off from the Jiuquan space center in northwest China at 0015 GMT Thursday (8:15 p.m. EDT Wednesday), the official Xinhua news agency said.
The liftoff occurred at 8:15 a.m. Beijing time.
The two-stage, hydrazine-fueled Long March 2D was expected to place the Chuangxin 1-04 data relay satellite and its co-passenger into a sun-synchronous orbit. Chinese state media reported the launch was successful.
"The two satellites have reached their preset orbits via the Long March 2D vehicle," Xinhua reported.
Developed by the China Academy of Sciences, Chuangxin 1-04 is a small satellite designed to gather and transmit data for disaster relief and economic development applications. The craft's mission includes collecting hydrological, meteorological and electric power data, Xinhua reported.
It follows similar Chuangxin relay satellites launched in 2003, 2008 and 2011.
The rocket also put a small experimental spacecraft into orbit for a joint mission managed by Tsinghua University and Beijing Xinwei Telecom Technology Co. Ltd., a Chinese telecom operator.
Xinhua described the payload as a "smart satellite" to conduct multimedia telecommunications experiments. Xinwei says the spacecraft is the company's first step in exploring the construction of a satellite communications network.
Thursday's Long March rocket flight marked the 51st space launch to reach orbit this year and the fourth for China.
Quelle: SN

1964 Views

Donnerstag, 4. September 2014 - 12:00 Uhr

Astronomie - Aktuelle Studie über Titan Methan-Niederschläge und wie diese mit eisigen Materialien in unterirdischen Reservoirs interagieren.

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Hundreds of lakes and seas are spread across the surface of Saturn's moon Titan -- its northern polar region in particular. Image credit: ESA/ATG medialab

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The NASA and European Space Agency Cassini mission has revealed hundreds of lakes and seas spread across the north polar region of Saturn's moon Titan. These lakes are filled not with water but with hydrocarbons, a form of organic compound that is also found naturally on Earth and includes methane. The vast majority of liquid in Titan's lakes is thought to be replenished by rainfall from clouds in the moon's atmosphere. But how liquids move and cycle through Titan's crust and atmosphere is still relatively unknown.
A recent study led by Olivier Mousis, a Cassini research associate at the University of Franche-Comté, France, examined how Titan's methane rainfall would interact with icy materials within underground reservoirs. They found that the formation of materials called clathrates changes the chemical composition of the rainfall runoff that charges these hydrocarbon "aquifers." This process leads to the formation of reservoirs of propane and ethane that may feed into some rivers and lakes.
"We knew that a significant fraction of the lakes on Titan's surface might possibly be connected with hidden bodies of liquid beneath Titan's crust, but we just didn't know how they would interact," said Mousis. "Now, we have a better idea of what these hidden lakes or oceans could be like."
Mousis and colleagues at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, modeled how a subsurface reservoir of liquid hydrocarbons would diffuse, or spread, through Titan's porous, icy crust. They found that, at the bottom of the original reservoir, which contains methane from rainfall, a second reservoir would slowly form. This secondary reservoir would be composed of clathrates.
Clathrates are compounds in which water forms a crystal structure with small cages that trap other substances like methane and ethane. Clathrates that contain methane are found on Earth in some polar and ocean sediments. On Titan, the surface pressure and temperature should allow clathrates to form when liquid hydrocarbons come into contact with water ice, which is a major component of the moon's crust. These clathrate layers could remain stable as far down as several miles below Titan's surface.
One of the peculiar properties of clathrates is that they trap and split molecules into a mix of liquid and solid phases, in a process called fractionation. Titan's subsurface clathrate reservoirs would interact with and fractionate the liquid methane from the original underground hydrocarbon lake, slowly changing its composition. Eventually the original methane aquifer would be turned into a propane or ethane aquifer.
"Our study shows that the composition of Titan's underground liquid reservoirs can change significantly through their interaction with the icy subsurface, provided the reservoirs are cut off from the atmosphere for some period of time," said Mathieu Choukroun of JPL, one of three co-authors of the study with Mousis.
Importantly, the chemical transformations taking place underground would affect Titan's surface. Lakes and rivers fed by springs from propane or ethane subsurface reservoirs would show the same kind of composition, whereas those fed by rainfall would be different and contain a significant fraction of methane. This means researchers could examine the composition of Titan's surface lakes to learn something about what is happening deep underground, said Mousis.
The results are published in the Sept. 1, 2014, printed issue of the journal Icarus. The research was funded by the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and NASA.
Quelle: NASA

2012 Views

Donnerstag, 4. September 2014 - 10:00 Uhr

Astronomie - Laniakea (unermesslicher Himmel)

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A slice of the Laniakea Supercluster in the supergalactic equatorial plane.

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Using a new mapping technique that takes into account the motions -- and not just the distances -- of nearby galaxies, astronomers discovered that the Milky Way is located in the suburb of a massive, previously unknown super-cluster they named Laniakea, a term from Hawaiian words meaning “immeasurable heaven.”
Actually, Laniakea’s girth is measurable, though difficult to conceptualize. The super-cluster spans 520 million light-years in diameter, more than five times larger than the cluster previously believed to be the Milky Way’s cosmic home.
A light-year is the distance that light, moving at a speed of 186,000 miles per second, travels in one year. One light-year is about 5.88 trillion miles.
Astronomers were able to identify the boundaries of Laniakea by charting the flow of more than 8,000 galaxies surrounding the Milky Way. By that yardstick, they discovered that the Milky Way, along 100,000 other galaxies, is sailing toward a region named the Shapley super-cluster.
Other nearby galaxies are being gravitationally tugged in other directions. The new map of the local universe delineates the flow lines where the galaxies’ paths diverge, establishing for the first time regions of space under the influence of particular super-clusters.
In addition to Laniakea, the local universe includes galaxy complexes Shapley, Hercules, Coma and Perseus-Pieces.
“We don’t have the distance information to see the far sides of ... our (super-cluster) neighbors and we haven’t seen far enough to understand what’s causing this full motion of our galaxy,” astronomer and lead researcher Brent Tully, with the University of Hawaii, told Discovery News.
“That’s really the goal, to look out far enough -- probably three times farther than we are right now, probably requiring many thousands of more distance measurements, to map this larger region,” he said.
Astronomer Elmo Tempel, with Tartu Observatory in Estonia, said he was surprised that the Milky Way’s super-cluster wasn’t found sooner.
“Laniakea is the biggest structure in the local universe. Usually, the biggest structures are discovered first,” Tempel wrote in an email to Discovery News.
Tully and colleagues used recently published measurements of direct distances between galaxies, including for the first time galaxies that are farther away. That enabled them to calculate velocities at a bigger scale than previous studies.
“The discovery of Laniakea is definitely interesting and hopefully will initiate studies that will map the local universe in more detail,” Tempel wrote.
“Super-clusters and galaxy filaments are structures that are present in the distribution of galaxies. However, we do not know much about these structures and we do not know how these structures affect the formation and evolution of galaxies, including our Milky Way. This study will give us new perspective (on) how to analyze these problems in observations,” he wrote.
The research and a related commentary by Tempel appear in this week’s Nature.
Quelle: D-News
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Add a Line to Our Galactic Address: Laniakea Supercluster
There are lots of lines in our planet's cosmic address: Earth, the solar system, the Milky Way galaxy, the Local Group of galaxies, and the Virgo Cluster of galaxy groups. Now astronomers are adding another one: the Laniakea Supercluster, which takes its name from the Hawaiian term for "immense heaven."
Laniakea's outlines and boundaries are laid out for the first time in this week's issue of Nature. Our Milky Way lies on the outskirts of the supercluster, which spans 500 million light-years and contains the mass of 100 quadrillion suns in 100,000 galaxies.
"We have finally established the countours that define the supercluster of galaxies we can call home," lead researcher R. Brent Tully, an astronomer at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, said in a news release. "This is not unlike finding out for the first time that your hometown is actually part of a much larger country that borders other nations."
Superclusters rank among the largest structures in the interconnected web of galaxy clusters that account for much of the matter in the universe. Tully and his colleagues say the extent of superclusters should be defined by their gravitational spheres of influence — and they used the Green Bank Telescope and other radio telescopes to map out the motions of galaxies within our sphere of influence.
Quelle: NBC
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Hawaii scientist maps and names Laniakea, our home supercluster of galaxies

University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa astronomer R. Brent Tully, who recently shared the 2014 Gruber Cosmology Prize and the 2014 Victor Ambartsumian International Prize, has led an international team of astronomers in defining the contours of the immense supercluster of galaxies containing our own Milky Way. They have named the supercluster “Laniakea,” meaning “immense heaven” in Hawaiian. The paper explaining this work is the cover story of the September 4 issue of the prestigious journal Nature.
Galaxies are not distributed randomly throughout the universe. Instead, they are found in groups, like our own Local Group, that contain dozens of galaxies, and in massive clusters containing hundreds of galaxies, all interconnected in a web of filaments in which galaxies are strung like pearls. Where these filaments intersect, we find huge structures, called “superclusters.” These structures are interconnected, but they have poorly defined boundaries.
The researchers are proposing a new way to evaluate these large-scale structures by examining their impact on the motions of galaxies. A galaxy between two such structures will be caught in a gravitational tug-of-war in which the balance of the gravitational forces from the surrounding large-scale structures determines the galaxy’s motion. By mapping the velocities of galaxies throughout our local  universe, the team was able to define the region of space where each supercluster dominates.
The Milky Way resides in the outskirts of one such supercluster, whose extent has for the first time been carefully mapped using these new techniques. This Laniakea Supercluster is 500 million light-years in diameter and contains the mass of 1017 (a hundred quadrillion) suns in 100,000 galaxies.
This study clarifies the role of the Great Attractor, a problem that has kept astronomers busy for 30 years. Within the volume of the Laniakea Supercluster, motions are directed inwards, as water streams follow descending paths toward a valley. The Great Attractor region is a large flat bottom gravitational valley with a sphere of attraction that extends across the Laniakea Supercluster.
The name Laniakea was suggested by Nawa‘a Napoleon, an associate professor of Hawaiian Language and chair of the Department of Languages, Linguistics, and Literature at Kapiʻolani Community College, a part of the University of Hawaiʻi system.
The name honors Polynesian navigators who used knowledge of the heavens to voyage across the immensity of the Pacific Ocean.
The other  authors are Hélène Courtois (University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France), Yehuda Hoffman (Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem), and Daniel Pomarède (Institute of Research on Fundamental Laws of the Universe, CEA/Saclay, France).
A short video about Laniakea that gives the viewer a general sense of the structure of our home supercluster and of galaxy motions in the nearby universe is available at http://vimeo.com/104704518. A longer video that complements the Nature paper may be found at http://irfu.cea.fr/laniakea.
Quelle: University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa

 




2123 Views

Mittwoch, 3. September 2014 - 23:00 Uhr

Mars-Curiosity-Chroniken - Curiosity-News Sol 656-671

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NASA's Mars rover Curiosity acquired this image using its Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, on June 11, 2014, Sol 656 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 06:40:39 UTC.
When this image was obtained, the focus motor count position was 12552. This number indicates the internal position of the MAHLI lens at the time the image was acquired. This count also tells whether the dust cover was open or closed. Values between 0 and 6000 mean the dust cover was closed; values between 12500 and 16000 occur when the cover is open. For close-up images, the motor count can in some cases be used to estimate the distance between the MAHLI lens and target. For example, in-focus images obtained with the dust cover open for which the lens was 2.5 cm from the target have a motor count near 15270. If the lens is 5 cm from the target, the motor count is near 14360; if 7 cm, 13980; 10 cm, 13635; 15 cm, 13325; 20 cm, 13155; 25 cm, 13050; 30 cm, 12970. These correspond to image scales, in micrometers per pixel, of about 16, 25, 32, 42, 60, 77, 95, and 113.
Most images acquired by MAHLI in daylight use the sun as an illumination source. However, in some cases, MAHLI's two groups of white light LEDs and one group of longwave ultraviolet (UV) LEDs might be used to illuminate targets. When Curiosity acquired this image, the group 1 white light LEDs were off, the group 2 white light LEDs were off, and the ultraviolet (UV) LEDS were off. 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 656 (2014-06-11 06:34:01 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 657 (2014-06-12 06:56:00 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 657 (2014-06-12 06:53:05 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 658 (2014-06-13 03:55:56 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 658 (2014-06-13 03:55:56 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 659 (2014-06-14 07:53:33 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 660 (2014-06-15 06:09:34 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 660 (2014-06-15 07:17:10 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 661 (2014-06-16 08:46:40 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Left B (FHAZ_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 661 (2014-06-16 07:37:36 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 662 (2014-06-17 06:14:53 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 662 (2014-06-17 13:20:54 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 662 (2014-06-17 09:21:33 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Left B (FHAZ_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 662 (2014-06-17 09:19:03 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 663 (2014-06-18 07:48:04 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 663 (2014-06-18 10:34:04 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 663 (2014-06-18 10:40:13 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 663 (2014-06-18 09:19:42 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 664 (2014-06-19 07:50:40 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 665 (2014-06-20 08:22:03 UTC). 
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This image was taken by ChemCam: Remote Micro-Imager (CHEMCAM_RMI) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 665 (2014-06-20 08:01:42 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 665 (2014-06-20 09:16:35 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 666 (2014-06-21 09:59:42 UTC). 
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NASA's Mars rover Curiosity acquired this image using its Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, on June 23, 2014, Sol 668 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 14:26:55 UTC.
When this image was obtained, the focus motor count position was 12552. This number indicates the internal position of the MAHLI lens at the time the image was acquired. This count also tells whether the dust cover was open or closed. Values between 0 and 6000 mean the dust cover was closed; values between 12500 and 16000 occur when the cover is open. For close-up images, the motor count can in some cases be used to estimate the distance between the MAHLI lens and target. For example, in-focus images obtained with the dust cover open for which the lens was 2.5 cm from the target have a motor count near 15270. If the lens is 5 cm from the target, the motor count is near 14360; if 7 cm, 13980; 10 cm, 13635; 15 cm, 13325; 20 cm, 13155; 25 cm, 13050; 30 cm, 12970. These correspond to image scales, in micrometers per pixel, of about 16, 25, 32, 42, 60, 77, 95, and 113.
Most images acquired by MAHLI in daylight use the sun as an illumination source. However, in some cases, MAHLI's two groups of white light LEDs and one group of longwave ultraviolet (UV) LEDs might be used to illuminate targets. When Curiosity acquired this image, the group 1 white light LEDs were off, the group 2 white light LEDs were off, and the ultraviolet (UV) LEDS were off. 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 668 (2014-06-23 11:20:45 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 668 (2014-06-23 11:08:49 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 668 (2014-06-23 13:03:29 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 668 (2014-06-23 13:04:00 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 668 (2014-06-23 12:28:36 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 668 (2014-06-23 13:03:29 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Left B (FHAZ_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 668 (2014-06-23 12:54:25 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 669 (2014-06-24 11:30:33 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 669 (2014-06-24 14:21:17 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 670 (2014-06-25 11:55:34 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Rear Hazcam: Right B (RHAZ_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 671 (2014-06-26 14:33:06 UTC). 
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Fotos: NASA

2204 Views

Mittwoch, 3. September 2014 - 18:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Im Focus von Cassini : Saturn-Mond MIMAS

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Dot Against the Dark
As if trying to get our attention, Mimas is positioned against the shadow of Saturn's rings, bright on dark. As we near summer in Saturn's northern hemisphere, the rings cast ever larger shadows on the planet.
With a reflectivity of about 96 percent, Mimas (246 miles, or 396 kilometers across) appears bright against the less-reflective Saturn.
This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 10 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on July 13, 2014 using a spectral filter which preferentially admits wavelengths of near-infrared light centered at 752 nanometers.
The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 1.1 million miles (1.8 million kilometers) from Saturn and approximately 1 million miles (1.6 million kilometers) from Mimas. Image scale is 67 miles (108 kilometers) per pixel at Saturn and 60 miles (97 kilometers) per pixel at Mimas.

Tags: Raumfahrt 

2228 Views

Mittwoch, 3. September 2014 - 12:15 Uhr

Mars-Curiosity-Chroniken - Curiosity-News Sol 636-655

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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 636 (2014-05-21 14:10:14 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 636 (2014-05-21 15:32:49 UTC). 
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This image was taken by ChemCam: Remote Micro-Imager (CHEMCAM_RMI) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 636 (2014-05-21 13:20:02 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Left B (FHAZ_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 636 (2014-05-21 15:27:15 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 637 (2014-05-22 13:22:35 UTC).
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 637 (2014-05-22 13:23:36 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 637 (2014-05-22 13:23:48 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 637 (2014-05-22 17:51:10 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 637 (2014-05-22 17:51:10 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Right B (FHAZ_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 637 (2014-05-22 15:43:11 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 640 (2014-05-25 15:13:24 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 640 (2014-05-25 15:13:58 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 640 (2014-05-25 16:24:15 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 640 (2014-05-25 16:26:30 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 640 (2014-05-25 16:29:58 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 640 (2014-05-25 16:35:49 UTC). 
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This image was taken by ChemCam: Remote Micro-Imager (CHEMCAM_RMI) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 640 (2014-05-25 15:27:37 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 641 (2014-05-26 16:17:08 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 641 (2014-05-26 16:20:30 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 641 (2014-05-26 18:35:18 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 643 (2014-05-28 19:46:44 UTC). 
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NASA's Mars rover Curiosity acquired this image using its Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, on May 29, 2014, Sol 644 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 22:10:07 UTC.
When this image was obtained, the focus motor count position was 12552. This number indicates the internal position of the MAHLI lens at the time the image was acquired. This count also tells whether the dust cover was open or closed. Values between 0 and 6000 mean the dust cover was closed; values between 12500 and 16000 occur when the cover is open. For close-up images, the motor count can in some cases be used to estimate the distance between the MAHLI lens and target. For example, in-focus images obtained with the dust cover open for which the lens was 2.5 cm from the target have a motor count near 15270. If the lens is 5 cm from the target, the motor count is near 14360; if 7 cm, 13980; 10 cm, 13635; 15 cm, 13325; 20 cm, 13155; 25 cm, 13050; 30 cm, 12970. These correspond to image scales, in micrometers per pixel, of about 16, 25, 32, 42, 60, 77, 95, and 113.
Most images acquired by MAHLI in daylight use the sun as an illumination source. However, in some cases, MAHLI's two groups of white light LEDs and one group of longwave ultraviolet (UV) LEDs might be used to illuminate targets. When Curiosity acquired this image, the group 1 white light LEDs were off, the group 2 white light LEDs were off, and the ultraviolet (UV) LEDS were off. 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 644 (2014-05-29 20:20:37 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 646 (2014-05-31 19:15:52 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 646 (2014-05-31 19:19:00 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 646 (2014-05-31 19:19:36 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 647 (2014-06-01 23:58:38 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 647 (2014-06-01 23:58:53 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 647 (2014-06-02 00:03:42 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 647 (2014-06-02 00:07:38 UTC). 
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NASA's Mars rover Curiosity acquired this image using its Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, on June 3, 2014, Sol 649 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 22:41:42 UTC.
When this image was obtained, the focus motor count position was 13994. This number indicates the internal position of the MAHLI lens at the time the image was acquired. This count also tells whether the dust cover was open or closed. Values between 0 and 6000 mean the dust cover was closed; values between 12500 and 16000 occur when the cover is open. For close-up images, the motor count can in some cases be used to estimate the distance between the MAHLI lens and target. For example, in-focus images obtained with the dust cover open for which the lens was 2.5 cm from the target have a motor count near 15270. If the lens is 5 cm from the target, the motor count is near 14360; if 7 cm, 13980; 10 cm, 13635; 15 cm, 13325; 20 cm, 13155; 25 cm, 13050; 30 cm, 12970. These correspond to image scales, in micrometers per pixel, of about 16, 25, 32, 42, 60, 77, 95, and 113.
Most images acquired by MAHLI in daylight use the sun as an illumination source. However, in some cases, MAHLI's two groups of white light LEDs and one group of longwave ultraviolet (UV) LEDs might be used to illuminate targets. When Curiosity acquired this image, the group 1 white light LEDs were off, the group 2 white light LEDs were off, and the ultraviolet (UV) LEDS were off. 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 649 (2014-06-03 23:53:45 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Front Hazcam: Left B (FHAZ_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 649 (2014-06-03 21:47:43 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 650 (2014-06-05 01:51:33 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 651 (2014-06-06 00:09:02 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 651 (2014-06-06 02:15:49 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 651 (2014-06-06 00:49:48 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 651 (2014-06-06 02:04:04 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 653 (2014-06-08 03:12:33 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 654 (2014-06-09 04:18:07 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 654 (2014-06-09 04:18:23 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 655 (2014-06-10 01:36:50 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 655 (2014-06-10 03:24:16 UTC). 
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Fotos: NASA

Tags: Raumfahrt 

2094 Views


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