Sonntag, 17. Dezember 2017 - 22:00 Uhr

Luftfahrt-History - 1947: Helikopter Entwicklung

Aus dem CENAP-Archiv:



Quelle: CENAP-Archiv

Tags: Luftfahrt-History - 1947: Helikopter Entwicklung 


Sonntag, 17. Dezember 2017 - 21:30 Uhr

Astronomie - A New Window on the Universe


KITP hosts a rapid-response program to explore myriad new astrophysical insights from a double neutron star merger


The blue regions show the localization by the two LIGO detectors, and the much smaller white region includes the Virgo network of detectors. 

Two years ago, scientists from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detected gravitational waves for the first time, proving Einstein’s theory of relativity and his prediction of their existence. The waves were triggered by two black holes colliding.

On Aug. 17, 2017, LIGO and the French-Italian Virgo detector observed a completely new class of gravitational-wave signal: a binary neutron star merger. This merger and its afterglow were studied by telescopes spanning the entire electromagnetic spectrum from gamma rays to radio waves.

Of fundamental interest to both physicists and astronomers, gravitational-wave observations have ushered in a new era of science. In fact, so many scientific papers about the neutron star merger were published in one day that researchers created an online index to keep track of them.

Now, less than two months after that first detection of colliding neutron stars, UC Santa Barbara’s Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (KITP) convened a rapid-response program for scientists from around the world, directly supported by the Kavli Foundation. More than 75 physicists and astronomers discussed the astrophysics of the neutron star merger and listened to dozens of presentations that delved into the details of this most recent game-changing event.

“The intent of ‘GW170817: The First Double Neutron Star Merger’ is to broaden awareness of the results produced by the vast collaboration that made these exciting discoveries,” said KITP director Lars Bildsten said. “KITP provides a place for interested scientists not only to take in the vast amount of data generated by the latest event but also to push interpretations of that data.”

The August gravitational-wave signal produced the first distance measurement to a nearby galaxy from the merger of two neutron stars and explored the equation of state of matter at super-nuclear densities. Other areas of study also emerged from the profusion of gravitational-wave and electromagnetic data, including the formation of heavy elements as well as the gamma ray burst and other electromagnetic signals that followed the neutron star merger.

The cosmic origin of elements heavier than iron has been the subject of much debate. Although theoretical models show that matter expelled in a neutron star merger can form into gold and platinum in a process known as rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis, this latest event provides solid direct observation.

“For years, people have been trying to study how the heaviest elements were formed by looking at trace fossil remnants of those elements in the sun or in meteorites,” explained UC Berkeley astrophysicist Daniel Kasen, a coordinator of the KITP program. “Finally, with this event we had the pure sample of heavy elements ejected from the neutron star merger and we were able to probe it directly, observationally, by looking at the light from the radioactive glow of those heavy elements.”

For a number of years, physicists and astronomers — many of whom attended a longer KITP program on a similar topic in 2012 — have been modeling what a double neutron star merger would look like. It turns out that many models of these extremely complicated phenomena were uncannily accurate.

“The gravitational waves told us that these were neutron stars and the electromagnetic observations told us about the spectrum of the radioactive decay that produce r-process elements,” said Duncan Brown, the Charles Brightman Endowed Professor of Physics at Syracuse University and lead coordinator of the KITP rapid-response program. “You put those two together and they complete our knowledge of the origin of the periodic table.”

Another hot topic of the program was the electromagnetic counterpart to the neutron star merger. The gamma ray burst raced the gravitational waves 130 million light-years through the universe to be observed on Earth only two seconds apart. This demonstrated that neutron star mergers are the long-sought origin of gamma ray bursts. It also showed that to extremely high accuracy the speed of gravity and the speed of light are the same, which, according to Brown, rules out a large class of modified theories of gravity.

“What has been surprising to me are the discussions of the possible gamma ray burst emission mechanisms,” Brown said. “In gravitational-wave astronomy, the theory has been 50 years ahead of the observations, whereas the electromagnetic side is the other way around; the observations are 50 years ahead of the theory. It’s going to be interesting to see how this evolves.”

Physicists and astronomers will have another chance to explore gravitational-wave science in a future KITP program slated for 2019. “The New Era of Gravitational-Wave Physics and Astrophysics” will bring together a broad group of experts to discuss the astrophysics and fundamental physics that can be learned from the observations available at that time, which hopefully will be considerable.

LIGO and Virgo are updating their instrumentation with the hope that when they come back online in fall 2018 with increased sensitivity, their efforts will yield additional observations of gravitational-wave signals, perhaps from other sources.

“They won’t all be the same in masses or spins and maybe we’ll see a black hole and a neutron star collide into each other,” Brown said. “This is really just the beginning of a global effort to use these collisions to study fundamental physics, astrophysics and stellar evolution.”

Quelle: University of California




Tags: Astronomie - A New Window on the Universe 


Sonntag, 17. Dezember 2017 - 11:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt - ISS-ALLtag: Ankunft von Cygnus CRS-13 bei ISS am Sonntag



About 10 minutes after launch, Dragon will reach its preliminary orbit and deploy its solar arrays. A carefully choreographed series of thruster firings will bring the spacecraft to rendezvous with the space station Sunday, Dec. 17. NASA astronauts Mark Vande Hei and Joe Acaba will capture Dragon using the space station’s robotic arm. Ground controllers then will send commands to robotically install the spacecraft on the station’s Harmony module.


The Dragon spacecraft will spend approximately one month attached to the space station, returning to Earth in mid-January with results of previous experiments.


The deadline for media to apply for accreditation for this launch has passed, but more information about media accreditation is available by contacting Jennifer Horner at 321-867-6598 or


Also on Sunday, Scott Tingle of NASA, Anton Shkaplerov of Roscosmos and Norishige Kanai of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency are scheduled to launch to the International Space Station at 2:21 a.m. (1:21 p.m. Baikonur time) from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.


NASA TV coverage for Dragon arrival and crew launch Sunday is as follows:

  • 1:15 a.m. – Launch coverage begins
  • 4:30 a.m. – Dragon rendezvous at the space station and capture coverage
  • 7:30 a.m. – Installation coverage

Quelle: NASA


Update: 17.12.2017 









































Quelle: NASA-TV



Tags: Raumfahrt - ISS-ALLtag: Ankunft von Cygnus CRS-13 bei ISS am Sonntag 


Sonntag, 17. Dezember 2017 - 11:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Start von ISS-Crew 54/55 zur ISS


Three Spacefarers from Three Nations Prepare for Four-Month Mission to Space Station


Soyuz MS-07 crew consists of Commander Anton Shkaplerov (center), with Scott Tingle (right) as Flight Engineer-1 and Norishige Kanai (left) as Flight Engineer-2. Photo Credit: NASA/Twitter


Three spacefarers from the United States, Russia and Japan gathered at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas, yesterday (Wednesday, 11 October), to discuss their upcoming voyage to the International Space Station (ISS). First-time NASA astronaut Scott Tingle was joined by fellow “rookie” Norishige Kanai of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and veteran Russian cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov. The trio will launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan aboard Soyuz MS-07 on 17 December, kicking off a four-month mission. They will initially form the second half of Expedition 54, before rotating into the core of Expedition 55, under Shkaplerov’s command, through their return to Earth in early April 2018.

Quelle: AS


Update: 7.12.2017


New Launch Date and Time of
Soyuz Spacecraft (53S/MS-07) with Astronaut Norishige Kanai aboard
for ISS Expedition 54/55 Long Stay Mission

December 7, 2017 (JST)

National Research and Development Agency
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)

As a result of the Flight Readiness Review (FRR) held at Houston, U.S.A, on December 6, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and partner agencies of the International Space Station (ISS) project officially decided the launch date and time for the Soyuz spacecraft (53S/MS-07), which Astronaut Norishige Kanai will be onboard, as follows after confirming the safety and preparation status.
Astronaut Kanai will stay at the International Space Station for about four months as a crewmember of the Expedition 54/55, and will return to Earth in April on the Soyuz spacecraft (53S/MS-07).

Launch Date/Time: At 16:21 on December 17 (Sun.), 2017 (Japan Standard Time)
At 13:21 on December 17 (Sun.), 2017 (Baikonur Time)
At 10:21 on December 17 (Sun.), 2017 (Moscow Time)
Launch Location: Baikonur Cosmodrome (Republic of Kazakhstan)

Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov (Roscosmos)
Flight Engineer Scott D. Tingle (NASA)
Flight Engineer Norishige Kanai (JAXA)


Quelle: JAXA


Update: 16.12.2017



On Sunday, Dec. 17, Scott Tingle of NASA, Anton Shkaplerov of Roscosmos and Norishige Kanai of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency will launch at 2:21 a.m. (1:21 p.m. Baikonur time) from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.


Coverage of Expedition 54 launch and docking activities is as follows:


Sunday, Dec. 17

  • 1:15 a.m. – Soyuz MS-07 launch coverage (launch at 2:21 a.m.)


Tuesday, Dec. 19

  • 3 a.m. – Docking coverage (docking scheduled for 3:42 a.m.)
  • 5 a.m. – Hatch opening and welcome coverage


NASA TV will air a full complement of video of the crew’s pre-launch activities in Baikonur in the days preceding launch.


The six crew members of Expedition 54 will continue work on the hundreds of experiments conducted off the Earth, for the Earth. This crew continues the long-term increase in U.S. crew size from three to four, allowing NASA to maximize time dedicated to research on the space station.

Quelle: NASA


Update: 17.12.2017


Three New Crew Members on Voyage to International Space Station 

Expedition 54 launches to the International Space Station
Expedition 54 crew members Scott Tingle of NASA, Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian space agency Roscosmos, and Norishige Kanai of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency launched to the International Space Station at 2:21 a.m. EST Dec. 17, 2017 (1:21 p.m. Baikonur time), from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
Credits: NASA/Joel Kowsky
Expedition 54 flight engineer Scott Tingle of NASA, flight engineer Norishige Kanai of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian space agency Roscosmos wave farewell prior to boarding the Soyuz MS-07 for launch Sunday, Dec. 17, 2017 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Tingle, Norishige Kanai, and Shkaplerov will spend the next five months living and working aboard the International Space Station.
Credits: NASA/Joel Kowsky

Three crew members representing the United States, Russia and Japan are on their way to the International Space Station after launching from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 2:21 a.m. EST Sunday (1:21 p.m. Baikonur time).


The Soyuz spacecraft carrying NASA’s Scott Tingle, Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian space agency Roscosmos, and Norishige Kanai of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is scheduled to dock to the space station’s Rassvet module at 3:43 a.m. Tuesday, Dec. 19. Coverage of docking will begin at 3 a.m. on NASA Television and the agency’s website, followed at 5 a.m. by coverage of the opening of hatches between the spacecraft and station.


The arrival of Tingle, Shkaplerov and Kanai will restore the station's crew complement to six. They will join Expedition 54 Commander Alexander Misurkin of Roscosmos and his crewmates, Mark Vande Hei and Joe Acaba of NASA. The crew members will spend more than four months conducting approximately 250 science investigations in fields such as biology, Earth science, human research, physical sciences and technology development.


Vande Hei, Acaba and Misurkin are scheduled to remain aboard the station until February 2018, and Tingle, Shkaplerov and Kanai are scheduled to return to Earth in April.


This crew continues the long-term increase in crew size on the U.S. segment from three to four, allowing NASA to maximize time dedicated to research on the space station. Highlights of upcoming investigations include demonstrating the benefits of manufacturing fiber optic filaments in a microgravity environment, a new study looking at structures that are vital to the design of advanced optical materials and electronic devices and examining a drug compound and drug delivery system designed to combat muscular breakdown in space or during other prolonged periods of disuse, such as extended bed rest on Earth.


For more than 17 years, humans have lived and worked continuously aboard the station, advancing scientific knowledge and demonstrating new technologies, making research breakthroughs not possible on Earth that will enable long-duration human and robotic exploration into deep space. A global endeavor, more than 200 people from 18 countries have visited the unique microgravity laboratory that has hosted more than 2,100 research investigations from researchers in more than 95 countries.

Quelle: NASA




















Quelle: NASA



Tags: Raumfahrt - Startvorbereitung für ISS-Crew 54/55 zur ISS 


Sonntag, 17. Dezember 2017 - 09:30 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Belgian researcher leaves to study space travel in Antarctica



Nothing can be farther away from each other than space and Antarctica but living conditions appear to be similar. Professor Sarah Baatout leaves today (Saturday) for a long journey to the Belgian polar station in Antarctica to study the response of the human body to extreme conditions.
As previously reported, the 2017 - 2018 scientic season at Princess Elisabeth Antarctica Research Station has just begun. 

Sarah Baatout, head of the radiobiology unit at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN) and guest professor in bio-engineering at Gent University, will join a team of 12 researchers of Belgian and other nationalities at Cape Town and from there continue to Antarctica. There they will carry out an interdisciplinary biomonitoring project for one month.

SCK•CEN with more than 700 employees is one of the largest research centers in Belgium and deals with peaceful applications of radioactivity, including safety of nuclear installations and management of radioactive waste. For many years it has also worked on the protection of astronauts during space travel. 

“We are currently following astronauts who spend 6 months or more in the International Space Station. We study their immune response since the immunity defense system gets weaker in extreme environments,” explains Sarah. 

“Antarctica is an excellent place studying the effects of isolation, confinement, communication difficulties, monotonous environment, workload, sleep disturbances, and limited access to fresh food. We can study a group of people in good physical condition and compare them with astronauts living in similar conditions.” 

She will take several kinds of samples such as blood before, during and after their stay in Antarctica. The samples will be analysed at the station and in SCK•CEN’s laboratories. In parallel the stability of 20 different medicines which might be used in the medical kit of astronauts will also be studied. 

Finally, the influence of spirulina on health will be investigated. Spirulina is an eatable bacterium which is given as a food supplement. It contains various antioxidants and vitamins and can easily grow in space. In the next few days SCK•CEN is sending a spirulina bioreactor to the International Space Station, says Sarah.

She tells The Brussels Times that her visit to Antarctica required months of intensive preparations. 

“We are so grateful to be able to carry out our project and hope to be able to run an excellent research that will contribute to our understanding of how it is live in extreme environments such as space and Antarctica.”

Whilst in Antarctica, Sarah will be in touch every day via internet with schools in Belgium and abroad. “We hope that our experiment will stimulate young persons to study and enjoy science and become the scientists of tomorrow.”
Quelle: The Brussels Times

Tags: Raumfahrt - Belgian researcher leaves to study space travel in Antarctica 


Samstag, 16. Dezember 2017 - 12:15 Uhr

Astronomie - Warum hat SOFIA einen Buckel?


Quelle: DLR (CC-BY 3.0)
SOFIA beim Tag der Luft- und Raumfahrt in Köln

SOFIA ist sozusagen der Quasimodo unter den Flugzeugen, denn die Maschine hat im Gegensatz zu ihren eleganten Kollegen, die wir aus dem normalen Flugverkehr kennen, einen Buckel. Heißt das, SOFIA ist unattraktiv? Vielleicht! Ich bin allerdings der Meinung, dass der Buckel die Maschine erst richtig interessant macht, denn hier sind die inneren Werte von SOFIA verborgen: das Teleskop, die Sternkameras und nicht zuletzt das Türsystem - mit allem was dazu gehört. 

Quelle: Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie
Spektren, die mit dem Instrument GREAT aufgenommen wurden

Dies ist eine echte Besonderheit: Immerhin öffnen wir gewollt und routinemäßig diese Tür während eines Fluges. Bei jedem "normalen" Flug ist so etwas aus gutem Grund strengstens verboten. Wir sind aber ein fliegendes Observatorium und brauchen den freien Blick zum Himmel. Deshalb öffnen wir die Tür, beobachten unsere astronomischen Ziele und betreiben interessante Wissenschaft.


Die Türführung des Flugzeugs

Der Buckel dient vor allem zwei Zwecken. Erstens ist die Türführung darunter verborgen. Er dient aber zweitens auch dazu, den Luftstrom während des Fluges anzuheben und über die Teleskop-Öffnung hinweg zu leiten. Dadurch werden Verwirbelungen verringert, das Teleskop bleibt stabil und wir vermeiden, dass wir als gewaltige fliegende Querflöte ungewollte Töne von uns geben. Laut den ursprünglichen Simulations-Berechnung hätten wir damit einen hübschen Kontra-B-Ton produziert.

Wenn wir beobachten, wird die Tür bei etwa 35.000 Fuß (Flight Level 350 oder FL350), also rund 10.000 Metern Höhe - geöffnet. Darunter wird dann die untere Tür mit einer Blende sichtbar. Die Blende sorgt dafür, dass der Luftstrom am hinteren Ende der Teleskop-Öffnung herausgehoben und auf die Steuerflächen im Heck geleitet wird. Damit bleibt das Flugzeug steuerbar und kann sicher geflogen werden. In der Tat sagen die Piloten, dass SOFIA sich wie eine ganz normale Boeing 747 fliegt und "anfühlt". Auch wenn man bei einem Flug in der Kabine ist, merkt man nicht, wenn die Tür geöffnet oder geschlossen wird. Da "rappelt" nichts und es wird auch nicht lauter. Man kann allerdings sehen, dass die Tür geöffnet wurde, wenn der bisher schwarze Bildschirm der Nachführkameras plötzlich den Sternenhimmel anzeigt.

Quelle: DLR (CC-BY 3.0)
Blick von außen auf die Türen

NASA hat also mit ihren Rechnungen und Windkanal-Versuchen einen wirklich guten Job gemacht. Wir sehen, Buckel können auch ziemlich cool sein.

Quelle: DLR

Tags: Astronomie - Warum hat SOFIA einen Buckel? 


Samstag, 16. Dezember 2017 - 12:00 Uhr

Planet Erde - Space weather, EarthScope, and protecting the national electrical grid



t's not often geology and national security wind up in the same sentence. Most people don't think about electrical power in connection to either the ground under their feet or solar flares overhead, but Dr. Adam Schultz of Oregon State University, and EarthScope Magnetotelluric Program Lead Scientist, says that connection presents a clear and present risk that power utilities need to consider.

"A big induced current in power-transmission lines that takes down high-voltage transformers would be a major disaster," Schultz said. "EarthScope is materially helping the U.S. build resilience against space weather on critical infrastructure such as power grids." The EarthScope Magnetotelluric Transportable Array, part of the USArray, is an observatory of instruments that measures Earth's naturally occurring electric and magnetic fields. Space weather is the flow of electromagnetic radiation given off by the sun, including extreme events such as coronal mass ejections that can intersect Earth's orbit, impacting electric fields on Earth.

Schultz underscores threats from possible attacks as well. "There is a similar risk from man-made geomagnetic disturbances caused by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) weapons that resemble natural space weather events, although with even greater intensity and more concentrated local impacts," he said.

At the 2017 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, Schultz will present recent research that examines a real-world example of 3D mapping of the crust and mantle of the contiguous U.S. from EarthScope data. The project looks at ground electric fields in the northwestern U.S. arising from space weather events, and shows data for reactive power loss at two different ends of a power line--and how it deviates dramatically from power-agency models.

Only recently have federal energy regulatory bodies required electrical utility companies to incorporate electromagnetic characteristics of the ground surrounding power lines when assessing risk to the power grid from space weather events. These events can cause widespread damage, such as the 1989 geomagnetic disturbance that caused the power grid in Quebec to collapse, and a high-power transformer at a nuclear power station in New Jersey to explode.

Power companies currently use large, regional-scale 1D estimates of crust and mantle electrical conductivity for vulnerability assessments, but these can lead to erroneous results because they are not based on current state-of-the-art knowledge of 3D structure. This can lead the electric utilities to consider some high-voltage transmission line transformers to be at risk of failure from space weather events when they may not be, and conversely could lead to under-protection of at-risk transformers that the 1D vulnerability assessment indicates are not at risk.

"The consequence of getting this wrong can be significant," Schultz said. "There are very few spares available for the 2,200 high-voltage transmission line transformers that power the U.S. grid. Each transformer is custom designed, hardly any are built in the U.S., and the lead time for obtaining a replacement can be up to three years. A wide-scale, cascading failure of these transformers during a large solar storm event or EMP weapon attack can lead to massive disruption of the economy and of essential services for large sections of the U.S. population."

Schultz's method uses information on 3D ground electrical structure, largely from the EarthScope program, but also drawing on other magnetotelluric surveys, which provides crucial information that 1D methods miss. "There is a fundamentally different relationship between magnetic and electric fields than shown in 1D models," he said. "1D imposes unrealistic, non-physical conditions that can be off by 1000s of percent from reality."

Schultz found some surprising results in his northwestern U.S. project. Previously, the assumption was that the biggest surge of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) on a transmission line due to a space weather event would happen at the peak of the geomagnetic disturbance. However, depending on the 3D conductivity structure of the crust and mantle in the region of the transmission line, the time at which the ground electric field is of greatest intensity varies along different sections of the transmission line.

Another surprise came when Schultz's 3D research showed that in addition to the intensity of the ground electrical field, the direction of the field matters as well. He found that a ground electrical field parallel to a power transmission line will generate a geomagnetically induced current in the line, while a perpendicular orientation will not. So even if a section of power line experiences a peak ground electric field at a given time, if the field isn't pointed in the right direction, it might not impact the power grid, whereas a less intense field oriented in the right direction might impact the grid. This is a far more complicated reality than used in vulnerability assessments previously employed by the power industry, with profound implications for grid reliability.

Being able to reliably locate where ground conductivity could increase or decrease hazards along power lines has power companies paying attention. Using 3D mapping for power-grid assessments could help determine the most vulnerable sections of a power grid line, and potentially help inform power-flow management in real time.

Schultz's research has applications beyond space weather: atmospheric nuclear testing or directed hostile action causes electromagnetic pulses that can damage power grids. Schultz recently gave a talk in Washington, D.C. about the methods for 3D mapping of ground electrical fields for risk assessment, and it received strong interest from a number of agencies.

"In the long run, I think this is one of the more significant results to come out of EarthScope in terms of impacts on society because of the applications for overhauling how we assess our electrical grids, and the impact that has on all other critical infrastructure that depends on access to reliable power," Schultz said.

Quelle: SD

Tags: Planet Erde - Space weather, EarthScope, and protecting the national electrical grid 


Samstag, 16. Dezember 2017 - 09:10 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Living on the Moon: A Chinese conceptual lunar base



A conceptual design for an integrated human lunar base, developed by researchers at the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). CAST


Researchers at a major Chinese space technology institute are working on a conceptual design for a habitable lunar base ahead of expected human missions to the Moon in the 2030s.

The idea of a Chinese human exploration mission to the Moon has long appeared in the media and is to a large extent expected to take place in the future by the global space community. Such a venture is unlikely, however, to be a repeat of the Apollo ‘flags and footprints’ approach to lunar exploration and will take a long-term approach.

One hint of this can be seen in a comprehensive conceptual design for a human lunar base being studied by researchers and scientists at the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST), an institute under CASC, the main contractor for the Chinese space programme.

Professor Guo Linli of CAST’s Institute of Manned Space System Engineering gave a presentation on the base at the Global Space Exploration Conference (GLEX) in Beijing in June, which details a design to allow long-term human stays on the Moon, with the goals of scientific research, technical experiments and resource utilisation.

While far from being an official plan, the concept looks at possible motives and required research, systems and technologies, and could form the basis for, or influence, a future concrete human lunar project.

Human lunar habitat

Guo’s talk was based on a multi-author paper which focuses on the habitat for the base, and compares and analyses three types of habitat configurations.

The paper opts for an integrated approach, using rigid modules for the interior and a constructed structure created by 3D printing for the exterior, as a later stage, as illustrated in the main image above.

Advantages and disadvantages of different manned lunar bases


Advantages and disadvantages of different manned lunar bases CAST

The interior main body of the integrated human lunar base consists of a habitation module, laboratory module and support module, connected by expandable joint structures but separate and somewhat independent of each other, for reasons of psychological needs and personal health.

Expandable joints of inner part of integrated human lunar base.


Expandable joints of inner part of integrated human lunar base. CAST

The living area module would contain the kitchen, gym, toilet and necessary facilities, with the communication system, main computer, central control and backup systems located in the support module. Also detailed are considerations for emergency situations, with each habitat having three exits, including one to a pressurised rover which can deliver astronauts to a launch/landing area.

Water supplies could double up as a protective layer in the walls of the habitats to provide protection against radiation.

Emergency rescue design for the CAST conceptual lunar base.


Emergency rescue design for the CAST conceptual lunar base. CAST

The main specifications state that the base would have a design lifetime of at least 8 years, be capable of hosting 3-6 astronauts at a time for periods of 3 months or greater at a time, and be able to run automatically without human presence. 

Communications, resources and more

Guo’s presentation also outlines the communications, energy, in-situ resource utilisation, thermal control, life support and emergency systems and resources required for long-term habitability.

Most important are oxygen, water, food, energy and construction materials. Biological regenerative systems would include microbial waste treatment technology, plant cultivation, animal (insects such as silkworm and mealworm) and algae production.

Biological regenerative life support composition for a human lunar base.


Biological regenerative life support composition for a human lunar base. Andrew Jones

Power sources, in addition to using solar arrays, will include nuclear power and a regenerative fuel cell, with excess energy going towards electrolysing water to obtain hydrogen and oxygen.

A constellation of circumlunar and polar orbit satellites would provide communications, navigation services and wide area network access for spacecraft, rovers and the lunar base.

Professor Guo Linli explaining the power system for a conceptual crewed lunar base.


Professor Guo Linli explaining the power system for a conceptual crewed lunar base. Andrew Jones

The paper uses Sinus Iridum as the site for the base, but Marius Hills and Cabeus crater are cited as excellent candidates. Final site selection would involve analysing the landform and physiognomy, accessibility, thermal environment, sunlight conditions, protection from micro meteoroids and potential for utilisation of in-situ resources.

Steps and leaps to a lunar base

A massive project such as this is a long way off, but a possible path towards it can be traced.

The first step will be Chang’e-5 (delayed until late 2018 or 2019), China’s first lunar sample return mission and also the world’s first since the Soviet Union’s Luna 24 in 1976.

Professor Guo told that, “After Chang’e-5 China will have lunar soil samples. I want to carry out research into how to generate oxygen from this lunar soil,” with possible water sources also being of great interest.

This mission will be followed by further robotic lunar missions, including another sample return, possibly to the far side (Chang’e-6), and newly proposed missions to the lunar poles in the early 2020s which are slated for technology demonstration and in-situ resource utilisation tests.

China’s main human spaceflight project is the Chinese Space Station (CSS), which will keep the country busy in low Earth orbit for around a decade after its completion in the early 2020s.

A rendering of the completed Chinese Space Station, including docked Shenzhou and Tianzhou spacecraft.


A rendering of the completed Chinese Space Station, including docked Shenzhou and Tianzhou spacecraft. CMSA

However, construction of the CSS will bring valuable expertise and lessons, as well as experience in long-term stays in space, regenerative life support and other areas. But getting to the Moon is currently not possible.

Reaching the Moon

Guo notes also that China’s launch vehicles are currently not sufficient for human lunar missions. A variant of the Long March 5 can be used for launching CSS modules and an under-development next generation, deep space version of the Shenzhou crewed spacecraft, but a gigantic new, Saturn V-class rocket will be required for a lunar base project.

Named Long March 9, it is in the early phases of development and CASC aims to have it fly before the end of the 2020s. If that holds, the super heavy lift launcher could facilitate a lunar base project in the 2030s.

The first Long March 5 rocket being rolled out for launch at Wenchang in late October 2016.


The first Long March 5 rocket being rolled out for launch at Wenchang in late October 2016. Su Dong China Daily

Before then, through investigation and research, Guo – who also instructs university students on lunar base design – and her team will aim to identify scientific goals of a human lunar base and determine the available lunar in-situ resources, and from there develop the necessary scientific experiments and technology.

For operations on the Moon, required research includes evaluating lunar soil as a building material. Possibly of great help is that the European Space Agency, which has designated China a strategic partner, is already testing 3D printing methods with simulated lunar material. 

Ms Guo noted in conclusion to her presentation that the construction cycle and cost will require a wide range of international cooperation partners and commercial operations to get such a project off the ground and onto the lunar soil.

Leaving the cradle

The paper begins its introduction with the Russian astronautics pioneer and formulator of the rocket equation, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky: “The earth is the cradle of humanity, but one can’t stay in the cradle forever,” before positing that humans never stop exploring, citing Columbus and Gagarin.

Currently, the European Space Agency, with the Moon Village concept, Russia, and the United States, with the Deep Space Gateway proposal and a recent new US space policy directive, agree that the Moon is the place to be.

An image of a lunar crater taken by China's Chang'e-2 lunar probe.


An image of a lunar crater taken by China's Chang'e-2 lunar probe. Chinese Academy of Sciences

Quelle: gbtimes



Tags: Raumfahrt - Living on the Moon: A Chinese conceptual lunar base 


Samstag, 16. Dezember 2017 - 09:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Germany picks Ariane 5 for Heinrich Hertz launch




WASHINGTON — German satellite builder OHB Systems has secured a slot for the experimental Heinrich Hertz communications satellite on what could be one of the last Ariane 5 missions before Ariane 6 is expected to take over.

The launch, arranged on behalf of the German space agency DLR, is slated for late 2021 or early 2022 — a  transitional period during which Arianespace plans to launch a mix of Ariane 5 and Ariane 6 rockets while the newer vehicle gains acceptance. The first flight of the Ariane 6 is scheduled for July 2020 — a date ArianeGroup in September said remains firm.

ArianeGroup and the European Space Agency are expecting Ariane 6 to cost about half as much as Ariane 5 in order to better compete on price against SpaceX’s Falcon 9 and other emerging launch systems. 

While Ariane 6 does have a first customer already — ESA has signed up for two Galileo launches — satellite operators can be slow to trust new launchers. Some may be reluctant to leave Ariane 5, which finishes 2017 with a track record of 82 consecutive successful launches. 

With a mass of 3,450 kilograms, Heinrich Hertz will likely launch in the lower berth of Ariane 5, leaving the upper position available for a heavier satellite. OHB is responsible for manufacturing, launch and the associated ground infrastructure for the DLR satellite. 

Heinrich Hertz is largely an experimental mission, carrying some 20 new technologies from German companies and academic institutions. The satellite also carries a Ku- and Ka-band military communications payload for Germany’s Federal Armed Forces, the Bundeswehr. 

In July, DLR selected OHB for a 310.5 million euro ($362.2 million) contract to build the satellite on an ESA-supported SmallGEO platform. Germany’s Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy is paying for the Heinrich Hertz mission.  

OHB’s first SmallGEO satellite, Hispasat 36-W-1, launched in January. Hispasat-36W-1, previously known as Hispasat-AG1, took seven years to complete; a build-time OHB says it will strive to bring down to three. 

SmallGEO is the tip of the spear for OHB as it seeks a foothold in the geostationary telecommunications market. In a Dec. 14 statement, OHB praised the Heinrich Hertz program as “a further step in Germany’s return to full system capabilities in telecommunications satellites in accordance with the German space strategy adopted in 2010.”

Quelle: SN

Tags: Raumfahrt - Germany picks Ariane 5 for Heinrich Hertz launch 


Freitag, 15. Dezember 2017 - 22:00 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Aus dem CENAP-Archiv: UFO-History Teil-97



Aus dem CENAP-Archiv: POPULAR SCIENCE / Mai 1948 - Skyhook-Ballon
















Quelle: CENAP-Archiv

Tags: UFO-Forschung - Aus dem CENAP-Archiv: UFO-History Teil-97 


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