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Sonntag, 29. Dezember 2013 - 22:30 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Mondlandung von China´s Change3-Mond-Rover Update Teil-4

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Frams von Mondlande-Video von Change-3

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Quelle: Beijing Aerospace Flight Control Center

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Update:

ANALYSIS: Lunar success marks China's rise as next space power

BEIJING--China took one giant leap toward becoming a space power, boosting national prestige and possibly securing rare energy resources by successfully soft-landing its first lunar probe.
It also leapfrogged Japan, whose commitment to lunar exploration has not been as steadfast as China’s.
China became the third nation to land a probe on the moon after the former Soviet Union and the United States on Dec. 14, when the unmanned Chang’e 3 touched down. It was the first probe to land on the moon since 1976. The Yutu rover descended down a ladder the following day to the lunar surface.
At the Beijing Aerospace Command and Control Center, Chinese President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang applauded Dec. 15, when the probe and rover, both bearing Chinese flags, took photos of each other.
Chang’e is a fairy living on the moon in a Chinese legend, and Yutu is a rabbit beside her.
The Xi administration aims to show off advances in science and technology and boost national prestige. It also hopes to stir nationalistic fervor and consolidate public support.
China has been trying to rival the United States and other major powers not only in politics and economy but in space development.
The country plans to build its own space station around 2020 and land a manned probe on the moon by around 2025.
Analysts say China is also trying to secure a greater claim on lunar resources, such as helium 3, a rare potential fuel for nuclear fusion power generation.
The Dec. 15 edition of the Beijing Youth Daily newspaper said, “China can obtain a certificate to sharing lunar interests only by carrying out exploration and gaining actual results.” It also said, “How to protect China’s interest in outer space has become an inevitable question.”
Many people praised the probe’s successful landing on China’s Weibo microblogging sites, but some asked, “Is there a meaning in spending a lot of money when children in poor areas cannot eat sufficiently?” and “What does the landing matter? Will poor people become rich?”
Japan, which has a similar space program, has lagged substantially behind China in technology development.
Its Kaguya probe, launched in September 2007, a month before China’s Chang’e 1, orbited 100 kilometers above the moon and collected detailed surface data. Japan planned to land a successor probe on the moon and release a rover around 2013.
But the importance of a lunar mission has become ambiguous in Japan after the United States, its key partner in space development, shifted its focus from the moon to Mars and other planets under the Obama administration.
Japan had a plan to explore the moon's interior, but it has not been realized due partly to delays in equipment development. China, meanwhile, has proceeded steadily with its lunar program.
China’s lunar probe is tasked with exploring the moon’s surface and observing the Earth and other planets. It is expected to provide geological data that sheds light on the moon’s origins and detailed observational data of the planets.
According to Science, a U.S. research journal, the Yutu rover, equipped with radar, can investigate geological structures 100 meters below the surface. The Chang’e 3 probe can observe the terrestrial plasmasphere with a special wide-angle camera.
Teruhisa Tsujino of the Japan Science and Technology Agency said he is closely watching to see if the mission will survive the moon's harsh environment for three months, which are equivalent to three lunar days.
On the moon, temperatures can plummet to 180 degrees below zero at night and, depending on the location, soar to more than 100 degrees during the day.
Hiroo Hieda, a director of the Institute for Future Engineering, said the mission will be a good chance for China to show off its high technological levels to the international community.
(This article was compiled from reports by Kim Soon-hi in Beijing and Yuki Takayama and Shiho Tomioka in Tokyo.)
Quelle: The Asahi Shimbun Company

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Frams von 1.Foto von Change-3 von Yutu

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Quelle: CNTV

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Update: 

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"Bemerkenswert" Felsen in der Reichweite von Jade Kaninchen Rover

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Some of the youngest lava flows on the Moon are within reach of China's Jade Rabbit rover, says a leading US lunar scientist.
The Chang'e-3 mission touched down on Saturday at the eastern edge of its designated landing box.
Dr Paul Spudis said the landing area was more interesting than its original destination and could fill in gaps in our knowledge of lunar history.
Meanwhile, officials have said that the rover's instruments are now working.
Five of the eight pieces of scientific equipment on Chang'e-3 had begun their observations, state-run Xinhua news agency said.
Continue reading the main story
Whether by design or fortuitous accident, this site is actually more interesting geologically than the spacecraft's original destination”
Paul Spudis
Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI)
The telescopes and cameras are producing clear images, Zou Yongliao, a scientist with the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said at a press conference.
The lander and rover photographed each other on Sunday evening.
The Chinese craft performed the first "soft" landing (non-crash landing) on the Moon since 1976. And Jade Rabbit, or Yutu, is the first rover mission since the Soviet Union's Lunokhod-2 trundled through the grey soil 40 years ago.
A touch down had been planned in the Moon's Sinus Iridum (Bay of Rainbows). But the spacecraft actually landed on the northern edge of Mare Imbrium (the Sea of Rains) - visible on Earth as the right eye of the "Man in the Moon".
In a blog entry for the Smithsonian's Air and Space magazine, Dr Spudis, from the Lunar and Planetary Insitute in Houston, said: "Whether by design or fortuitous accident, this site is actually more interesting geologically than the spacecraft's original destination."
Chang'e 3 landed at the extreme northern end of a sequence of lava flows, which are estimated - by counting the number of impact craters on them - to be very young in lunar terms.
Dr Spudis said two major terrain types dominated lunar geology: the bright rugged highlands dating from the Moon's formation 4.5 billion years ago, and the younger "maria", dark volcanic plains made up of iron-rich lava flows.
The lavas began to erupt around 3.9 billion years ago, but it is unclear when this volcanic activity ended. The Mare Imbrium lavas appear to be between one and 2.5 billion years old, making them much younger than any of the rock samples returned from the Moon thus far.
Dr Spudis said the Imbrium lavas were "not only remarkable for their physical properties but are also compositionally interesting".
"Because the rover will examine several different individual areas during its traverse, we will obtain new "ground truth" data to better understand the meaning of data obtained remotely from orbit," he explained.
"At a minimum, Yutu will examine the composition of the surface lava flow."
Data gathered from orbit show the lavas to be high in the metal titanium. Volcanic flows to the north of the landing site seem have a lower titanium content and appear to underlie the ones that Chang'e-3 sits on.
But some of these underlying rocks may have been excavated by impacts, allowing Jade Rabbit to look for them among the debris around craters.
"With data from the rover, we might be able to reconstruct the volcanic stratigraphy of this region of the Moon," said Dr Spudis.
"The Chang'e-3 lander and Yutu rover can provide many answers to our questions regarding the geological history of this region of the Moon and about lunar history in general."
China said it would launch Chang'e-5, a mission to return samples of rock and soil from the Moon, in 2017.
Quelle: BBC

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Update: 17.12.2013

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Steuer+Bremsdüsen von Change-3

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Quelle: CNTV

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Most Chang'e-3 science tools activated

 

18.12.2013 - Students learn about the ongoing Chang'e-3 mission at a primary school in Ganyu, Jiangsu province, on Tuesday. Designers are pleased with the mission's success so far, as experiments have gone more smoothly than expected.  (Photo: China Daily)

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Six out of the eight pieces of scientific equipment deployed to the moon with the Chang'e-3 lunar mission have been activated by scientists and are functioning properly, according to scientists working on the mission.

 

Speaking at a news conference on Tuesday, scientists said that the equipment aboard the Yutu lunar rover and the Chang'e-3 lander had so far been functioning as hoped, despite the unexpectedly rigorous conditions of the lunar environment.

 

"Except for the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and the visible and near-infrared imaging spectrometer, the instruments have all been activated and are undergoing tests and adjustments," said Su Yan, deputy designer of the Chang'e-3 ground applications system.

 

Zhang He, deputy designer of the probe, said though the temperature disparity is greater than scientists had anticipated, all the equipment on the moon is in "perfect" condition, and optical and ultraviolet-imaging experiments are under way.

 

Scientists with the ground applications system are expecting to receive a colossal quantity of original data from the rover and lander, which have independent channels to send signals, Su said. The earlier Chang'e-1 and Chang'e-2 craft only had one channel each, he said.

 

The mission's success so far has been a relief to Wu Weiren, chief designer of China's lunar probe program. He said the whole process, including the launch, the soft landing, the separation of the rover and lander and the ongoing experiments, have gone "much smoother" than he had expected.

 

"We made more than 200 plans to respond to any possible emergencies, and they cover each step of the mission," he said. "I am proud that we haven't needed to use them so far."

 

On Saturday, China became the third nation in the world, after the United States and the former Soviet Union, to soft-land a probe on the moon when the unmanned Chang'e-3 successfully set down.

 

The 140-kilogram, six-wheeled Yutu rover separated from the lander and touched the lunar surface early on Sunday, leaving deep tracks in the loose soil.

 

The mission is the second phase of China's current moon exploration program, which includes orbiting, landing and returning to Earth. It follows the success of the Chang'e-1 and Chang'e-2 missions in 2007 and 2010.

 

The next steps for Chinese scientists and engineers, Wu said, are to guarantee that the program's goals are achieved and to make full use of data obtained by the probe.

 

Given the success of Chang'e-3, the Chang'e-4, a backup probe, will be upgraded and serve as a prototype for the technologies being used in the Chang'e-5.

 

The job of Chang'e-5 will be to land on the moon and return to Earth with lunar soil samples.

 

Development of the Long March-5 rocket series and the construction of the new launch center in Wenchang, on the island province of Hainan, are going well, said Liu Jianzhong, deputy designer of the rocket system.

 

"Among other advantages, the latitude of Wenchang is lower than that of Xichang, enabling the rocket to use less fuel to send satellites or probes into orbit," Liu said.

 

"In addition, launching from the Wenchang facility means the rocket's wreckage will fall into the sea rather than onto inhabited areas, saving us many problems we would have to handle."

 

Responding to questions on whether China will send probes to Mars, which has become a key goal for many foreign space organizations, Wu said China has the potential to go there in the wake of the successes of the Chang'e-1 and Chang'e-2 missions.

 

"We follow our own approach that respects stable progress and dislikes rash and reckless moves," he said. "We don't want to compete with any country in this regard. Moreover, the final decision is up to the government."
Quelle: China Daily

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Update: 21.12.2013

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China's moon rover, Yutu (Jade Rabbit), continued exploring after a "nap", according to the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence on Friday.

At about 8:00 p.m. Beijing Time, the six-wheeled rover started moving again after shutting down its subsystems on Dec. 16.

Yutu has had to deal with direct solar radiation raising the temperature to over 100 degrees centigrade on his sunny side, while his shaded side simultaneously fell below zero.

"The break had been planned to last until Dec. 23, but the scientists decided to restart Yutu now for more research time, based on the recent observations and telemetry parameters," said Pei Zhaoyu, spokesman for the lunar program.

Yutu separated from the lander on Dec. 15, several hours after Chang'e-3 soft-landed on Dec. 14. It moved to a spot about 9 meters to the north where Yutu and the lander took photos of each other.

Yutu will survey the moon's geological structure and surface substances and look for natural resources for three months, while the lander will conduct in-situ exploration at the landing site for one year.

Quelle: Xinhua

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Update: 22.12.2013

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China's moon rover, Yutu (Jade Rabbit), worked in stable condition following its restart after a "nap" on Friday night, according to the Beijing Aerospace Control Center (BACC).

The six-wheeled rover started moving again after shutting down its subsystems on Dec. 16, and has traveled about 21 meters as of 8:05 p.m. Beijing Time on Saturday, according to the BACC.

Xinhua reporters observed at the center that the rover is moving slowly and tracks of the wheels can be seen clearly at around 5:00 p.m..

Real-time telemetry updates showed that all subsystems of the rover and lander are working stably, and the rover has sent more than 500 instructions to the lander within the 24 hours after the "nap".

Yutu separated from the lander on Dec. 15, several hours after Chang'e-3 soft-landed on Dec. 14. It moved to a spot about 9 meters to the north where Yutu and the lander took photos of each other.

Yutu will survey the moon's geological structure and surface substances and look for natural resources for three months, while the lander will conduct in-situ exploration at the landing site for one year.

Quelle: Xinhua

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Update: 25.12.2013

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China's moon rover "sleeps" through lunar night

BEIJING, The moon rover and lander of China's Chang'e 3 lunar probe mission will "sleep" during the lunar night, enduring extreme low temperatures on the lunar surface.

According to Wu Fenglei of the Beijing Aerospace Control Center, the lander will "go to sleep" at about 7 a.m. on Christmas Day and the moon rover, Jade Rabbit, will fall asleep at about 1 a.m. on Boxing Day.

The forthcoming lunar night, expected to begin on Dec. 26, will last for about two weeks, experts with the center estimated. During their "sleep", both lander and rover will have to tolerate minus 180 degrees Celsius. Scientists tested the lander early Tuesday to ensure it can stand the temperature drop.

Both lander and rover are stable, said Wu, adding they have completed a series of scientific tasks in the past two days.

Chang'e-3 soft-landed on the moon's Sinus Iridum, or the Bay of Rainbows, on Dec. 14, establishing China as the third country to carry out such a mission after the United States and Soviet Union.

Yutu, the rover, will survey the moon's geological structure and surface substances and look for natural resources for three months, while the lander will conduct in-situ exploration at the landing site for one year.

Quelle: Xinhua

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Update: 29.12.2013

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1st Chang’e-3 Lunar Panorama
Portion of 1st panorama around Chang’e-3 landing site showing China’s Yutu rover leaving tracks in the lunar soil as it drives across the Moon’s surface on Dec. 15, 2013. Images taken by Chang’e-3 lander following Dec. 14 touchdown. Panoramic view was created from screen shots of a news video assembled into a mosaic.
Credit: CNSA/CCTV/screenshot mosaics & processing by Marco Di Lorenzo/Ken Kremer


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As night fell on the Earth’s Moon, China’s Yutu rover and mothership lander have both entered a state of hibernation determined to survive the frigidly harsh lunar night upon the magnificently desolate gray plains.

Yutu went to sleep at 5:23 a.m. Dec. 26, Beijing time, upon a command sent by mission control at the Beijing Aerospace Control Center (BACC), according to China’s State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence (SASTIND).

The Chang’e-3 lander began its long nap hours earlier at 11:00 a.m. Beijing time on Christmas Day, Dec. 25.

The vehicles must now endure the lunar night, which spans 14 Earth days in length, as well as the utterly low temperatures which plunge to below minus 180 degrees Celsius.

Yutu rover points mast with cameras and high gain antenna downwards to inspect lunar soil around landing site in this photo taken by Chang’e-3 lander. Credit: CNSA

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Scientists completed a series of engineering tests on the probes to ensure they were ready to withstand the steep temperature drop, said Wu Fenglei of the Beijing Aerospace Control Center, to the Xinhua state news agency.

Since there is no sunlight, the solar panels can’t provide any power and have been folded back.

So they face a massive engineering challenge to endure the extremely cold lunar night.

Therefore in order to survive the frigid lunar environment, a radioisotopic heat source is onboard to provide heat to safeguard the rovers and landers delicate computer and electronics subsystems via the thermal control system.

They are situated inside a warmed box below the deck that must be maintained at a minimum temperature of about minus 40 degrees Celsius to prevent debilitating damage.

So the two spacecraft still have to prove they can hibernate and eventually emerge intact from the unforgiving lunar night.

Just prior to going to sleep, the 140 kg Yutu rover flexed its robotic arm and Chinese space engineers at BACC completed an initial assessment testing its joints and control mechanisms.

The short robotic arm appears similar in form and function to the one on NASA’s famous Spirit and Opportunity Mars rovers.

It is equipped with an alpha particle X-ray instrument (APXS) – on the terminus – to determine the composition of lunar rocks and soil.

The robotic pair of spacecraft safely soft landed on the Moon on Dec. 14 at Mare Imbrium, nearby the Bay of Rainbows, or Sinus Iridum region. It is located in the upper left portion of the moon as seen from Earth. You can easily see the landing site with your own eyes.

Barely seven hours after the history making touchdown, ‘Yutu’ was painstakingly lowered from its perch atop the lander and then successfully drove all six wheels onto the moon’s surface on Dec. 15.

Yutu left noticeable tracks behind, several centimeters deep, as the wheels cut into the loose lunar regolith.

The Chang’e-3 lander and rover then conducted an initial survey of the stark lunar landing site, pockmarked with craters and small boulders.

‘Jade Rabbit’ will resume the lunar trek upon awakening, along with the stationary lander, from their extended two week slumber around Jan 12, 2014.

Yutu will depart the Chang’e-3 landing zone forever and rove the moon’s surface for investigations expected to last at least 3 months – and perhaps longer depending on its robustness in the unforgiving space environment.

The robotic rover will use its suite of four science instruments to survey the moon’s geological structure and composition to locate the moon’s natural resources for use by potential future Chinese astronauts, perhaps a decade from now.

NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) imaged the Chang’e-3 landing site in western Mare Imbrium around Christmas time on 24 and 25 December with its high resolution LROC camera and we’ll feature them here when available.

China is only the 3rd country in the world to successfully soft land a spacecraft on Earth’s nearest neighbor after the United States and the Soviet Union.

The best is surely yet to come!


Quelle:universetoday











Tags: China´s Change3-Mond-Rover Yutu 

2616 Views

Sonntag, 29. Dezember 2013 - 22:15 Uhr

Astronomie - Meteor über Iowa als Weihnachtsstern

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Am zweiten Weihnachtstag verzauberte vermutlich ein Meteor vielen Amerikanern den Abend: Sie wurden Zeuge, wie dessen funkelnde Fragmente den Himmel erleuchteten. Eine Überwachungskamera machte den besten Film.

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Einige haben das Himmelsspektakel gefilmt. Die beste, wenn auch kurze Aufnahme, stammt von einer Überwachungskamera aus North Liberty im an Minnesota angrenzenden Bundesstaat Iowa. Zu sehen ist die grell leuchtende Erscheinung, wie sie in einem eleganten Lauf das Firmament durchquert.

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Quelle: NASA


Tags: Meteor over Iowa 

2767 Views

Sonntag, 29. Dezember 2013 - 16:30 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Spektakuläre Bilder von Juno-Flyby an Erde bei Kurs zu Jupiter

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11.12.2013

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Quelle: Frams NASA-Video

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Update: 29.12.2013

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Frams: NASA-Video


Tags: Juno´s Earth-Moon-Flyby 

2672 Views

Sonntag, 29. Dezember 2013 - 13:14 Uhr

Astronomie - Kleinerer Sonnen-Flare am 28.12.2013

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MINOR RADIATION STORM IN PROGRESS: Energetic protons are swarming around Earth on Dec. 29th following a magnetic eruption near the western limb of the sun: movie. The ongoing radiation storm ranks S1 on NOAA storm scales, which means it is a relatively minor storm with little effect on spacecraft and high-altitude aviation.

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Quelle: NASA


2688 Views

Samstag, 28. Dezember 2013 - 18:30 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Buchungen von $100.000-Space-Flügen mit Lynx Mark II

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13.11.2013

UAE bookings for space trip open: $100,000 a seat on Lynx Mark II

250 bookings already made as race to space takes off


2617 Views

Samstag, 28. Dezember 2013 - 18:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Mondstaub:Fein wie Mehl , aber so rau wie Sandpapier

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25.12.2013

If we ever go back to the moon, how are we going to cope with its hidden hazard?

Fine as flour, but as rough as sandpaper, lunar dust was the bane of Apollo astronauts who visited the moon. It caused problems with spacesuits. It gave them hay fever. It permeated the cabin of the lunar landers.

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Gene Cernan, in the lunar module, after battling the dusty lunar surface during Apollo 17. (NASA)

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Worse than these nuisances, there’s evidence that moon dust may in fact be toxic to humans.

So what are we going to do if NASA ever sends astronauts back to the surface of the moon?

Believe it or not, even though NASA doesn’t have current plans to return astronauts to the moon — or any other planets, dwarf planets or moons in the solar system, but that’s another story — engineers at Johnson Space Center have been thinking about this problem.

And their solution is as brilliant as it is simple. Put the spacesuits outside.

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NASA’s space exploration vehicle, from behind. (moi)

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I had a chance recently to visit Building 9 at Johnson Space Center, where they keep all the cool stuff, including prototype rovers like the Space Exploration Vehicle shown above. It’s designed the operate on the moon.

Here’s a look at the vehicle from the front:

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The Space Exploration Vehicle. (moi)

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The vehicle is pressurized, with two seats  inside. It’s designed to require little or no maintenance, be able to travel thousands of miles climbing over rocks and up 40 degree slopes during its ten year life.

So how does the astronaut get into the spacesuit? Here’s what it looks like in the interior of the rover.

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Inside the space exploration vehicle. (moi)

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To get to the spacesuit, you open this door. And when you do, you see this:

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Step into your spacesuit. (moi)

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All you have to do is step into the suit, and then put your arms into the blue holes. Then your fellow astronaut closes the pressurized hatch, and off you go.

When your moonwalk is done, all you have to do is reconnect to the rover, open the hatch, and climb back inside. Cool eh?

So is all this in vain? Hopefully not. The engineers at Johnson Space Center told me they’re working to be get in a position such that, if NASA gets the green light to do an extended lunar mission, they’ll be able to develop a final rover with two exterior spacesuits within three years.

Quelle: Chron

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Update: 28.12.2013

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USA kann immer noch China schlagen auf dem Weg zurück zum Mond

Beijing's recent lunar landing shows its advances. U.S. public-private ventures way to go.

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The Chang'e-3 mission that landed a rover called Yutu on the Bay of Rainbows on the lunar surface proves China's space exploration program has one thing that America's does not -- a clear direction. Its piloted space program has featured missions of increasing complexity, with the latest being two visits to the Tiangong-1 space module, a predecessor of a planned Chinese space station.

In the meantime America's space exploration is fraught with confusion, controversy and a conspicuous lack of funding and direction. Ever since President Obama cancelled President George W. Bush's Constellation program that would have returned Americans to the moon, NASA has been headed for an asteroid in the near term. Which asteroid and how Americans will get there are still open questions.

After China's successful series of robotic landings on the moon, many space experts agree the Chinese will probably execute a moon walk sometime in the 2020s. If and when that happens and if Americans are not on the moon to greet them, China becomes the world's space exploration leader and all that implies.

All is not lost:

  • NASA currently has the robotic Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) in lunar orbit.
  • A private-sector contest, the Google Lunar X Prize, might result in another lunar landing or landings likely by at least one American team, by the end of 2015. This depends on one or more of these private groups raising enough money to pay for both their own lunar rover and lander and a rocket launch to the moon.
  • Bigelow Aerospace, which proposes to build its own space station made of inflatable modules, recently produced a report calling for a commercial lunar base. The base would be established using a model in which NASA provides financing and resupply contracts for private space craft to service the International Space Station.

In one scenario, NASA could provide the manned Orion deep space craft which would be launched with the heavy-lift rocket, Space Launch System, while the private sector could provide lunar landing vehicles and the habitats that would comprise a lunar base. The lunar base would be established and owned by a commercial enterprise and NASA would be a core customer leasing space.

The Bigelow plan also calls for establishing a regime respecting private property rights on the moon, necessary if any commercial entity plans to start mining operations and other money making enterprises. This would likely require some kind of international agreement on the scale of the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 that prohibited claims of sovereignty on other worlds.

With Chang'e-3 moon landing on Dec. 14, China is doing a great job pursuing the Apollo model of space exploration. NASA could do the same. And if NASA were to partner with commercial entities it would do even better. The strength, experience and resources of NASA would be married to the flexibility and imagination of the commercial sector. If that is made to happen, America would be able to leave China in the lunar dust in the new space race.

Mark Whittington writes about space for Yahoo and other venues. He is the author of The Man from Mars: The Asteroid Mining Caper.

Quelle: USA TODAY


2729 Views

Samstag, 28. Dezember 2013 - 17:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Russland startet erfolgreich neue Sojus-2-1.v

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Russia to launch new Soyuz-2 in 2014

Russia has postponed the launch its new Soyuz 2-1.v carrier rocket next year, Aerospace Defence Troops spokesperson, Colonel Dmitry Zenin told ITAR-TASS.

The rocket was scheduled to launch December 25 and carry an Aist satellite.

Initially, the rocket was supposed to be launched on December 23, but pre-launch checks revealed the need for additional preparation of the ground systems.

The Soyuz-2.1v carrier rocket is a two-stage light vehicle. With a Volga booster it is intended for taking satellites to circular orbits of up to 1,500 km and heliosynchronous orbits of up to 850 km. The rocket, designed and made by Samara-based CSKB Progress, is to replace Tsiklon and Kosmos carriers and duplicate Rokot and eventually Angara 1.1 and Angara 1.2 rockets.

Quelle: ITARTASS

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Russia delay Soyuz-2-1v debut

Russia postponed the debut their new Soyuz-2-1v rocket that was set to launch on Wednesday. The secretive launch of the new Soyuz – that does not sport any of the boosters familiar to the other members of the Soyuz family – was set to loft the Aist satellite and two SKRL-756 calibration spheres on Christmas Day from launch pad 43/4 at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome.

 

UPDATE:

 

Launch delayed until the new year due to unknown issues during the countdown.

New Soyuz Launch Overview:

The Soyuz is one of the best known launch vehicles on the planet, with a rich history that ranges back into the early days of the space program,

The new vehicle is a member of the Soyuz-2 family, a direct descendant of the older and wildly successful Soyuz-U family of rockets.

Several variants of the Soyuz-2 family include the Soyuz-2-1a, an upgrade of the Soyuz-U with modern digital electronics and revised upper stage functions.

Soyuz-2-1b replaced the upper stage with a new unit, powered by an improved avionics suite and more powerful engine.

The Soyuz-ST – flown out of Kourou, French Guiana - provided a customized version of the Soyuz-2 for use by the European Space Agency (ESA).

For the 2-1v, the program is making a large change, replacing the 55 year old design for the first stage and its boosters. This initiative came after successful inaugural flight of the Soyuz-2-1b in 2008, with final approval granted for what is known as the Soyuz-2-1v program.

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The Soyuz-2-1v marks an increase in the first stage diameter from 2 meters to 2.7 meters, and replaces the aged RD-108 with a new engine.

The vehicle will carry over the control and guidance systems from the Soyuz-2-1b and will interface with the already existing ground support equipment.

Per an array of presentations in the L2 Russian Section – L2 LINK - the vehicle stands 44 meters tall on the launch pad.

Replacing the legacy R-7 first stage and boosters, the new first stage sports a replacement engine, designated as the 14D15, built by the NK Engines Company.

Images of the engine show it is based on the NK-33, from Sergei Korolev’s ambitious moon rocket, the N-1.

Notably, Orbital’s Antares launch vehicle also utilizes engines derived from the NK-33 – the Aerojet-supplied AJ26-62.

While the Soyuz-2-1v uses one main engine – with a separate engine for vector and roll control – Orbital’s rocket utilizes two AJ-26′s together, in order to handle vector and roll control requirements.

This engine’s stats include a thrust rating listed at 1,545 KN (Sea Level), 1,720 KN (Vacuum), with a Thrust Specific Impulse of 297.6s (Sea Level), 331.2s (Vacuum), with a thrust range of 55 percent to 100 percent of rating.

Documentation also shows another engine on the core, the RD-0110R called the 14D24. The 14D24 handles the vector and roll controls for the first stage.

The stats for this engine include a thrust rating listed at 24.28 KN (Sea Level), 27.81 KN (Vacuum), with a Thrust Specific Impulse of 260.5s (Sea Level), 298.3s (Vacuum), while the dry weight of the engine is 425 kg, compared to 1,250 kg for the 14D15.

In addition, the new launch vehicle will debut with the new Volga insertion stage. Said to be cheaper than the Fregat stage currently in service, the Volga will cater for orbital insertion to orbits as high as 1700 km.

Built to endure up to 24 hours of operation – with multiple restart capability – the Volga is targeted at the largest base of Fregat customers on the Soyuz, those seeking mid to high orbits.

This unit has been developed internally by TsSKB, who are aiming to ensure the Volga will be compatible with the entire Soyuz-2 fleet of launch vehicles.

The company predicts it could replace the more expensive Fregat on half of missions it is currently used for.

The engine details for the Volga Upper Stage have not been disclosed at this time.

The most striking element for the Soyuz-2-1v is the removal of the distinctive boosters that are usually seen surrounding the core stage. However, careful examination of the booster reveals that there is still provision to add four boosters to the design as a potential upgrade path for the future.

Several concepts relating of this projected upgrade have appeared over the years, but have remained on the drawing board. One such upgrade is called the Soyuz-2-3, which sports boosters using the RD-0155 engine, RD-193 engine or RD-120 engine.

The design of these boosters have varied over time, but a model on display in Vienna shows a vehicle with four cylindrical boosters topped with a nose reminiscent of that found on the Energia.

Further evolution is noted in the notional Soyuz-3 project, which replaces the Soyuz-2 upper stage with a new unit, based on a Hydrogen-driven – as opposed to Kerosene – Soyuz-2 upper stage, using the new RD-0146 engine co-developed with Pratt & Whitney.

The first flight unit of the 1v was completed in 2012 and shipped to the launch site at Plesetsk.

The first test stage of the 1v was rolled out on January 6, 2011 from the Zagorsk testing facility in Peresvet Russia, just north of Moscow. It was then used for several engine tests relating to the fuel system, tank pressure testing, etc.

The first full-up firing of the complete first stage took place at the Zagorsk facility – which has been home for rocket stage testing since 1949, following the inaugural test of a Russian copy of the German V-2 rocket.

The launch of the new rocket has been delayed several times.

Little is known about the payloads that are set to ride uphill on this debut launch, other than an Aist satellite will be riding alongside two SKRL-756 calibration spheres.

Aist – a prototype spacecraft designed by the Rocket and Space Center and Samara State Aerospace University - will be launched on top of the upper configuration, while the two spheres will be placed on either side, below the Aist spacecraft.

The target orbit for Aist is understood to be in a 575 km altitude with a 64.9 degree inclination – similar to the orbit of a previous Aist spacecraft launched by a Soyuz 2-1A earlier this year during the BION-M mission.

Quelle: NS

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Update:

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Test launch of Russia's new light-class rocket may take place before year-end - source

A state commission working at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome may decide to conduct the first test launch of Russia's new Soyuz-2.1v light-class carrier rocket in 2013 instead of 2014, as it was planned earlier, a cosmodrome source has said.

"The state commission's session has been set for this afternoon. A decision may be made at it to conduct the rocket's launch within the next two days," the source said.

Vigorous steps are being taken at the launch pad to fix all the ground-base equipment defects that delayed the launch, he added.

The Russian Aerospace Defense Forces spokesman, Col. Dmitry Zenin, said earlier that the first trial mission of the Soyuz-2.1v rocket had been postponed until 2014.

"The launch has been rescheduled for the following year. A decision was made to conduct more tests," Zenin told Interfax-AVN on Thursday.

The launch had been postponed more than once previously. Soyuz-2.1v is a two-stage light vehicle built to launch satellites from Soyuz-2 pads. It is a modification of Soyuz-2.1b without side boosters and with the NK-33A engine installed in the central unit and the RD0110R control engine. The Soyuz-2.1b third stage is upgraded in the new rocket. The lightweight launch vehicle has been developed due to the increased demand for launching small satellites.

 Voice of Russia, Interfax
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Update: 28.12.2013

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Soyuz-2.1v rocket places satellites into interim orbit - Russian Defense Ministry

MOSCOW. Dec 28 - The Soyuz-2.1v launch vehicle has successfully lifted its Volga upper stage and a group of satellites to an interim orbit, a Russian Defense Ministry spokesman told Interfax-AVN on Saturday.

"The light-weight rocket Soyuz, which blasted off from Plesetsk [Cosmodrome], has successfully placed its upper stage and three satellites into an interim orbit. The satellites are expected to reach their designated orbit in several hours," he said.

Quelle: Interfax

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After Series of Delays, Russia Launches New Soyuz Rocket

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Soyuz-2.1v carrier rocket, Nov. 23, 2013

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MOSCOW, – A new Soyuz rocket blasted off from the Plesetsk space center in northern Russia on Saturday after numerous delays earlier this week, the Russian Defense Ministry said.

The ministry said the launch took place at 16:30 Moscow time (12:30 GMT).

The rocket put into designated orbit a small research satellite built by students and young scientists.

The new rocket, dubbed the Soyuz-2.1v, is to feature a completely reworked first stage powered by a NK-33 (14D15) rocket engine built by the NK Engines Company in the Russian city of Samara. The rocket lacks the characteristic four boosters that Soyuz and its ancestors have had since the R-7 missile that launched Sputnik in 1957.

The launch was originally scheduled for Monday and was delayed first until Tuesday and then until Wednesday due to concern over a possible malfunction of one of the rocket’s engines.

A Russian defense official, Colonel Dmitry Zenin, said later on Wednesday the launch was postponed again and will take place sometime next year.

A state commission that gathered on Saturday morning, decided to launch the rocket at 14:00, but it was also cancelled minutes before the planned blastoff.

The Soyuz, the most frequently launched rocket in the world, has undergone more than 1,700 launches since its debut in 1966. It is one of only two rockets worldwide that are capable of sending astronauts into orbit, the other being the Chinese Long March 2F.

Quelle: RIA NOVOSTI


Tags: New Sojus-2-1.v 

2407 Views

Samstag, 28. Dezember 2013 - 14:20 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Russian Spacewalk-37 von Expedition 38 Commander Oleg Kotov and Flight Engineer Sergey Ryazanskiy am 27.Dezember 2013

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NASA TV Coverage of Russian Spacewalk at Space Station on Dec. 27

NASA Television will air live coverage of a seven-hour spacewalk by two Russian members of the International Space Station crew beginning at 7:30 a.m. EST Friday, Dec. 27.

Expedition 38 Commander Oleg Kotov and Flight Engineer Sergey Ryazanskiy of the Russian Federal Space Agency, will install photographic and scientific equipment on the hull of the space station. Their work is not related to a series of U.S. spacewalks to replace a faulty ammonia coolant pump on the orbiting laboratory.

Kotov and Ryazanskiy will exit the Pirs airlock at 8 a.m. to install a pair of cameras on the Zvezda Service Module as part of a Canadian commercial endeavor designed to downlink Earth observation imagery and to refresh experiments.

The spacewalk will be the fifth in Kotov’s career and the second for Ryazanskiy. Kotov will be designated as extravehicular (EV) crew member 1 and Ryazanskiy will be designated as EV2. They both will wear Russian Orlan spacesuits bearing blue stripe markings.

Quelle: NASA

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Russian cosmonauts to make spacewalk Dec 27

MOSCOW, Russian cosmonauts working aboard the International Space Station (ISS) - flight engineers Oleg Kotov and Sergei Ryazansky - will make the sixth spacewalk this year.

They are expected to work outside the station for about seven hours, the Mission Control Centre said. Both will be working in computerised Orlan-MK spacesuits with LCD displays showing which systems need to be checked before leaving the station and in which order.

This is Ryazansky’s first mission aboard the ISS and his second spacewalk. His first one took place on November 9. Kotov has made four spacewalks and this will be his fifth one.

The other ISS resident crewmembers - Mikhail Tyurin of Russia, NASA astronauts Michael Hopkins and Richard Mastracchio, and Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) - will assist Kotov and Ryazansky from inside the station.

Quelle: ITARTASS

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Update: Spacewalk LIVE NASA-TV

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Frams: NASA-TV-LIVE

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Update: 28.12.2013

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Cosmonauts Install, Retrieve New Cameras in Frustrating Marathon Space Station Spacewalk

Cosmonauts Oleg Kotov and Sergey Ryazanskiy spent a frustrating eight hours outside the International Space Station during a record-setting Russian spacewalk on Friday, installing then retrieving a pair of commercial Earth observing cameras that failed to provide satisfactory telemetry.

The cameras, delivered aboard the Progress 53 resupply craft on Nov. 29, were developed for UrtheCast, of Vancouver, Canada which plans to offer near real time Earth views to subscribers through the Internet in partnership with Roscosmos, the Russian federal space agency.After a five hour effort to install 1.1 meter resolution video and 5.5 meter resolution still imaging cameras on stationary and movable Zvezda service module platforms, the spacewalkers were instructed to retrieve the imagers and return them to the station's Russian segment airlock for further troubleshooting.

Following the initial installation, the cosmonauts attached power and transmission cables. When Russian flight controllers were unable to obtain satisfactory transmissions, Kotov and Ryazanskiy made several additional attempts to reconfigure connectors in a bid to resolve the transmission issues.

"Well guys, it happens," controllers in suburban Moscow, told the two men. "Thank you for all your hard work. Sorry it turned our this way."

“Never thought I’d have to take it off, again,” said one of the cosmonauts as the dismantling got underway.Friday’s spacewalk stretched to 8 hours, 7 minutes, breaking a Russian spacewalk record of 7 hours, 29 minutes, established on Aug. 16 by Fyodor Yurchikhin and Alexander Misurkin as they configured the Russian segment for the arrival of the Multipurpose Laboratory Module.

Despite the setback, Kotov and Ryazanskiy removed and jettisoned Vsplesk, a Russian sensor designed to monitor terrestrial seismic activities that was installed during a 2008 spacewalk. They replaced Vsplesk with Seismoprognoz, a new earthquake monitoring experiment.

Friday's excursion, which drew to a close at 4:07 p.m., EST, was the third conducted by the six member ISS crew within the past week. U.S. astronauts Rick Mastracchio and Mike Hopkins carried out spacewalks last Tuesday and Saturday for the installation of a new pump module to restore the station's external thermal control system to normal operations following a Dec. 11 flow control valve failure.

UrtheCast, which counts the United Nations Institute for Training and Research among its clients, had planned to begin streaming Earth views in near real time in early 2014, following a calibration period. Another installation attempt has yet to be scheduled.
Quelle: Aviationweek
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Quelle: Urthecast
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Station Cosmonauts Complete Spacewalk to Deploy Cameras
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Two Russian cosmonauts in Orlan spacesuits wrapped up a 8-hour, 7-minute spacewalk to attempt the installation of photographic equipment on the exterior of the International Space Station at 4:07 p.m. EST Friday.  

Commander Oleg Kotov and Flight Engineer Sergey Ryazanskiy promptly completed the main objective of Friday’s spacewalk -- the installation of a pair of high-fidelity cameras as part of a Canadian commercial endeavor designed to downlink Earth observation imagery – but had to remove them later due to an unspecified problem that prevented telemetry from being received on the ground by Russian flight controllers.

As planned, Kotov and Ryazanskiy attached the two cameras on a combination biaxial pointing platform and spacewalk workstation that was installed on the Zvezda service module during a spacewalk on Nov. 9. Kotov and Ryazanskiy also installed a foot restraint to the workstation.

After routing data and telemetry cables for the medium resolution camera, Kotov jettisoned the cable reel opposite of the station’s direction of travel for disposal.

When the flight control team at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow did not see the expected telemetry and electrical connectivity from the medium and high resolution cameras, Kotov and Ryazanskiy were directed to remove the cameras and return them to the airlock for further analysis.  The spacewalkers also were instructed to take detailed photographs of the electrical connectors mated earlier for additional review.

In addition to their work with the two cameras, the spacewalkers also removed the Vsplesk experiment package and jettisoned it. Vsplesk, installed during an Expedition 17 spacewalk in July 2008, was designed to monitor seismic effects using high-energy particle streams in the near-Earth environment. Kotov and Ryazanskiy replaced it with  hardware for a more sophisticated earthquake-monitoring experiment, Seismoprognoz, which they attached to a Zvezda handrail.

Because of the issue in activating the cameras, Kotov and Ryazanskiy did not have time to complete the all of their planned tasks, which included the jettisoning of a frame that once held three Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (MPAC & SEED) units for a Japanese space exposure study and the installation of a payload boom.

Friday's spacewalk eclipsed the record for the longest Russian spacewalk set by Expedition 36 Flight Engineers Fyodor Yurchikhin and Alexander Misurkin, who conducted a 7-hour, 29 minute excursion on Aug. 16. 

With the completion of his fifth spacewalk, Kotov now has 30 hours and 43 minutes of total spacewalking time.  Ryazanskiy has a total of 13 hours and 57 minutes over his two spacewalks.

This was the 177th spacewalk in support of space station assembly and maintenance, totaling 1,115 hours, 44 minutes, and the 11th spacewalk this year.

During the spacewalk, Flight Engineer Mike Hopkins was restricted to the Poisk module and the Soyuz TMA-10M craft that brought him, Kotov and Ryazanskiy to the complex in September. The remaining three crew members – Flight Engineers Rick Mastracchio, Koichi Wakata and Mikhail Tyurin – had access to the Zarya module and the entirety of the U.S. segment of the station.

Friday’s Russian spacewalk was not related to a recent pair of U.S. spacewalks to replace a faulty ammonia coolant pump module.  Flight controllers in Houston’s Mission Control successfully restarted the new pump Tuesday night following two spacewalks – including a 7-hour, 30-minute excursion Tuesday -- by Mastracchio and Hopkins to replace a degraded pump module on the station’s starboard truss. That pump module continues to operate well.

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Rick Mastracchio 18h
My Russian crewmates are working outside my window installing a telescope on station.
Quelle: NASA
 

2414 Views

Samstag, 28. Dezember 2013 - 13:50 Uhr

Astronomie - Was ist innerhalb der schwarzen Löcher?

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It could rightly be called the most massive debate of the year: Physicists are locked in an argument over what happens if you fall into a black hole.

On one side are those who support the traditional view from Albert Einstein. On the other, backers of a radical new theory that preserves the very core of modern physics by destroying space itself.

Regardless of who's right, the new take on black holes could lead to a better understanding of the universe, says , a physicist at Stanford University. "This is the kind of thing where progress comes from."

are regions of space so dense that nothing, not even light, can escape.

There's a long-standing view about what would happen if you fell into one of these holes. At first, you're not going to notice much of anything — but the black hole's gravity is getting stronger and stronger. And eventually you pass a point of no return.

"It's kind of like you're rowing on Niagara Falls, and you pass the point [where] you can't row fast enough to escape the current," Susskind says. "Well, you're doomed at that point. But passing the point of no return — you wouldn't even notice it."

Now you can't get out. And gravity from the black hole is starting to pull on your feet more than your head. "The gravity wants to sort of stretch you in one direction and squeeze you in another," says , a physicist at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He says the technical term for this stretching is .

"It'd be kind of medieval," says Polchinkski. "It'd be like something on Game of Thrones."

In Einstein's version of events, that's the end. But Polchinski has a new version of things: "Our hypothesis is that the inside of a black hole — it may not be there," he says.

So what's inside the black hole? Nothing, Polchinski says. Actually even less than that. "Probably that's the end of space itself; there's no inside at all."

This "no inside" idea may sound outrageous, but it's actually a stab at solving an even bigger problem with black holes.

According to the dominant theory of physics — quantum mechanics — information can never disappear from the universe. Put another way, the atoms in your body are configured in a particular way. They can be rearranged (radically if you happen to slip inside a black hole). But it should always be possible, at least in theory, to look at all those rearranged atoms and work out that they were once part of a human of your dimensions and personality.

This rule is absolutely fundamental. "Everything is built on it," says Susskind. "If it were violated, everything falls apart."

For a long time, black holes stretched this rule, but they didn't break it. People thought that if you fell into a black hole, your spaghettified remains would always be in there, trapped beyond the point of no return.

That is, until the famous physicist came along. In the 1970s, Hawking showed that, according to quantum mechanics, a black hole evaporates — very slowly, it vanishes. And that breaks the fundamental rule because all that information that was once in your spaghettified remains vanishes with it.

This didn't seem to bother Hawking. ("I'm not a psychiatrist, and I can't psychoanalyze him," Susskind says.) But it has bothered a lot of other physicists since.

And in the intervening years, work by another theorist —, with Princeton's Institute for Advanced Study — seems to show that Hawking was wrong. Information has to get out of the black hole ... somehow. But nobody knows how.

So Polchinski took another look. "We took Hawking's original argument," he says, "and very carefully ran it backwards."

And Polchinski and his colleagues found one way to keep things from vanishing when they fall inside a black hole — they got rid of the inside. By tearing apart the fabric of space beyond the point of no return, the group was able to preserve the information rule of quantum mechanics.

In this version, anything falling into a black hole is instantly vaporized at the point of no return, in a fiery storm of quantum particles. Particles coming from the hole collectively carry away any and all information about the object that's falling in.

So in Polchinski's version, when you fall into a black hole, you don't disappear. Instead, you smack into the end of the universe.

"You just come to the end of space, and there's nothing beyond it. Terminated," Susskind says. All the information once contained in your atoms is re-radiated in a quantum mechanical fire.

This new version seems too radical to Susskind. "I don't think this is true," he says. "In fact, I think almost nobody thinks this is true — that space falls apart inside a black hole."

Even Polchinski still feels that black holes should have insides. "My gut believes that the black hole has an interior," he says. But, he adds, nobody's been able to disprove his hypothesis that it doesn't.

"Every counterargument I've seen is flawed," Polchinski says.

Susskind agrees: "Nobody quite knows exactly what's wrong with their argument — and that's what makes this so important and interesting."

And as crazy as it sounds, this is progress. In the year ahead, Susskind hopes someone can find the flaw in Polchinski's argument, just the way Polchinski found a flaw in Stephen Hawking's argument. But it will be awhile before we understand black holes inside and out.

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Quelle: npr


2797 Views

Freitag, 27. Dezember 2013 - 12:51 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - CENAP-IFO-Akten/Teil 3 - Wenn Perspektive die Ufologen-Technik ad absurdum führt

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Oder, wenn man vor lauter Technik die Grundregeln der UFO-Fall-Untersuchung vernachlässigt. Und die Eigenschaften der Stimuli von Ufos nicht kennt, wie will man da erst Auswertungen von Video-Aufzeichnungen bewerkstelligen?

Das Grundübel der Ufologen ist die große Ignoranz von Workshops welches dieses Wissen vermittelt und man glaubt Alles zu kennen. Stimuli werden dann schnell zu Rätseln welche dann mangelnder Kenntnis wegen (Zitat:jeglicher Beschreibung spotten) und wie in nachfolgenden Fall vom 29.11.2013 gegen 1 Uhr MEZ eine Video-Kamera in Wylatowo/Polen (angeblicher Ufo-Hotspot laut Herrn Gröschel) aufzeichnete.

Dieser Fall wurde dann in einschlägig bekannten Online-Seiten veröffentlicht:

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Schaut man sich die Video-Sequenzen an, wird deutlich das es sich um einen auffälligen Flugkörper am Horizont handelt. Erste Einschätzung das es sich um Flugzeuge handeln könnte wurde prompt durch Radaraufzeichnungen bestätigt. Die Video Überwachungskamera welche Richtung Süden ausgerichtet ist (laut Aussagen Herrn Gröschel) hat tatsächlich zwei Flugzeuge aufgenommen deren Flugroute sich in einem langgezogenen X-Kreuz überkreuzten. Es handelte sich hierbei um einen Linienflug der Turkish Airlines (Airbus A-330) und einem kleineren Gulfstream-5.Jet. Die überkreuzte Flugroute der Flugzeuge wurde durch die Perspektive zur Video-Kamera zum Video-Effekt durch ihre Scheinwerfer. Beim überkreuzen gab es den perspektivischen Effekt "der Teilung"  und danach durch Abdrehen des Airbus-A-330 Richtung Süden wurde es zu "einem Objekt", siehe nachfolgende Grafik:

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Tags: UFOs Wylatowo Polen 

2813 Views


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