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Sonntag, 17. Juni 2012 - 21:41 Uhr

Astronomie - Galaxie-Rätsel gelöst

 

 

Astronomen lösen das Entfernungsrätsel einer Galaxie
– und finden heraus, dass sie Gesellschaft hat

Ein internationales Team von Astronomen um Fabian Walter vom Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie hat erstmals den Abstand der Galaxie HDF850.1 bestimmt, einer der im Hinblick auf die Entstehung neuer Sterne produktivsten Galaxien überhaupt. HDF850.1 ist demnach 12,5 Milliarden Lichtjahre von der Erde entfernt. Wir sehen die Galaxie deswegen so, wie sie vor 12,5 Milliarden Jahren war, also zu einer Zeit, als der Kosmos weniger als 10% so alt war wie heute. Die Galaxie scheint zusammen mit rund einem Dutzend weiterer Galaxien einen Proto-Galaxienhaufen zu bilden, der weniger als eine Milliarde Jahre nach dem Urknall entstanden ist – einer von nur zwei bislang bekannten Haufen dieser Art. Die Arbeit der Forscher ist jetzt in der Fachzeitschrift Nature erschienen.

 

 

Die Galaxie HDF850.1 ist unter Astronomen bekannt für die enorme Mengen neuer Sterne, die sie produziert: pro Jahr Sterne mit einer Gesamtmasse von eintausend Sonnenmassen. In normalen Galaxien wie unserer Milchstraße entsteht gerade mal ein Tausendstel dieser Menge. Doch trotz solcher Prominenz war HD850.1 in einer Hinsicht nur sehr schwer zu fassen: Die Astronomen hatten vierzehn Jahre lang große Schwierigkeiten, den Abstand der Galaxie von der Erde zu bestimmen.

Hintergrund der Schwierigkeiten ist, dass die Galaxie HDF850.1, die sich in einer Himmelsregion namens »Hubble Deep Field« (wörtlich das »tiefe Hubble-Feld«) befindet, für Beobachtungen mit normalem, sichtbaren Licht unsichtbar ist. Nachgewiesen wurde sie stattdessen mit Hilfe von Submillimeter-Strahlung (Wellenlängenbereich zwischen einigen Zehntel Millimetern und einem Millimeter), mit der sich insbesondere kühle Gas- und Staubwolken beobachten lassen.

Konkret war HDF850.1 im Jahre 1998 bei Beobachtungen mit dem James Clerk Maxwell-Teleskop auf Hawaii als bei weitem hellste Quelle von Submillimeterstrahlung im gesamten Hubble Deep Field entdeckt worden. Als die Forscher anschließend Aufnahmen des Weltraumteleskops Hubble auswerteten, erlebten sie eine Überraschung: HDF850.1 ist in diesen Aufnahmen komplett unsichtbar!

Letzterer Umstand ist kein großes Rätsel. Fabian Walter (MPIA) erklärt: »Neue Sterne entsstehen im Inneren dichter Wolken aus Gas und Staub. Solche Wolken sind für normales Licht komplett undurchsichtig, so dass die leuchtenden Sterne der Galaxie den irdischen Teleskopen verborgen bleiben; Submillimeterstrahlung dagegen kann selbst dicke Gas- und Staubwolken weitgehend ungehindert durchqueren und bietet damit ungestörte Einblicke in das Wolkeninnere. Liegen über eine Galaxie wie HDF850.1 lediglich Daten aus einem sehr engen Teilbereich des elektromagnetischen Spektrums vor, dann ist es sehr schwierig, die Entfernung der Galaxie und damit ihren Platz in der Geschichte unseres Universums zu bestimmen.«

Nun hat eine internationale Gruppe von Forschern um Fabian Walter vom Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie das Rätsel der Entfernung von HDF850.1 gelöst. Mit Hilfe neuer Instrumente am IRAM-Interferometer auf dem Plateau de Bure, bei dem sechs Radioantennen zu einem gigantischen Millimeter-Teleskop zusammengeschaltet werden, konnten sie charakteristische Eigenschaften (»Spektrallinien«) des Lichts von HDF850.1 identifizieren, anhand derer eine genaue Entfernungsbestimmung möglich ist. Pierre Cox, der Direktor von IRAM, erklärt: »Nur dank der neuen Instrumente, die jetzt am IRAM-Interferometer installiert sind, konnten wir diese schwachen Linien in HDF850.1 nachweisen und endlich finden, wonach Astronomen in den letzten 14 Jahren vergeblich gesucht haben.«

Das Ergebnis ist überraschend: Die Galaxie befindet sich 12,5 Milliarden Lichtjahre von der Erde entfernt (sog. Rotverschiebung z ~ 5.2). Wir sehen die Galaxie daher so, wie sie vor 12,5 Milliarden Lichtjahren war, zu einer Zeit, als das Universum als Ganzes nur 1,1 Milliarden Jahre alt war! Die spektakulär hohen Sternentstehungsraten von HDF850.1 gehören damit in eine kosmische Epoche, in der das Universum weniger als 10% so alt war wie heute.

Weitere Beobachtungen mit dem Karl Jansky-Very Large Array (VLA) der amerikanischen National Science Foundation zeigten den Forschern, dass ein ungewöhnlich großer Bruchteil der Masse der Galaxie in Form von Molekülen vorliegt – dem Rohmaterial für neue Sterne.

Sobald die Entfernung bekannt war, konnten die Forscher die Galaxie in den richtigen kosmischen Zusammenhang einordnen. Mit Hilfe weiterer Daten aus veröffentlichten ebenso wie aus noch unveröffentlichten Himmelsdurchmusterungen konnten sie zeigen, dass die Galaxie Teil einer sehr frühen Sorte von Galaxienhaufen sein dürfte. Vorher war erst ein einziger solcher Protohaufen aus der Frühzeit des Universums bekannt gewesen.

Die neuen Forschungsergebnisse machen außerdem die Bedeutung von zukünftigen, leistungsfähigeren Interferometern im Submillimeter- und Millimeterbereich deutlich. Dazu gehört NOEMA, eine zukünftige Erweiterung des Interferometers auf dem Plateau de Bure, ebenso wie ALMA, ein neues Verbundteleskop für Submillimeter- und Millimeterstrahlung, das derzeit von einem internationalen Konsortium in der chilenischen Atacama-Wüste errichtet wird. Beide Anlagen werden im Submillimeter- und Millimeterbereich Beobachtungen mit nie zuvor erreichbarer Detailschärfe erlauben. Damit sollte das Verbundteleskop Entfernungsbestimmungen und weitere Untersuchungen für viele noch weiter entfernte Galaxien ermöglichen, die im frühen Universen aktiv Sterne gebildet haben, aber im sichtbaren Licht unsichtbar bleiben.

Quelle: MPI-Heidelberg


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Sonntag, 17. Juni 2012 - 17:30 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Start von Atlas-V am Mittwoch

 

 

 

United Launch Alliance has postponed the launch of an Atlas V rocket from the Space Coast.

After the rocket was rolled the launch pad, an issue with an environmental control system duct that failed near its connection to the Mobile Launch Platform was identified.

The vehicle will be rolled back to the Vertical Integration Facility so the duct can be replaced.

The launch is now set for Wednesday, June 20 from Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

The rocket will carry a classified payload into orbit on behalf of the U.S. National Reconnaissance Office


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Sonntag, 17. Juni 2012 - 10:43 Uhr

Raumfahrt - USAF-X-37B auf Vandenberg AFB gelandet

 

 

The Air Force's unmanned X-37B spaceplane glided to a pinpoint landing at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., Saturday after 15-and-a-half months in orbit on a classified military mission. (Credit: U.S Air Force)

 


An unmanned Air Force spaceplane dropped out of orbit and glided to a computer-controlled California landing early Saturday to close out a classified 469-day military mission.

The reusable Boeing-built X-37B Orbital Test Vehicle touched down on a runway at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., at 5:48 a.m. PDT (GMT-7). The Air Force did not provide any advance warning of the re-entry and landing time and no technical details about the vehicle's performance were released.

But in a statement, the Air Force said the autonomous landing by the nation's "newest and most advanced re-entry spacecraft" was executed "safely and successfully."

"With the retirement of the space shuttle fleet, the X-37B OTV program brings a singular capability to space technology development," Air Force Lt. Col. Tom McIntyre, X-37B program manager, said in the statement. "The return capability allows the Air Force to test new technologies without the same risk commitment faced by other programs. We're proud of the entire team's successful efforts to bring this mission to an outstanding conclusion."

The X-37B was launched atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas 5 rocket that took off March 5, 2011, from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It was the second flight for the Air Force Orbital Test Vehicle program following a successful 224-day maiden voyage in 2010. The spacecraft used for that mission is expected to be relaunched in October.

As with the initial test flight, details about the program's just-concluded second mission are classified.

Built by Boeing's Experimental Systems Group, the X-37B is equipped with twin tail fins, stubby wings and an advanced heat shield. It is about one quarter the size of NASA's now-retired space shuttle, measuring 29 feet long. It has a wingspan of just 14 feet and weighs about 11,000 pounds when loaded with propellants.

"With OTV-1, we proved that unmanned space vehicles can be sent into orbit and safely recovered," Paul Rusnock, Boeing vice president of Government Space Systems, said in a company statement. "With OTV-2, we tested the vehicle design even further by extending the ... mission duration of the first vehicle and testing additional capabilities.

"We look forward to the second launch of OTV-1 later this year and the opportunity to demonstrate that the X-37B is an affordable space vehicle that can be repeatedly reused."

The spacecraft was originally developed by Boeing for NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, or DARPA, but it eventually was turned over to the Orbital Test Vehicle program operated by the Rapid Capabilities Office of the Air Force.

The unmanned orbiter is based on the same lifting body design used for the space shuttle and flies a similar re-entry trajectory. But the X-37B features more lightweight composite materials, improved wing leading edge insulation and tougher heat-shield tiles that "are significantly more durable than the first generation tiles used by the space shuttle," according to a Boeing website description. "All avionics on the X-37B are designed to automate all de-orbit and landing functions."

The X-37B features a scaled-down 4-foot by 7-foot payload bay. But unlike NASA's manned orbiter, which relied on fuel cells for electrical power, the Air Force spaceplane is equipped with a deployable solar array that permits it to remain in orbit for long-duration missions.

What else might have been carried aloft during the OTV program's second mission is not known. The possibilities include reconnaissance cameras or other spy sensors; test gear to precisely measure the craft's performance over the course of a long-duration mission; and space exposure experiments to help researchers learn more about the long-term effects of the space environment on sensitive materials or instruments.

 

In this infrared view, the X-37B's nose still glows with high temperatures as the spaceplane rolls down the runway. (Credit: U.S Air Force)

 

Looking none the worse for its 469 days in space, the X-37B is prepared for a tow to the hangar. (Credit: U.S Air Force)

 

Video von der X-37B-Landung auf Vandenberg AFB hier: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IsHUwYLpdBI&feature=player_embedded


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Samstag, 16. Juni 2012 - 22:12 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Update-USAF-X-37B soll am auf Vandenberg landen

 

 

 

The U.S. Air Force is standing ready for this week's much anticipated return to Earth of a robotic space plane that has spent more than a year in orbit on a secret mission.
Air Force officials say landing day for the unmanned X-37B space plane is imminent, and could occur on Friday (June 15). But weather conditions at its intended landing site at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, as well as other factors, will determine when the spacecraft's will ultimately land.
"Team Vandenberg is prepared to safely receive the X-37B at a moment's notice," Air Force Lt. Austin Fallin told SPACE.com in an email this week. "Exact landing date and time depend on weather and technical considerations."
Update: 16.06.2012
0th Space Wing Public Affairs

6/16/2012 - VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. -- The X-37B Orbital Test Vehicle (OTV), the Air Force's unmanned, reusable space plane, landed at Vandenberg Air Force Base at 5:48 a.m. (PDT) June 16.

OTV-2, which launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., March 5, 2011, conducted on-orbit experiments for 469 days during its mission.

"Team Vandenberg has put in over a year's worth of hard work in preparation for this landing and today we were able to see the fruits of our labor," said Col. Nina Armagno, 30th Space Wing commander. "I am so proud of our team for coming together to execute this landing operation safely and successfully."

The X-37B is the newest and most advanced re-entry spacecraft. Managed by the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office, the X-37B program performs risk reduction, experimentation and concept of operations development for reusable space vehicle technologies.

"With the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet, the X-37B OTV program brings a singular capability to space technology development," said Lt. Col. Tom McIntyre, X-37B program manager. "The return capability allows the Air Force to test new technologies without the same risk commitment faced by other programs. We're proud of the entire team's successful efforts to bring this mission to an outstanding conclusion."

The Air Force is preparing for another launch of the X-37B from Cape Canaveral Air Force station sometime in Fall 2012 aboard an Atlas V booster. This will be a re-flight of the first X-37B OTV, which was successfully recovered at Vandenberg AFB Dec. 3, 2010, after 224 days on orbit.-30-

The U.S. Air Force's robotic X-37B space plane finally returned to Earth Saturday (June 16), wrapping up a mysterious mission that lasted more than year in orbit.

The unmanned X-37B spacecraft, also known as Orbital Test Vehicle-2 (OTV-2), glided back to Earth on autopilot, touching down at California's Vandenberg Air Force Base at 5:48 a.m. PDT (8:48 a.m. EDT, 1248 GMT). The landing brought to an end the X-37B program's second-ever spaceflight, a mission that lasted more than 15 months with objectives that remain shrouded in secrecy.

Air Force officials announced the X-37B space plane's successful landing in a brief statement posted on the Vandenberg website and emailed to reporters.

 

469-day mission tested capabilities of reusable unmanned vehicle

VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif., June 16, 2012 -- Boeing [NYSE: BA] today announced the successful de-orbit and landing of the second X-37B Orbital Test Vehicle (OTV) for the U.S. Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office. The X-37B landed at Vandenberg Air Force Base at 5:48 a.m. Pacific time today, concluding a 469-day experimental test mission. It was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., on March 5, 2011.

“We congratulate the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office and the 30th Space Wing at Vandenberg Air Force Base on this second successful mission,” said Paul Rusnock, Boeing vice president of Government Space Systems. “With OTV-1, we proved that unmanned space vehicles can be sent into orbit and safely recovered. With OTV-2, we tested the vehicle design even further by extending the 220-day mission duration of the first vehicle, and testing additional capabilities. We look forward to the second launch of OTV-1 later this year and the opportunity to demonstrate that the X-37B is an affordable space vehicle that can be repeatedly reused.”

OTV-1 was the United States’ first unmanned vehicle to return from space and land on its own. Previously, the space shuttle was the only space vehicle capable of returning to Earth and being reused. The innovative X-37B combines the best of an aircraft and a spacecraft into an affordable, responsive unmanned vehicle.

The X-37B program is demonstrating a reliable, reusable unmanned space test platform for the Air Force. Its objectives include space experimentation, risk reduction, and concept-of-operations development for reusable space vehicle technologies that could become key enablers for future space missions.

Boeing's commitment to this space-based unmanned vehicle spans a decade and includes support to the Air Force Research Lab's X-40 program, NASA's X-37 program, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's X-37 Approach & Landing Test Vehicle program.

A unit of The Boeing Company, Boeing Defense, Space & Security is one of the world's largest defense, space and security businesses specializing in innovative and capabilities-driven customer solutions, and the world's largest and most versatile manufacturer of military aircraft. Headquartered in St. Louis, Boeing Defense, Space & Security is a $32 billion business with 61,000 employees worldwide.

Quelle: Boeing


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Samstag, 16. Juni 2012 - 21:58 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Erfolgreicher Start von Shenzhou-9

 

 

 Chinese President Hu Jintao on Saturday congratulated the country's space scientists and astronauts on the successful launch of the Shenzhou-9 manned spacecraft.

"I feel very glad to hear the success of launching the Shenzhou-9 manned spacecraft and I would like to extend warm congratulations and sincere regards to all those participating in the research and tests (of the country's space program)," Hu said in a congratulatory letter sent from Denmark's Copenhagen, where he is paying a state visit.

State Councilor Liu Yandong read the letter on behalf of the president at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China.

The rendezvous and docking between the Shenzhou-9 spaceship and the orbiting space lab module Tiangong-1 will mark a major breakthrough in the country's manned space program, said Hu in the letter.

He expressed the hope that the space staff carry on their work unremittingly and focus on following jobs to achieve a full-scale triumph.

China on Saturday sent its first female astronaut, together with her two male crew mates, aboard the Shenzhou-9 spacecraft, into space.

Shenzhou-9, atop an upgraded Long March-2F carrier rocket, blasted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center at 6:37 p.m. Saturday.

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

BEIJING, June 16 (Xinhua) -- China has designed contingency plans to address more than 700 emergencies during the Shenzhou-9 space mission, which includes both automated and manual docking between the spaceship and the target orbiter Tiangong-1.

Ma Yongping, deputy head of the Beijing Aerospace Control Center, said here Saturday, "We have put in place all preparations concerning the flight control of the mission."

China successfully launched an upgraded Long March-2F rocket in late Saturday afternoon, carrying Shenzhou-9 spacecraft, with the country's first female astronaut and another two men aboard, into space for a 13-day space voyage.

"In terms of safety requirements and risks control, there are so many differences between manned and unmanned missions," Ma said, noting that changes in flight states and much longer flight hours this time would bring difficulty to the flight control efforts.

The control center has upgraded the spaceship-to-Earth communication system needed for conversation, video and email between astronauts and ground commanding officers, Ma said.

The contingency plans would provide astronauts with guidance to countermeasures for any of the 700 scenarios, he said.


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Samstag, 16. Juni 2012 - 06:30 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Update - China´s Shenzhou-9 vor Start

 

BEIJING,The last fuelling drill began on Wednesday. Technicians say they have to cool down the propeller for safety, as the launch is taking place during some of the year's hottest months.
Meanwhile, the center's meteorological observatory is sending out two hydrogen balloons each day for the latest weather data. With a 2 metres diameter, the balloon can reach up to 30 kilometres above the ground.
The balloon's monitor box collects temperatures and air pressure figures, sending the data to ground radars every 2 seconds.
In addition, there are 7 weather monitoring stations on the ground, tracking any approaching abnormal weather. The Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre holds two weather consultation meetings each day.
The latest numbers show that cooler temperatures are headed towards the area, good news for Shenzhou-9's fast approaching launch.
(Source: CNTV.cn)
Update: 15.06.2012:
China's sea divers, from 6,055 meters below, wish Shenzhou-9 spacecraft launch success
              
ABOARD XIANGYANGHONG 09, June 15 (Xinhua) -- The three sea divers Ye Cong, Cui Weicheng and Yangbo inside China's manned deep-sea submersible Jiaolong delivered their best wishes to the Shenzhou-9 spacecraft launch from 6,055 meters below the sea of the Mariana Trench on Friday.
The country's Shenzhou-9 manned spacecraft Thursday completed its final full-system drill before its planned launch in mid-June.
The dive, which began at 9 a.m. local time Friday (2300 GMT Thursday), is the first of a series of six scheduled ones to attempt the country's deepest-ever 7,000-meter manned dive.
Update:16.06.2012:
China has named the female astronaut who on Saturday is set to become the nation's first woman in space.
Liu Yang, 33, an air force pilot, will join two male colleagues on board the Shenzhou 9 spacecraft, state-run news agency Xinhua has said.
Ms Liu said at a press conference: "I thank the country and its people for your trust in letting me go to space on behalf of all women in the country".
The astronauts aboard the Shenzhou 9 spacecraft will dock with the Tiangong 1 - an experimental module currently orbiting Earth - and carry out scientific experiments on board.

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Freitag, 15. Juni 2012 - 12:10 Uhr

Astronomie - Sonnen-Eruption verursacht Polarlichter

 

For the second day in a row, the sun has sent a blast of electrically charged particles toward Earth — and according to SpaceWeather.com, that means we're in for a double shot of geomagnetic activity early Saturday. But not to worry: The most noticeable effect of the twin M-class blasts should be heightened auroral displays.
Both of the coronal mass eruptions, or CMEs, originated in a sunspot region known as AR1504, which is currently pointing in Earth's direction. AR1504 has been shooting off a series of flares in recent days, including an M1.2-class flare on Wednesday and an M1.5 today. None of the flares have approached the X-class level, which would have the potential for significant disruptions in power grids or satellite-based communication.
SpaceWeather.com projects that the CMEs thrown off by those two flares will merge into one wave of particles that's due to hit Earth's magnetic field around 6:16 a.m. ET Saturday. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Space Weather Prediction Center, meanwhile, predicts that the CME will arrive "late on 16 June." The prediction center noted that today's flare sparked a minor radio blackout and "has the potential" to produce more such storms.
Bottom line? Polar regions will have a better chance of seeing auroral lights over the weekend, although the midnight sun will put a damper on viewing in the north. If you catch a great auroral view, please consider sharing it with us via our FirstPerson upload page. In the meantime, keep a watch on SpaceWeather.com and the prediction center's Facebook page for updates — and feast your eyes on the imagery below:
Fotos: NASA

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Freitag, 15. Juni 2012 - 00:00 Uhr

Planet Erde - Untersuchung des Erdinnern aus dem All

 

 

 ESA-Astronaut André Kuipers führt auf der Internationalen Raumstation Experimente durch, die Klarheit über die Vorgänge tief im Inneren der Erde bringen sollen. Aus dem Erdorbit in 400 Kilometern Höhe bietet GeoFlow Einsichten über die inneren Zusammenhänge unseres Planeten.
 
3.000 Kilometer unter uns befindet sich der Erdmantel, eine halb-feste Flüssigkeit unter unserer dünnen Erdkruste. Die sehr zähen Schichten ändern sich mit Temperatur, Druck und Tiefe.
Geophysiker haben ein großes Interesse daran, zu verstehen, wie der Erdmantel fließt, denn mit dem Wissen könnte man Erdbeben und Vulkanausbrüche besser erklären. Zwar können Computermodelle diese Vorgänge simulieren, aber wie können Wissenschaftler sicher sein, dass diese Modelle korrekt sind?
Das tiefste von Menschen gebohrte Loch reicht gerade mal 12 Kilometer in die Erde hinein. Eine direkte Untersuchung des Erdmantels ist in naher Zukunft also unmöglich.  
 
 
Experiment Geoflow
Anstatt direkt in die Tiefen der Erde vorzudringen, haben sechs europäische Teams, angeführt von der Universität Cottbus, versucht, die Bewegung des Erdmantels im Labor nachzubilden. Experimente, die diese Bedingungen simulieren, können die Computermodelle bestätigen und verbessern.
Hier ergibt sich jedoch ein anderes Problem: Wie kann man Schwerkraft simulieren, ohne dass die vorhandene Schwerkraft der Erde die Ergebnisse beeinflusst?
Die Lösung besteht darin, ein Experiment zu unserem größten Schwerelosigkeitslabor zu schicken: zur Internationalen Raumstation. 
 
 
 
Geoflow Sphären
Unsere Erde im Schuhkarton
 
Die ESA hat die Entwicklung eines Experiments unterstützt, welches die geometrische Beschaffenheit eines Planeten nachahmt. Das Experiment GeoFlow besteht aus zwei rotierenden, konzentrischen Sphären, zwischen denen sich eine Flüssigkeit befindet.
Die innere Kugel stellt den Erdkern dar, die äußere Hohlkugel bildet die Erdkruste. Die Flüssigkeit dazwischen simuliert den Erdmantel. 
 
 
Ohne den Einfluss der Erdschwere erzeugt ein elektrisches Hochspannungsfeld die künstliche Schwerkraft für das Experiment.
Während die Sphären langsam rotieren wird ein Temperaturgefälle zwischen den Schalen erzeugt. Dabei wird die Bewegung der Flüssigkeit genau beobachtet. Die Temperatur kann bis zu einem Zehntel Grad genau eingestellt werden. 
 
 
 
Vulkane auf Hawaii
André konnte beobachten, dass Ströme wärmerer Flüssigkeit in Richtung äußere Schale aufsteigen - genau wie Computersimulationen dies vorhersagen.
Pilzförmige Ströme in Flüssigkeiten, die starken Temperaturunterschieden ausgesetzt sind, könnten die hawaiianische Vulkankette im südlichen Pazifik erklären.
GeoFlow versorgt uns aber nicht nur mit einem besseren Verständnis für unseren Planeten. Die Ergebnisse könnten auch der Industrie helfen, um zum Beispiel Kugelkreisel, Lager und Zentrifugalpumpen zu verbessern.

 

Quelle: ESA


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Mittwoch, 13. Juni 2012 - 23:40 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Erfolgreicher Start von NuSTART mit Pegasus-XL

 

 

The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) spacecraft launched spaceward at the tip of an Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL rocket, which itself was carried into launch position by a high-altitude L-1011 "Stargazer" jet aircraft. At 12 p.m. EDT (1600 GMT), the plane dropped the rocket in midair, where the booster fired its engines for its climb into the sky.

 

 

 

 

 


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Mittwoch, 13. Juni 2012 - 12:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt - China sendet im Juni bemannte Mission zur Raumstation Tiangong-1

 

 

China to carry out manned space flight

The manned space flight will dock with the Tiangong 1 space station module

China has announced it will carry out a manned space flight at some point in the middle of June.

A rocket carrying the Shenzhou 9 spacecraft has been moved to a launch pad in the north-west of the country.

According to state news agency Xinhua, it will carry three astronauts - possibly including a woman - to the Tiangong 1 space station module.

This will be China's fourth manned space flight and its first since 2008.

It became only the third country to independently send a man into space in 2003.

Stellar plans

Last year, China completed a complicated space docking manoeuvre when an unmanned craft docked with the Tiangong 1, or "Heavenly Body", by remote control.

The astronauts onboard the Shenzhou 9 spacecraft will also dock with the Tiangong 1 - an experimental module currently orbiting Earth - and carry out scientific experiments on board.

Xinhua reported that Niu Hongguang, deputy commander-in-chief of China's manned space programme, said the crew "might include female astronauts".

The mission is part of China's programme to develop a full orbiting space station.

Beijing is planning to complete the 60-tonne manned space station by 2020.

China was previously turned away from the International Space Station, a much bigger project run by 16 nations, reportedly after objections from the United States.

 

Update: 11.06.2012

One of the two female astronauts, Liu Yang(L) and Wang Yaping (R), from the
Wuhan Flight Unit, will join Shenzhou-9 manned spacecraft docking mission with
Tiangong-1 spacecraft in mid-June. They are selected as members of the first
batch of female astronauts in China because of their excellent flight skills
and psychological quality.

 

Update: 12.06.2012 

 

Shenzhou-9 full-system drill a success: official
 
 
The Shenzhou-9 manned spacecraft mission successfully completed its first full-system drill on Tuesday afternoon, and everything went well, an unidentified official with the mission said.
The drill began at 10:07 a.m. Beijing Time, when the mission entered 4:30 countdown. All systems relevant to the mission, including astronauts, spacecraft, rocket, launch center and the surveillance, control and communication systems, were well-organized and coordinated with each other in good order, according to Xinhua's eyewitness at the Command Hall of the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center.
"The four-and-a-half-hour drill fully tested the conditions of all systems," said the official. "Organization and command are unhindered, technology conditions and equipment are working normally and all the conditions can meet the requirements for the real launch."
As the closest event to the real mission, the drill was the first comprehensive maneuver ahead of the launch, with most systems taking part in it.
The spacecraft will be launched sometime in mid-June to perform the first manned space docking mission with the orbiting Tiangong-1 space lab module.
The official said all systems relevant to the space docking mission have arrived at the launch center, where experts have finished various activities to check the conditions of equipment and maintain the physical conditions of astronauts.
news.cn
Update: 13.06.2012 
A four-hour rehearsal for the country's first manned space-docking mission ended successfully on Tuesday, meaning the launch of Shenzhou IX, scheduled for "sometime around mid-June", can go ahead as planned.
The rehearsal, held at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in Northwest China's Gansu province, involved all systems of the mission, such as spacecraft, carrier rocket and launch site.
The astronauts selected for the mission also participated in the rehearsal and "worked in harmony", a statement from the space program said.
Though their names have yet to be announced, Guangzhou-based Nanfang Daily published pictures on Tuesday showing six astronauts arriving at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, including two female reserve astronauts.
Dressed in blue uniforms and black boots, they participated in a flag-raising ceremony and planted trees at their residence inside the launch center on Sunday.
Earlier reports said one of the two female reserve astronauts is likely to board the Shenzhou IX spacecraft and become the country's first female astronaut.
Quelle: China Daily

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