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Sonntag, 15. Mai 2016 - 21:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Mars-Curiosity-Chroniken - Curiosity-News Sol 1274-1286

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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1274 (2016-03-07 03:01:21 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1274 (2016-03-07 03:01:21 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1274 (2016-03-07 05:14:03 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1274 (2016-03-07 05:19:17 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1274 (2016-03-07 05:19:32 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1274 (2016-03-07 06:33:27 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1274 (2016-03-07 03:38:59 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1274 (2016-03-07 05:07:05 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1274 (2016-03-07 05:10:06 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1274 (2016-03-07 06:39:03 UTC). 
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Using an onboard focusing process, the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) aboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity created this product by merging two to eight images previously taken by the MAHLI, located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm.
Curiosity performed the merge on March 8, 2016, Sol 1275 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 15:01:51 UTC. The focus motor count position was 13608. This number indicates the lens position of the first image that was merged.
The onboard focus merge is sometimes performed on images acquired the same sol as the merge, and sometimes uses pictures obtained on an earlier sol. Focus merging is a method to make a composite of images of the same target acquired at different focus positions to bring all (or, as many as possible) features into focus in a single image. Because the MAHLI focus merge is performed on Mars, it also serves as a means to reduce the number of images sent back to Earth. Each focus merge produces two images: a color, best-focus product and a black-and-white image that scientists can use to estimate focus position for each element of the best focus product. Thus, up to eight images can be merged, reducing the number of images returned to Earth to two. 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1275 (2016-03-08 05:03:47 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1275 (2016-03-08 05:04:03 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1275 (2016-03-08 05:06:25 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1275 (2016-03-08 05:24:59 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1275 (2016-03-08 05:28:56 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1275 (2016-03-08 07:18:06 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1275 (2016-03-08 08:00:38 UTC).
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1276 (2016-03-09 04:06:36 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1276 (2016-03-09 04:15:26 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1276 (2016-03-09 05:50:28 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1276 (2016-03-09 07:08:57 UTC). 
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This image was taken by ChemCam: Remote Micro-Imager (CHEMCAM_RMI) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1276 (2016-03-09 03:41:12 UTC). 
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NASA's Mars rover Curiosity acquired this image using its Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, on March 10, 2016, Sol 1277 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 08:02:15 UTC.
When this image was obtained, the focus motor count position was 14054. This number indicates the internal position of the MAHLI lens at the time the image was acquired. This count also tells whether the dust cover was open or closed. Values between 0 and 6000 mean the dust cover was closed; values between 12500 and 16000 occur when the cover is open. For close-up images, the motor count can in some cases be used to estimate the distance between the MAHLI lens and target. For example, in-focus images obtained with the dust cover open for which the lens was 2.5 cm from the target have a motor count near 15270. If the lens is 5 cm from the target, the motor count is near 14360; if 7 cm, 13980; 10 cm, 13635; 15 cm, 13325; 20 cm, 13155; 25 cm, 13050; 30 cm, 12970. These correspond to image scales, in micrometers per pixel, of about 16, 25, 32, 42, 60, 77, 95, and 113.
Most images acquired by MAHLI in daylight use the sun as an illumination source. However, in some cases, MAHLI's two groups of white light LEDs and one group of longwave ultraviolet (UV) LEDs might be used to illuminate targets. When Curiosity acquired this image, the group 1 white light LEDs were off, the group 2 white light LEDs were off, and the ultraviolet (UV) LEDS were off. 
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NASA's Mars rover Curiosity acquired this image using its Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), located on the turret at the end of the rover's robotic arm, on March 10, 2016, Sol 1277 of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission, at 08:17:37 UTC.
When this image was obtained, the focus motor count position was 13987. This number indicates the internal position of the MAHLI lens at the time the image was acquired. This count also tells whether the dust cover was open or closed. Values between 0 and 6000 mean the dust cover was closed; values between 12500 and 16000 occur when the cover is open. For close-up images, the motor count can in some cases be used to estimate the distance between the MAHLI lens and target. For example, in-focus images obtained with the dust cover open for which the lens was 2.5 cm from the target have a motor count near 15270. If the lens is 5 cm from the target, the motor count is near 14360; if 7 cm, 13980; 10 cm, 13635; 15 cm, 13325; 20 cm, 13155; 25 cm, 13050; 30 cm, 12970. These correspond to image scales, in micrometers per pixel, of about 16, 25, 32, 42, 60, 77, 95, and 113.
Most images acquired by MAHLI in daylight use the sun as an illumination source. However, in some cases, MAHLI's two groups of white light LEDs and one group of longwave ultraviolet (UV) LEDs might be used to illuminate targets. When Curiosity acquired this image, the group 1 white light LEDs were off, the group 2 white light LEDs were off, and the ultraviolet (UV) LEDS were off. 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1277 (2016-03-10 07:43:56 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1277 (2016-03-10 07:47:08 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1278 (2016-03-11 06:34:22 UTC).
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1278 (2016-03-11 07:51:37 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Right B (NAV_RIGHT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1278 (2016-03-11 08:47:03 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1280 (2016-03-13 08:20:01 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1281 (2016-03-14 09:01:03 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1281 (2016-03-14 09:01:26 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Navcam: Left B (NAV_LEFT_B) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1282 (2016-03-15 09:20:52 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1284 (2016-03-17 11:44:10 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1285 (2016-03-18 09:49:19 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1285 (2016-03-18 09:51:19 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1285 (2016-03-18 09:52:07 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1285 (2016-03-18 09:53:51 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1285 (2016-03-18 11:34:09 UTC). 
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This image was taken by Mastcam: Right (MAST_RIGHT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1286 (2016-03-19 12:58:43 UTC). 
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Fotos: NASA

Tags: Raumfahrt 

1173 Views

Sonntag, 15. Mai 2016 - 19:25 Uhr

Astronomie - Helle Feuerkugel über Ursa westlich von Mikkeli / Südfinnland

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Helle Feuerkugel über Südfinnland am 12.05.2016 / 0.05 MEZ

Quelle: URSA


Tags: Astronomie 

1428 Views

Sonntag, 15. Mai 2016 - 16:30 Uhr

Astronomie - Erforschung des mathematischen Universum

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Team of more than 80 mathematicians from 12 countries has begun charting the terrain of rich, new mathematical worlds, and sharing their discoveries on the Web. The mathematical universe is filled with both familiar and exotic items, many of which are being made available for the first time. The "L-functions and Modular Forms Database," abbreviated LMFDB, is an intricate catalog of mathematical objects and the connections between them.
Making those relationships visible has been made possible largely by the coordinated efforts of a group of researchers developing new algorithms and performing calculations on an extensive network of computers. The project provides a new tool for several branches of mathematics, physics, and computer science.
A "periodic table" of mathematical objects
Project member John Voight, from Dartmouth College, observed that "our project is akin to the first periodic table of the elements. We have found enough of the building blocks that we can see the overall structure and begin to glimpse the underlying relationships." Similar to the elements in the periodic table, the fundamental objects in mathematics fall into categories.
Those categories have names like L-function, elliptic curve, and modular form. The L-functions play a special role, acting like 'DNA' which characterizes the other objects. More than 20 million objects have been catalogued, each with its L-function that serves as a link between related items. Just as the value of genome sequencing is greatly increased when many members of a population have been sequenced, the comprehensive material in the LMFDB will be an indispensible tool for new discoveries.
The LMFDB provides a sophisticated web interface that allows both experts and amateurs to easily navigate its contents. Each object has a "home page" and links to related objects, or "friends." Holly Swisher, a project member from Oregon State University, commented that the friends links are one of the most valuable aspects of the project: "The LMFDB is really the only place where these interconnections are given in such clear, explicit, and navigable terms. Before our project it was difficult to find more than a handful of examples, and now we have millions."
Experimental mathematics for the 21st century
Mathematics has always been an experimental science: conjectures are formulated and tested based on evidence of all kinds. As we enter a new century of research, large-scale computer experiments now take the place of hand calculations, with the effect of accelerating the process of testing and discovery.
John Jones, from Arizona State University, described this motivation for the project: "Many of us have made extensive computations, and we wanted to make this data available to other researchers and to link these projects together to aid mathematical progress. By joining forces, we now have a site for one-stop shopping of big data."
Many of these calculations are so intricate that only a handful of experts can do them, and some computations are so big and take so long that it makes sense to only do them once. The LMFDB also includes an integrated knowledge database that explains its contents and the mathematics behind it. Project member Brian Conrey, Director of the American Institute of Mathematics, thinks that the LMFDB approach is the wave of the future: "We are mapping the mathematics of the 21st century. The LMFDB is both an educational resource and a research tool which will become indispensable for future exploration."
According to Benedict Gross, an emeritus professor of mathematics at Harvard University, "Number theory is a subject that is as old as written history itself. Throughout its development, numerical computations have proved critical to discoveries, including the prime number theorem, and more recently, the conjecture of Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer on elliptic curves.
"During the past fifty years, modular forms and their L-functions have taken center stage at the forefront of number theory. The LMFDB pulls together all of the amazing computations that have been done with these objects. Having this material accessible in a single place will provide an invaluable resource for all of us working in the field."
Prime numbers have fascinated mathematicians throughout the ages. The distribution of primes is believed to be random, but proving this remains beyond the grasp of mathematicians to date. Under the Riemann hypothesis, the distribution of primes is intimately related to the Riemann zeta function, which is the simplest example of an L-function.
The LMFDB contains more than twenty million L-functions, each of which has an analogous Riemann hypothesis that is believed to govern the distribution of wide range of more exotic mathematical objects. Patterns found in the study of these L-functions also arise in complex quantum systems, and there is a conjectured to be direct connection to quantum physics.
Massive computations in the cloud
The scale of the computational effort involved in the LMFDB is staggering: a total of nearly a thousand years of computer time spent on calculations by multiple teams of researchers. A recent contribution by Andrew Sutherland at MIT used 72,000 cores of Google's Compute Engine to complete in one weekend a tabulation that would have taken more than a century on a single computer. As noted by Sutherland, "computations in number theory are often amenable to parallelization, and this makes it easy to scale them to the cloud." The application of large-scale cloud computing to research in pure mathematics is just one of the ways in which the project is pushing forward the frontier of mathematics.
History of the LMFDB
The idea of pooling the computational results of researchers in several areas of mathematics was started at a workshop at the American Institute of Mathematics in 2007. Work on the LMFDB began at a workshop supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in 2010.
The majority of the work on the LMFDB was done at subsequent workshops supported by the NSF and by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) in the UK through a Programme Grant awarded jointly to Warwick and Bristol Universities, as well as at long-term programs at the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) in Berkeley, CA, and the Institute for Computational and Experimental Research in Mathematics (ICERM) in Providence, RI. More than 100 research papers reference the data in the LMFDB.
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A nonholomorphic modular form is one of the many types of objects in the LMFDB. Image courtesy Fredrik Stroemberg.
Quelle: SD

Tags: Astronomie 

1343 Views

Sonntag, 15. Mai 2016 - 16:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - ISRO - RLVTD-Space-Shuttle-Projekt-Update-1

1.08.2011

Wie das indische Fernsehen berichtete, will die indische Raumfahrt-Organisation ISRO für zukünftige Satelliten-Starts ein unbemanntes Space-Shuttle einsetzen um die Startkosten zu reduzieren.

Hier ein Blick auf den Prototyp von ISRO:

Quelle: NDTV

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Update: 5.01.2015

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Isro to carry out winged-reusable rocket tech demo

 

Isro will carry out the technology demonstration of the reusable launch vehicle in March
Mumbai: Satellites are typically deployed by expensive rockets which disintegrate in phases en route to space; however, the Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) is working on developing the technology for a winged rocket that can be used repeatedly, a senior official said. Isro will carry out the technology demonstration of the reusable launch vehicle in March, the official said. Space vehicles are costly to build and launch, and making them reusable could help reduce space mission costs. “The structure that makes a rocket has to be such that it should have 98% propellant and 2% structure. Only then reusability is possible. Today’s technology does not allow you to go to that level as 5% to 10% will be the mass of the structure and around 90% will be the propellant,” said S. Somanath, associate director of Isro’s Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC). “But then, new ideas are coming up, SpaceX is working on a reusable launch vehicle, but nobody is sure if in the next 10 years, reusable vehicles will be a reality,” Somanth added. VSSC is trying to develop a Winged Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) which will act as a flying tester to assess hypersonic flight, autonomous landing, powered cruise flight and hypersonic flight using air-breathing propulsion. Isro is currently integrating the flight model. In the technology demonstrator, Isro will test if the 12-tonne vehicle can reach five times the speed of sound, whether it can re-enter the atmosphere and land on the sea using its computer system. To be sure, this will be a technological demonstration and the tested vehicle will not be reusable. The VSSC director explained that take-off will be vertical like a rocket, and landing will be like that of an aircraft. “The reusable launch vehicle is important because space orbiting currently costs us $5,000 per km. That kind of money, space exploration and commercial space activities, are not possible,” explained Somanth. “We want to come down to $500, and the one problem here is hardware. Propellant is not that costly, but the hardware is extremely costly and needs to be reused for space travel to be affordable,” he added. Attempts at developing an operational reusable rocket launcher have not been quite successful so far. Till now, only two vehicles have come close to being a reusable launch vehicle—one being the space shuttle developed by the US, and the other, Buran developed by Russia. Both of these were only partially usable.
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Quelle: livemint

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Update: 27.02.2015

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ISRO Plans to Test-fly Reusable Launch Vehicle by Mid-2015

KOVALAM: Taking India’s ‘space shuttle’ dreams a notch closer to reality, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) plans to test-fly the Re-usable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) by the middle of 2015.
“The test-flight will take place either by the end of the first half of this year or the beginning of the second half. Work is progressing satisfactorily,” ISRO’s new chief A S Kiran Kumar told Express on the sidelines of the three-day International Conference on Climate Change and Disaster Management which began here on Thursday. “This first test is one of a segment. Work on the RLV is progressing in steps,” he said.
he unmanned, sub-orbital mission will lift off from the second launch pad of the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), Sriharikota. In simple terms, the two-stage technology demonstrator is a ‘space plane’ rigged atop a rocket.  “The first stage burns on solid fuel. Atop it is the space plane which will return to earth after the flight,” Kiran Kumar said.
At present, for placing satellites in orbit, ISRO uses the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), both expendable vehicles. A Re-usable Launch Vehicle (RLV) - think NASA’s space shuttles - will bring down expenses phenomenally and is the next big leap in ISRO’s launch vehicle programme.
Kiran Kumar, who took over as ISRO chairman in January this year, also listed his other priorities for the space agency. Increasing the number of missions, completing India’s navigational satellite constellation and the big cryogenic engine for the Mk-III version of GSLV are a few.
“We have to streamline the whole process. We are actually behind schedule in many programmes,” he said.  An important project underway is the development of the semi-cryogenic engine, which, again slashes launch costs remarkably. Whereas a cryogenic engine uses Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) and Liquid Oxygen (LOX) as propellants, a semi-cryogenic system replaces LH2 with cheaper and easier-to-handle kerosene.
Quelle: THE NEW INDIAN EXPRESS

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Update: 5.03.2015 

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ISRO to launch a test flight of reusable launch vehicle during April-June

 

NEW DELHI: The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will carry out a test flight of Reusable Launch Vehicle - Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) any day between April-June this year. 

 

The reusable vehicle will bring down the cost of satellite launches substantially in future, making such operations quite competitive in global commercial launch market. 

 

"Technology Demonstrator winged body vehicle weighing 1.5T will be lofted to a height of 70 km using solid booster, thus attaining five times the speed of sound. Thereafter, it will descend by gliding and splashing down into the sea", said an official statement. 

 

This test flight would demonstrate the Hypersonic aerodynamics characteristics, Avionics system, Thermal protection system, Control system and Mission management. 

 

"Development of Reusable Launch Vehicles is a technical challenge and it involves development of many cutting edge technologies. The magnitude of cost reduction depends on development and realization of fully reusable launch vehicle and its degree of reusability", said the statement issued on Wednesday. 

 

The ISRO has taken steps to develop next generation launch vehicle GSLV MkIII, capable of launching four ton class communication satellites to Geo-synchronous Transfer Orbit, which would bring down the cost of satellite launches. 

 

Besides, the ISRO is setting up Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) to provide positioning and navigational services in Indian mainland and surrounding region up to 1,500km. 

 

The IRNSS consists of seven satellites in a constellation, three satellites in geostationary orbit and four satellites in geosynchronous orbit. The objective of IRNSS is to provide positioning services over Indian region with an absolute position accuracy of better than 20 metres. 

 

"The IRNSS provides two services namely Standard Positioning Service (SPS) for Civilian users and Restricted Service (RS) for strategic users", said the statement. 

 

Out of the seven satellites required in the constellation, three satellites namely, IRNSS-1A, 1B & 1C have already been successfully placed in the orbit. 

 

The fourth satellite IRNSS-1D is scheduled for launch during March 2015. 

 

The work on remaining three satellites is in progress. 

 

"The associated ground segment for maintaining the satellites in orbit, monitoring the constellation status, correction of the orbital parameters and navigation data uploading is in place", said the statement.
Quelle: The Times of India

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Update: 15.05.2015 

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Isro to assemble key vehicle for human spaceflight

BENGALURU: The Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) is inching closer towards its Human Space Mission. It is test launching a version of its Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) later this year, following a successful test of the crew module last year.
The agency has already transported and positioned boosters for the launch expected in second half of this year. It will begin assembling the vehicle in 8-10 weeks.
"The launch was to happen sometime in mid-2015, but there's been a delay as we decided to complete our commercial launches first," a senior Isro official said. With the crew module recovery tests done, the next crucial test will be to test the RLV-TD for the Hypersonic Experiment Mission-01 (HEX-01).
"As with the crew module test, there'll be no people aboard this vehicle. We will test the technology, which has been worked upon for over half-a-decade," an Isro spokesperson said.
The UPA-led government had sanctioned Rs 145 crore for the Human Space Mission. The RLV-TD is a major step towards realising this programme, mooted to begin in 2017. The objective is to carry a two-member crew to Low Earth Orbit and return them safely. The winged RLV-TD has been configured to act as a flying test bed to evaluate various technologies like hypersonic flight, autonomous landing, powered cruise flight and flight using air breathing propulsion.
As part of the pre-project activities, Isro is focusing on the development of critical technologies for subsystems such as Crew Module, Environmental control and Life Support System, Crew Escape System and so on. Many of these are already complete. Eventually, Isro will have to use the GSLV platform, which is yet to completely gain the confidence of the agency.
Quelle: The Times of India

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Update: 20.05.2015

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Futuristic Unmanned Space Shuttle Getting Final Touches

THIRUVANANTHAPURAM: A scaled-down, unmanned version of India’s futuristic space shuttle is getting the final touches at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) in Thumba.
With the construction of the Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) nearing completion, A S Kiran Kumar, chairman, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), is scheduled to lead a review of the dream project here on Friday.“The ‘space plane’ part of the RLV-TD is almost ready. We are now in the process of affixing special tiles on its outer surface which is needed for withstanding the intense heat during re-entry into the earth’s atmosphere,” SSC director M Chandradathan said.
“The entire construction of the RLV-TD is being handled by VSSC,” he said.
ISRO has tentatively slated the prototype’s test flight from the first launchpad of Sriharikota spaceport for July this year, but the date would be finalised depending on the completion of construction. The proposed RLV is designed in two parts; a manned space plane rigged atop a single stage, booster rocket using solid fuel. The rocket is expendable while the RLV would fly back to earth and land like a normal aeroplane after the mission.
The prototype- ‘the RLV-TD’ weighs just 1.5 tonnes and would fly up to a height of 70 kms.
For the test mission, the unmanned space plane part would glide into the Bay of Bengal a la the recent crew module successfully tested aboard the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mk-III (GSLV Mk-III) experimental flight last year.India’s answer to the space shuttle, the RLV is one of the big steps forward in ISRO’s launch vehicle programme along with the GSLV Mk-III and the Unified Launch Vehicle project.
ISRO has successfully tested re-entry technology twice- the first time in 2009 with the Space Capsule Recovery Experiment-1 (SRE-1) in January 2007 and the second with the Crew Module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment (CARE) aboard the GSLV Mk-III in December 2014.
Quelle: THE INDIAN EXPRESS

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Update: 30.05.2015

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Erster  RLV-Testflug mit Hyperschall-Flugexperiment für August geplant
The Indian Space Research Organisation is gearing up for the first test flight of the fully Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), under plans to drive down the cost of placing satellites in orbit.
The test flight of the indigenously developed RLV- TD (Technology Demonstrator) will take place in late July or early August after the launch of the PSLV- C28 from Sriharikota, outgoing Director, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) M.C. Dathan told the media here on Friday. RLV has been conceived by ISRO as a space plane that will cut the launch cost from the present level of $5,000 per kg to $ 500 per kg.
The first trial involves the hypersonic flight experiment during which the RLV resembling a small winged aircraft will be launched up to an altitude of 70 km from atop a solid booster rocket and released. The thermally insulated RLV will re-enter the atmosphere and travel back to earth in a controlled descent, to be recovered from the sea, explained S. Somanath, Director-designate, Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC).
4-km runway
Mr. Dathan said the development of RLV was in the final stages. He said a 4 km runway would be constructed at SHAR for the RLV to make a horizontal landing in the subsequent test flights.
Mr. Somanath added that the RLV would be eventually powered by an air breathing scramjet under development. The first prototype of the scramjet with a 10 kg thrust was due to be tested in one month, followed by the development of a test facility at Mahendragiri for a more powerful engine.
Quelle: The Hindu

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Update: 13.10.2015 

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Wiederverwendbare RLVTD Trägerraketen Test in nächstes Jahr wegen kommerzieller Raketenstarts verschoben

BENGALURU: Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) has postponed the test launch of the key reusable launch vehicle technology demonstrator (RLVTD) to next year. 
While the earlier test schedule of September was disrupted by the launch of Astrosat, India's first astronomy satellite other launches with societal application have delayed it further. 
A source said the focus currently is on putting the payload for GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) system which will be put in space by GSAT in November first week and the subsequent Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) launch in December. 
"Both these missions have direct societal applications, which Isro feels is important," the source said, reiterating that preparations for the RLVTD test were all ready. The reusable launch vehicle will reduce launching cost to one-tenth of what's incurred now. 
Another source pointed out that even the eventual test of the RLVTD will be of a vehicle that's one fifth the original prototype and may not even require the PSLV. "A single-phase rocket will suffice," he said. Isro has already successfully completed testing the crew module, which is important for the human space programme.
Quelle: THE TIMES OF INDIA
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Update: 29.12.2015
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ISRO's RLV-TD Project Likely to be Delayed
THIRUVANANTHAPURAM:  Technical snags have forced the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to put off the first test on a scaled-down prototype of India’s futuristic space shuttle.
Sources said on Sunday that the Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD), under development at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) here at Thumba, developed a minor leak during a test, forcing the ISRO to postpone the mission. The ambitious RLV-TD, the first small step to building a ‘space shuttle’ which can return to earth after accomplishing space missions, is likely to be delayed up to April 2016.  ISRO had originally planned a mid-2015 launch for the RLV-TD. It had later been postponed to January 2016.
VSSC Director Dr K Sivan said that some of the components had to be re-assembled. ‘’If things go as planned, we can launch the mission in the first week of February. Otherwise, the test will be conducted in the first week of April,’’ he said. ISRO has three missions lined up for January and March, which is another reason why the RLV-TD could be delayed up to April. ISRO plans to launch the three remaining IRNSS satellites - which will complete the seven-satellite Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System - by March 31. The first of the three is to be launched on January 20, and the remaining two in March using the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV).  “The missions will be launched from the first launch pad, which is also to be used for the RLV-TD,’’ Sivan said.
The RLV-TD consists of a winged space plane-like part rigged atop a booster rocket. The rocket will go up to a height of 70 km and release the space plane portion which will glide down to earth. 
In the first test, the space plane will glide into a landing in the Bay of Bengal. RLV-TD will be the first of a series of tests planned by ISRO before venturing to build the actual vehicle.
Quelle: THE INDIAN EXPRESS

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Update: 29.03.2016

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RLV-TD Likely to Touch Record Mach 5 Speeds: ISRO Officials
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THIRUVANANTHAPURAM: The Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD), whose launch is planned for May this year, will also be the first Indian ‘aircraft structure’ to fly up to Mach 5 speeds, according to ISRO officials. To compare, the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) touches a maximum speed of Mach 1.6.
The RLV-TD is essentially ISRO’s first “baby step” towards building a workable RLV, which will bring down launch expenses phenomenally. The 1.75 tonne, 6.5 metre-long model is due to leave the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) here at Thumba in a week’s time for Sriharikota spaceport via Bangalore.
In fact, the aircraft-shaped technology demonstrator will achieve Mach 5 speeds twice, during ascent atop a booster rocket and amid final descent after separation from it from a height of 70 kms.
“It is actually designed to achieve Mach 6 speeds,” sources said. The `95-crore mission is the first of a series of technology demonstrations ISRO is planning to conduct before actually designing and building an advanced RLV, which is expected to materialise by 2030. “Acoustic tests will be conducted at Bangalore before the RLV-TD is taken to Sriharikota,” VSSC director K Sivan said.
Shaped like a tiny aircraft, with double delta wings and twin fins, the technology demonstrator is one-fifth the size of the actual vehicle planned. It will be taken up to 70 kms by a booster rocket and separated at that height to glide back to earth. The vehicle will land in the Bay of Bengal, some 560 kms from Sriharikota. ISRO officials said that, unlike the earlier SRE-1 and Crew Module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment missions, the RLV-TD will not be recovered from the sea.
Quelle: The Indian Express
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Update: 25.04.2016
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Isro to Test Reusable Launch Vehicle in June
India is set to flight test, in June, a home-grown reusable launch vehicle to demonstrate its capability to re-enter atmosphere and return to earth for more space missions, a top official said on Saturday.
"The winged vehicle, in the shape of an aircraft, is on way to Sriharikota for the maiden flight test in June from our spaceport there," Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) chairman A.S. Kiran Kumar said at an Indian Air Force event Bengaluru.
Sriharikota in coastal Andhra Pradesh, is about 80km northeast of Chennai.
As the cost of access to space exploration and utilisation is expensive, the space agency has developed the two-stage-to-orbit reusable vehicle (RLV-TD) for reducing the cost of launching its future satellites.
It has completed various tests, including acoustics at the National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL) here to act as a flying test bed to evaluate its technologies such as hypersonic flight, autonomous landing, and powered cruise flight, using air-breathing propulsion.
"The vehicle will be flown up to 70 km and released for its re-entry into the atmosphere. It has to withstand the atmospheric pressure and heat friction while re-entering into the atmosphere," Kiran Kumar said at the ninth annual Air Chief Marshal L.M. Khatre lecture.
The space agency will develop the RLV technologies through hypersonic flight experiment, landing experiment, return flight experiment and scramjet propulsion experiment.
"As the prototype vehicle is one-sixth of the original size, it may not require our polar satellite launch vehicle (PSLV)," the Isro chief added.
The space agency is also working on the second version of the geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle (GSLV Mark-III) to carry four-tonne class satellites into the geostationary orbit, about 36,000 km above earth.
The first experimental flight of the heavy rocket was carried on December 18, 2014 to test its atmospheric phase.
Quelle: Gadgets360

Update: 15.05.2016

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ISRO embarks on launching Indian space shuttle

Scientists at ISRO believe that they could reduce the cost by as much as 10 times if reusable technology succeeds
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is all set to undertake the maiden launch of its ‘space shuttle’, a fully made-in-India effort. A sleek winged body, almost the weight and the size of sports utility vehicle (SUV), is being given final touches at Sriharikota where it awaiting final countdown.
Here's what we know:
» India’s space port at Sriharikota on the coast of the Bay of Bengal in Andhra Pradesh will witness the launch of the indigenously made Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD). After the launch, it will be glide back onto a virtual runway in the Bay of Bengal.
» The RLV-TD is unlikely to be recovered from sea during this experiment as it is expected that the vehicle will disintegrate on impact with water since it is not designed to float.
» The purpose of the experiment is to help the shuttle glide over a virtual runway in the Bay of Bengal, situated 500 km from the coast.
» India’s frugal engineers believe the solution to reducing cost of launching satellites into orbit is to recycle the rocket or make it reusable.
» Scientists at ISRO believe that they could reduce the cost by as much as 10 times if reusable technology succeeds, bringing it down to $2,000 per kg.
» K. Sivan, director of the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, says, “These are just the first baby steps towards the big Hanuman leap.”
» The final version will take at least 10-15 years to get ready.
» The special booster or the first stage is powered using a solid fuel and it will hoist the RLV-TD prototype to about 70 km into the atmosphere from where the descent will begin.
» During the descent phase, small thrusters will help the vehicle navigate itself to the landing area.
» The making of the Indian space shuttle or RLV-TD has taken five years and the government has invested Rs. 95 crore in the project. This flight will test the capability of the vehicle to survive a re-entry at speeds higher than that of sound.
Quelle: The Hindu
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ISRO Embarks On Launching Indian Space Shuttle
ISRO is set to undertake the maiden launch of its very own indigenous version of a 'space shuttle'. (File Photo)
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THIRUVANANTHAPURAM: 
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will embark this month on a never before space flight that would make history.
The Indian space agency is set to undertake the maiden launch of its very own indigenous version of a 'space shuttle', a made-in-India effort.
Today, a sleek winged body almost the weight and size of a sports utility vehicle (SUV) is being given final touches at Sriharikota, awaiting the final countdown.
Scientists at ISRO believe that they could reduce the cost of launching stuff into space by as much as 10 times if reusable technology succeeds, bringing it down to USD 2,000 per kg.
Very soon and if all goes well possibly before the monsoon sets in, India's space port at Sriharikota on the coast of the Bay of Bengal in Andhra Pradesh will witness the launch of the indigenously made Reusable Launch Vehicle - Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD). This will be the first time ISRO will launch a spacecraft, which has delta wings. After launch, it will be glided back onto a virtual runway in the Bay of Bengal.
The RLV-TD is unlikely to be recovered from sea during this experiment as it is expected that the vehicle will disintegrate on impact with water since it is not designed to float. The purpose of the experiment is not to see it float but to glide and navigate from a velocity five times higher than the speed of sound onto a designated virtual runway in the Bay of Bengal some 500 km from the coast.
Similar in its looks to the American space shuttle, the RLV-TD being experimented is a scale model which is almost 6 times smaller than the final version.
K Sivan, director of the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, says, "These are just the first baby steps towards the big Hanuman leap."
India embarked on making its own version of the space shuttle by thinking about it more than 15 years ago, but work in earnest started only five years ago when a dedicated team of engineers and scientists plunged into making RLV-TD a reality. The 6.5-m-long 'aeroplane'-like spacecraft will weigh 1.75 tons and will be hoisted into the atmosphere on a special rocket booster.
The special booster or the first stage is powered using a solid fuel and it will hoist the RLV-TD experiment to about 70 km into the atmosphere from where the descent will begin.
During the descent, phase which is essentially a glider like event small thrusters will help the vehicle to be navigated to the exact spot where it is supposed to land.
Ships, satellites and radars will monitor its descent. The current experimental version has no undercarriage so it cannot be brought back onto land and India lacks a runway that is longer than 5 km in length to accommodate such a landing.
Some private billionaires with very active support from NASA have been trying to master vertical lift-off and vertical landing as part of trying to recycle rocket engines.
SpaceX is a company owned by South Africa-born billionaire Elon Musk which became big through the Internet economy and has been able to land its Falcon-9 rocket onto a sea-based platform.
On the same lines the company Blue Origin owned by Jeff Bezos landed its New Shepard rocket on land in Texas. Bezos, another billionaire, made it big by building the Amazon online trading platform.
NASA chief General Charles Bolden recently said the competition has shifted to a fight among billionaires to reduce the cost of launching satellites into space.
The making of the Indian space shuttle or RLV-TD has taken 5 years and the government has invested Rs. 95 crore in the project. This flight will test the capability of the vehicle to survive a re-entry at speeds higher than that of sound so it is called a hyper sonic experiment (HEX).
Later, in the next few flights the RLV will be subjected to a landing experiment and another return flight experiment. Once these are successful, ISRO will then decide on what should be the final configuration of the Reusable Launch Vehicle.
One key technology the scientists at VSSC had to develop was to make materials that can withstand high temperatures that the exterior of the vehicle is faced with as it comes back into the dense atmosphere after its journey through near vacuum in space.
The friction from the air turns the exterior like a red-hot iron plate. To be able to withstand these 5000-7000 degrees Celsius temperature the scientists have developed very lightweight heat resistant silica tiles that are plastered on the underbelly of the so-called Indian space plane.
The nose cone takes the brunt of the high temperatures and is made up of a special carbon-carbon composite that can withstand high temperature. These special materials are necessary to protect the insides of the vehicle where the temperature should never go higher than 50 degrees Celsius.
It is these heat resistant tiles and thermal coating that failed on the American Space Shuttle, Columbia that resulted in the death of Indian born American astronaut Kalpana Chawla's in 2003. Consequently, ISRO has laid a lot of emphasis on the thermal management of the RLV.
After the successful deployment of the Swadeshi Global Positioning System through NAVIC or Navigation with Indian Constellation, ISRO is again reaching for the stars.
Quelle: NDTV



Tags: Raumfahrt 

7228 Views

Sonntag, 15. Mai 2016 - 15:30 Uhr

Raumfahrt - China startet Long March 2-D Trägerrakete mit Yaogan-30 Fernerkundungssatelliten

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JIUQUAN, May 15, 2016 A Long March 2-D rocket carrying the Yaogan-30 remote sensing satellite blasts off at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in Jiuquan, northwest China's Gansu Province, May 15, 2016. China's Yaogan-30 remote sensing satellite was sent into space on Sunday at 10:43 a.m. from Jiuquan in northwestern China's gobi desert.The satellite will be used for experiments, land surveys, crop yield estimates and disaster relief. (Xinhua/Wang Jiangbo)
JIUQUAN, Gansu, May 15 (Xinhua) -- China's Yaogan-30 remote sensing satellite was sent into space on Sunday at 10:43 a.m. from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwestern China's gobi desert.
The satellite will be used for experiments, land surveys, crop yield estimates and disaster relief.
Yaogan-30 was carried by a Long March-2D rocket, the 227th mission for the Long March rocket family.
China launched the first "Yaogan" series satellite, Yaogan-1, in 2006.
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Quelle: Xinhua

Tags: Raumfahrt 

1181 Views

Sonntag, 15. Mai 2016 - 14:30 Uhr

Astronomie - Subaru Telescope sieht Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

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Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope serendipitously captured high-resolution images of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during the inaugural queue-mode observations last March. The camera was scheduled to observe a distant compact galaxy when the chance came up to capture a view of the comet, and the images reveal fine details in the comet's coma and tails (Figure 1).
Comet 67P is a short-period comet that orbits the Sun every 6.57 years. It is known world-wide as the target of the European Space Agency's comet-chasing Rosetta mission, launched in March 2004. The spacecraft has returned thousands of close-up images and data of the comet and continues to keep pace with the nucleus as it moves away from the Sun.
Capturing a Comet on the Run
Subaru Telescope observed Comet 67P when it was about 200 million km (100 million miles) from the Earth, between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Subaru images clearly show a bright coma, long tails, and a faint but clearly visible dust trail.
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Figure 1: Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as seen through the Hyper Suprime Cam’s wide field of view. The image was taken between 2:40-3:50 on March 8, 2016 (Hawaii Time). A broad-band filter (g-band, 480 nm) was used. The images were rotated to align the comet's orbit in the long axis. The top image is composed of ten 6-minute exposure data, stuck with respect to the background stars positions. The comet itself is blurred due to its move during these exposures. The middle image is created by centering the comet's position, hence the background objects are blurred. The adjustment of the contrast reveals the details of the tails and the inner structure of the coma. The bottom image illustrates the conspicuous features with the Earth's size for comparison. The dust trail outlines the orbit of the comet, which also has a dust tail a little offset from the dust trail.
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Comet 67P was not the main goal of the observations in which it was captured. The telescope was actually performing a study of the 59th object in the Hickson's Compact Groups of Galaxies Catalog (HCG 59). By a sheer chance, the comet was also visible in the same wide field of view (the largest available among the world's 8- to 10-meter class telescopes) (Figure 2).
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Figure 2: The field of view of the HSC (top right), centered on HCG 59 (enlarged image in the top left). Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is to the bottom right, and its enlarged image at the bottom. At the upper right corner of HCG 59 image, there is a very faint object that is a candidate of an ultra diffuse galaxy.
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Timing is Everything
The telescope was pointed at the particular region of sky during the inaugural observation mode called "queue mode". During queue mode, targets are chosen from a pre-selected list with respect to the sky conditions and the scientific priority of the targets in the list. As it turned out, the night of March 7 was the very first night of the queue mode observation for HSC on Subaru.
Originally another target was in the queue at the time of the observation. However, the transparency of the atmosphere for that target was not ideal because of thin clouds. The HCG 59 observation was then moved to the top of the queue since it did not require such exacting conditions. As it turned out, Comet 67P was in the same wide field of view as the HCG 59.
The timing was perfect. Due to its relatively rapid motion, 67P would have not shown up in the HCG 59 field if the galaxy group observation had not been moved up in the queue in that week (Figure 3).
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Figure 3: Image showing the movement of the comet's coma. The gif image is composed of three shots within a 20-minute interval. The orientation of this image is the same as Figure 1. The HSC points to a slightly different position, so the CCD gap (shown in white lines) with respect to the comet changes. The apparent elongation of the coma is due to the motion of the comet during the 6 minutes exposure. The angular size of the image is 5.6 x 5.6 arcminutes.
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Dr. Masafumi Yagi of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and Hosei University, who proposed the observation of the galaxy group, commented on the lucky turn of events. "I was pleasantly surprised to hear that our target was in the queue even though it did not have the higher priority," he said. "Even more so to see this interesting object in the field of view!"
Thanks to this serendipitous set of observations Subaru Telescope and HSC are contributing welcome ground-based data to the study of Comet 67P. Because the image of the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko shows a dust trail in addition to the dust tail, the research group is now in discussion with comet experts. Even though the presence of this dust trail was already known, there could well be an interesting finding from these HSC images about the nature of the dust trails.
Quelle: Subaru Telescope NAOJ

Tags: Astronomie 

1381 Views

Sonntag, 15. Mai 2016 - 14:00 Uhr

Astronomie - Neuer Test mit tiefster Galaxy Karte bestätigt Einstein Theorie

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By using Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS, Note 1) on the Subaru Telescope, an international team led by Japanese researchers has made a 3D map of 3000 galaxies 13 billion light years from Earth (Figure 1). Based on this comprehensive survey, the first of such a study at this great distance, the team was able to confirm that Einstein's general theory of relativity is still valid.

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Figure 1: A 3D map of the Universe spanning 12 to 14.5 billion light years. (From Subaru Telescope Press release on August 7, 2013, "Constructing a 3D Map of the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe"; Credit: NAOJ; Partial data supplied by: CFHT, SDSS)
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Since it was discovered in the late 1990s that the universe is expanding at an accelerated rate, scientists have been trying to explain why. The mysterious dark energy could be driving acceleration, or Einstein's theory of general relativity, which says gravity warps space and time, could be breaking down.
To test Einstein's theory, a team of researchers led by Teppei Okumura (Kavli IPMU Project Researcher), Chiaki Hikage (Kavli IPMU Project Assistant Professor), and Tomonori Totani (University of Tokyo Department of Astronomy Professor), used FastSound (Note 2) Survey data on more than 3000 distant galaxies to analyze their velocities and clustering. This survey is one of the strategic observation programs at the Subaru Telescope, and used 40 nights of its telescope time from 2012 to 2014.
Their results indicate that even far into the universe, general relativity is valid, giving further support that the expansion of the universe could be explained by a cosmological constant, as proposed by Einstein in his theory of general relativity.
"We tested the theory of general relativity further than anyone else ever has. It's a privilege to be able to publish our results 100 years after Einstein proposed his theory," said Okumura. "Having started this project 12 years ago it gives me great pleasure to finally see this result come out," said Karl Glazebrook, Professor at Swinburne University of Technology in Australia, who proposed the survey.
No one has been able to analyze galaxies more than 10 billion light years away, but the team managed to break this barrier thanks to the FMOS on the Subaru Telescope, which can analyze galaxies 12.4 to 14.7 billion light years away. The Prime Focus Spectrograph, currently under construction, is expected to be able to study galaxies even further away.
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Figure 2: The growth rate and its evolution of the large-scale structure. Horizontal axis shows the redshift as well as the comoving distance (Note 3). Vertical axis is the parameter showing the growth of the large-scale structure. The larger the number is, the faster the growth speed becomes. Green band indicates the range of the growth speed expected from the general relativity theory and the cosmological constant. Red circle is the newly obtained constrained based on FastSound survey. Other values are from previous studies. The FastSound provided a very important constraint on the growth rate for the distant, hence the ancient universe. (Credit: Okumura et al.)
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Detail of this study was published in the Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan on its on-line version of April 26, 2016. The title is " The Subaru FMOS galaxy redshift survey (FastSound). IV. New constraint on gravity theory from redshift space distortions at z~1.4" by Okumura et al. The research was supported by Grant-In-Aid 19740099, 19035005, 20040005, 22012005, 23684007, 26887012, 24740160, 24540286, and 15H05890.
Notes:
FMOS was constructed as collaboration between the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), Kyoto University, and the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC).
The name FastSound stands for two important aspects of the project. Fast is short for FMOS Acceleration Sampling Test, which refers to the 3D map from the survey. Sound abbreviates Subaru Observation Understanding Nature of Dark energy, which relates more closely to the scientific purpose of the project, i.e., studying dark energy and its implications for the theory of general relativity.
Comoving distance is one of the distance scale used in the cosmology. It is derived from the time that the light spent from the object to reach the observer, including the change caused by the expansion of the universe so far. This press release uses this comoving distance scale.
Quelle: Subaru Telescope NAOJ

Tags: Astronomie 

1454 Views

Sonntag, 15. Mai 2016 - 13:00 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - Aus dem CENAP-Archiv: UFO-History Teil-39

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05.06.2005
    
Feuerkugel schreckte Menschen zwischen Taunus und Westerwald auf
Sonntagmorgen, der 5.Juni 05, um etwa 8 h. - ein Herr aus Butzbach im Taunus berichtete von "einem grellen Leuchtball über den aufgerißenen Wolken", den er kurz nach 0:30 h gesehen hatte. Er hatte mit seiner Freundin eine Sportgaststätte gerade verlassen und sie liefen auf den geparkten PKW zu. "Urplötzlich war es ganz hell am Himmel und wir sahen über den Wolken einen grellen Leuchtball geräuschlos dahinziehen", berichtete er. Die ganze Sichtung "dauerte nur Sekunden, aber das Ding flog dabei quer über den Himmel und verschwand hinter den Wolken des Horizonts". Die Sicht darauf war deswegen "aufregend", weil der Himmel zur Hälfte leicht bewölkt war und man "das grelle Ding" mal am freien Himmel und mal noch HINTER den Wolken "glühen" sah! Groß wie ein Tischtennisball bei ausgestrecktem Arm sei es "vielleicht" gewesen und seine Farbe "war die wie ein Schweißbrenner". Und so sah auch sein Schweif aus. "Dann war alles wieder ruhig, so als wäre nichts gewesen!"
Er drängte mir quasi die Rufnummer seiner Freundin in Bad Nauheim auf, "damit Sie sehen, das ich kein Spinner bin". Ich solle sie auch gleich anrufen, da sie es auch war die ihm die Rufnummer der Meldestelle in Mannheim aus dem Internet gerade gegeben hatte "und deswegen immer noch ganz aufgeregt sei". So erreichte ich Frau C. auch sofort, das sie neben dem Telefon schon wartete und so früh schon auf war, weil sie ab 10 h in einer Bäckerei zu arbeiten habe. Im Kern führte sie mit eigenen Worten die identische Observation aus, wenn sie sie auch "auf kurz vor 0:45 h" einschätzte. Sie interessiert sich etwas für SF und Astronomie und wusste seit einigen Jahren um die UFO-Meldestelle, "aber ich dachte nie, diese mal selbst brauchen zu können, aber was wir da sahen war garantiert keine Sternschnuppe - solche habe ich zigfach schon gesehen und die sind überhaupt kein Vergleich zu dem von heute Nacht!" Eine leichte Abweichung zur Schilderung ihres Butzbacher Freundes gab es - sie hatte auf dem Weg von der Gaststätte hin zum Wagen eher zu Boden geguckt und "es kam mir vor als sei plötzlich die Strasse von oben herab erhellt, aber anders wie bei einem Blitz". Deswegen schaute sie sofort auf und sah "den glühenden Körper über den Himmel hinschießen", parallel ihr Freund an der Hand ebenso. Das Gebilde zog gegen Westen hin.
So wollte ich mich nochmal auf Ohr hauen und kam nicht zum Einschlafenn. Kurz vor 9 h meldete sich ein Herr aus der Nähe von Duisburg, "der Punkt 0:41 h vom Balkon aus einen Riesen-Böller" (aber ohne Ton) gesehen hatte als er gerade vor dem Marsch ins Bett nochmals nach dem Wetter schauen wollte. Seine Darstellung zum Vorgang: "Die ovale Leuchterscheinung war weiß-bläulich eingefärbt und sehr auffällig. Selbst durch die dünnen Wolken an manchen Stellen war sie problemlos auf ihrem Weg nach NW auszumachen." Binnen 3 Sekunden war das Teil zum Horizont hin wieder verschwunden. Begleitet wurde das Ganze "von einem leuchtenden bunten Schweif". Eine halbe Stunde später wurde ähnliches aus Bielstein von einem Ehepaar für diese Uhrzeit berichtet. Auch in diesem Fall war die Verwunderung groß, "weil dies zwischen und über den Wolken so prächtig leuchtete, obwohl es ganz schnell durch die Höhen zog". Eine Richtung konnte hier nicht bestimmt werden, "damit kennen wir uns nicht aus". In diesem Beobachtungsfall war wohl die Sicht besonders "schaurig" (meine eigenen Worte in diesem Fall!), weil "der hell-weiße Körper" selbst mehr ERAHNT als wirklich gesehen wurde, da der Himmel an Ort fast vollständig von leichten Wolken bedeckt war. Eigentlich "war das Ganze eine dahinrasende ´breite´ Leuchtspur durch die Schleierwolken hindurch". Da staunte ich selbst einmal mehr, da die Beobachtungsumstände nicht wirklich ideal aufgrund der Wetterlage waren (wenn auch nicht wirklich mies). Um so ´mächtiger´ muss also der dahinterstehende Feuerball gewesen sein.
Ein Korridor zwischen Taunus und Ruhrgebiet machte sich so auf. Jetzt war es Zeit ins Internet zu gehen und sich bei den ´üblichen Verdächtigen´ umzuschauen, ob es auf bestimmten Foren bereits Meldeeingänge gab. Und siehe da - bei Wetterzentrale.de wurde ich sofort fündig. Ein Bochumer berichtete unter der Betreffzeile "Große Sternschnuppe/Boliden-Sichtung Duisburg" schon kurz nach 3 h: "Als ich heute Abend, im Rahmen der ´Nacht der Industriekultur´, in Duisburg war, konnte ich Richtung NNW eine sehr große Sternschnuppe/Boliden beobachten. Dieses helle Objekt, was ca. 2-3 Sekunden leuchtete, zog sehr schnell von etwa 60° über Horizont bis etwa 20° über Horizont und leuchtete sogar durch die teilweise vorhandene Altocumulus-Bewölkung. Ein Disco-Beamer/ Feuerwerk ist ausgeschlossen. So gut wie alle Menschen um mich herum haben das Objekt ebenfalls bemerkt." Uhrzeit: 0:40 h. Und weiter: "Hat mich sofort an Bilder der verglühenden ´Mir´ oder der ´Columbia´ erinnert, bloß viel scheller, als diese. Beeindruckend war wie gesagt, daß die Ac-Wolken durchschienen wurden, etwa wie bei der Helligkeit des Halbmondes." Aus Bad Camberg berichtete ein Zeuge: "Hatte eine Sternschnuppe ausgeschlossen, weil so eine helle hatte ich bei weitem noch nie gesehen. Könnte aber sein, dass von meinem Standpunkt aus Richtung Westerwald eine geschlossene Wolkendecke war, sodass die Sternschnuppe hinter der Wolkendecke verschwand?!" Und dann eine weitere verblüffende Sichtung, achten Sie mal auf den Ort: "Dann habe ich mich also doch nicht geirrt, als ich zu genau zu der gleichen Zeit in den Räumen der UWZ Bad Nauheim vom Westfenster her aus den Augenwinkeln heraus einen deutlichen Lichtblitz wahrzunehmen glaubte." Ein Betrachter aus Elz bei Limburg: "Ich saß im Auto auf einem Parkplatz am Ortsausgang etwa 20 m neben der Bundesstr. 8 und schaute zufällig gerade etwa Richtung Nordnordwest, als etwa in einem Winkel von 50-60° über mir ein Blitz in einer sehr hellblauen Farbe erschien. Er war über den Wolken, dass konnte man sehr gut sehen. Bewölkung war soweit ich das erkennen konnte eine Altocumulus. Der Blitz war ein langgezogener Punkt der sehr hell aufleuchtet und den Himmel ringsum in der selben Farbe hell erleuchten ließ für etwa 1 Sekunde. Ich hab kein blassen Schimmer was das gewesen sein könnte."
Bei Astroinfo.de gab es ebenso eine aufliegende Meldung unter dem Betreff "Meteorit/ Sternschnuppe?" von knapp vor 2 h eingetragen: "Hallo ich wohne in Paderborn und habe vor ca. 1 Std eine Zigarette draussen vor der Tür geraucht, plötzlich sah ich am Himmel in westlicher Richtung etwas, eh naja runterfallen glaube ich. Also ich habe noch nie eine Sternschnuppe oder so etwas gesehen in meinen 28 Jahren. Es ging ziemlich steil runter von links oben nach rechts unten und es hatte einen blau roten Schweif. Gehört habe ich nichts, aber ich habe danach senkrecht in den Himmel geschaut und noch mal einen kleinen aber goldenen Schweif gesehen. Das größere Objekt, oder besser der Schweif weil mehr konnte ich nicht sehen. Hat sehr nah gewirkt, ich kann das aber nicht einschätzen."
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Zudem informierte ich das Feuerkugel-Netzwerk dazu routinemäßig. Bei Astronomie.de fragte ich nach ob dort jemand das Teil gesehen hatte. Später erfuhr ich so von einem Beobachter aus Bochum: "Ja, ich habe es gestern auch beobachtet. Es war wahnsinnig hell und sehr schnell... Es war total genial, habe schon gedacht der Einzige zu sein, der es beobachtet hat... Er flog von SW Richtung N, leider habe ich es nur mit dem Auge beobachtet, aber man hätte es auch nicht verfolgen können. Es war auch so schon super zu sehen, echt gewaltig... Erst grünlich und dann grell-blau." Über die NAA-Liste (Nürnberger Astronomischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft e.V.) teilte mir ein Zeuge aus Münster mit: "Leider war die ´Hauptleuchtquelle´ von einem Mauervorsprung verdeckt. Das was ich sah, erinnerte mich zuerst an ein Flugzeug, das mit der mittleren Positionsleuchte die Wolken angeflasht hatte. Das Blitzen wiederholte sich jedoch nicht und zu sehen/hören war weit und breit auch nichts. Zu dem Zeitpunkt war es hier leicht bewölkt. Die Helligkeit dieses Blitzes war schon fast mondverdächtig... Das ganze knapp am Zenit, leicht westlicher Einschlag."
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17.06.2005
    
UFOlogische Blütenträume in Phoenix, Arizona?
Seltsames Videomaterial in der Kritik ob Glaubwürdigkeit

Am Sonntagabend des 5.Juni 05, gegen 22 h, will jemand (wer wurde nie wirklich klar) vom Parkplatz des Wal-Mart in Phoenix die "clearest and most amazing sequence of strange lights in the skies" mit der Videokamera aufgenommen haben. Die auffallend lichtstarke von weißen runden Lichtern (zudem "a huge formation of lights") in sich aufbauend seltsamer "Blumenblüten"-Formation sei über den gegenüberliegenden Hügeln erschienen und sogar herabgekommen. Der Beobachter (ein ´Brian Bessent´ und Betreiber von Ufotheatre.com) ist offenkundig selbst UFO-Fan und ärgert sich darüber, dass die weltberühmten Phoenix-Lights (als Doppel von Greifswald 1990, wenn man so will) von 1997 als Signal-Leuchtfackeln identifiziert wurden, erklärt so selbst bewusst, dass seine Aufnahme garantiert keine solche Signalfackeln zeigen. Magere Angaben, außer das am Anfang die Erscheinung auf einem Kamera-Stativ aufgenommen wurde.
Auch bei Rense.com ( http://www.rense.com/general65/aamz... ) wurde rasch der Fall aufgegriffen. "Amazing UFO Footage", mal wieder. Ein 12 MB-MPEG-Videoclip kann hier runtergeholt werden. Natürlicht schaut dies Material zunächst mal wieder interessant aus, wenn auch weitesgehend unscharf die weißen Lichter sind. Die Kameraführung ist auch seltsam, dieses hin und her. Die Schärfe wurde offenbar auf den Vordergrund (Büsche) gestellt. War dies eine Nightvision-Aufnahme? Niemand erklärt es uns. Irgendwie wirkte es gleich CGI-aufbereitet. International wurde der Fall diskutiert, erstaunt hat mich dabei, dass die meisten Diskutanten dabei gar nicht weiter auf den Zeugen eingingen oder bei ihm nachfragten (z.B. welche Kamera er überhaupt verwendete und warum er Sonntagabend am Wal-Mart war etc), sondern sich sofort auf das Bild- bzw Videomaterial stürzten. An J.A.Hynek sei erinnert, der mal sagte: "Es ist wichtig, dass bei UFO-Aufnahmen die Fotografie nicht verlässlicher ist als der Fototograf."
Auch bei CENAP gab es zum Film eine Diskussion. So warf Jörg Böhme ein, bassierend auf ein Update bei Rense.com:
"Ein Filmemacher (David Sereda) und sein Freund der sich mit Special Effects in Hollywood beschäftigt, haben sich mit dem Phoenix UFO-Video auseinandergesetzt und sagen, dass es äußerst schwierig zu fälschen wäre. Denn:
1. Das UFO bewegt sich im Videoframe in Einklang mit der Handbewegung der Videokamera.
2. Um ein Fake-UFO zu schaffen, müßte über den realen Background eine Video-Effektebene hinzugefügt werden.
3. Wenn das eine Hand-Kamera ist, macht sie auch sprunghafte Bewegungen, die zusätzliche UFO-Ebene muss sich genau und konsistent mit jenen Bewegungen bewegen. Das ist äußerst schwierig zu machen.
4. Dann zoomt die Kamera das UFO heran. Während des Heranzoomens müßte die zweite Ebene ebenfalls synchron mit der Kamerabewegung gezoomt werden. Dies ist sehr schwierig für einen ´special effects Guru´ nachzumachen.
5. Wenn der Wind weht, gibt es aufgrund des Staubes in der Atmosphäre ein leichtes Pulsieren des UFOs: aus dieselben Grund funkeln die Sterne.
6. Als der Autofokus der Kamera aus dem Fokus gerät, wird das UFO auch unscharf. Das bedeutet, dass man auch zu diesem Effekt sich anzupassen muß.
Weil es so viele Faktoren in diesem Amateur-Video zu synchronisieren sind, und so wenige Leute gibt, die wissen, wie dies zu tun ist, und die meisten ´special effects Gurus´ meiden Multilayering zu schlechten Kamerabewegung zu machen, denkt er dass wir hier ein Objekt (UFO) ansehen, das tatsächlich im Himmel war, als das Video geschossen wurde."
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Norbert Esser, zu dessen tägliches Brot gehört mit dem Rechner glaubwürdig-wirkende visuelle Effekte für die Werbung zu produzieren, daraufhin:
Zu 1) "Tracking" ist eine einfache Methode das zu erreichen. Die Experten scheinen keine zu sein. (F.T.: Richtig,man kann es mittlerweile sogar kombinieren, in dem man das Objekt bspw. an die Äste "bindet". Dadurch erhält man doppelte Synchronizität.)
Zu 2) Macht schon Software die Umsonst auf der Computer-Bild enthalten ist. (Bei Final Cut, mit dem ich gelegentlich arbeite, hat man 99 Ebenen standardmäßig zur Auswahl.)
Zu 3) Nein, sehr simpel.
Zu 4) Nein, Bezierkurvenorientierte Effektebenen sind schon seit langem simpler Standard.
Zu 5) ??? Ich dachte das hat mit der wechselnden Dichte der Atmosphäre zu tun. (Ich denke, das hat mit der Nachtsicht Funktion der Kamera zu tun. Der ist immerhin permanent beschäftigt, durch das Restlicht scharf zu stellen. Dass es da flackert, ist also völlig normal.)
Zu 6) Kein Ding, dauert 5 Minuten. Adobe Premiere ist 4 Millionen mal verkauft worden. Plus der anderen Software-Produkte die sowas können. Meine Meinung: Fake, da Kammscherrungen (Interlacing/Zeilensprung) des Objektes nicht mit dem des Videos übereinstimmen. Auch an der Kompressionen gibt es einiges was auf eine nachträgliche Bearbeitung schliessen läßt. Desweiteren ist ein Detail wichtig. Der erste Punkt der an das Große heranfliegt ist von Anfang an knackescharf. Leider aber das andere Objekt und die Umgebung nicht. Es gibt dafür keine mir ersichtliche optische Erklärung und darraus schließe ich das es ein sehr fantasievoller Videofreak war. Ich vermute die Lichter sind 3D Objekte oder eine Leuchtreklamme die aus einem anderen Layer extrahiert wurde. Die gezoomte Gruppe ist geclont. Bedeutet das es kopierte "Jupiter" sind. Bewegliche Stempel gibt es bei Avid FinalCut und AfterEffects als Tools aber nur AfterEffects hat beides. Also Clonen in der Bewegung und Tracking. Der mittlere Punkt ist im Video wohl echt, die restlichen Lichter sind synthetisch und reinkopiert. Alle Schärfe/Farb/Zoom und bewegungsrelevanten Daten sind sehr gut bei dem mittleren Klecks. Das andere ist nicht konsistent. Ich gehe von einem Stern oder so was wie dem Jupiter aus. Es kann aber auch ein Lichtquelle am hinteren Berg sein. Gut gemacht. Viel Mühe und nette Idee.
Ferhat Talayan (F.T.), der ebenso ob seines Jobs mit Computer-Animationen etc zu tun hat schloß sich dem an. Seine Kommentare sind in Klammer direkt nach Esser´s Ausführungen oben gesetzt. Sein Fazit: "Ich kann nicht sicher sagen, dass es sich um einen Fake handelt, auch wenn das zugegebenermaßen mein erster Gedanke war. Aufgefallen ist mir, dass obwohl die Äste im Vordergrund recht schwach beleuchtet sind, das UFO im Hintergrund doch sehr scharf und hell zu sehen ist. Aus eigener Erfahrung sage ich, dass das ungewöhnlich ist. Normalerweise reicht die Nachtsicht Funktion 3 Meter weit, danach nimmt sie stark ab. Es müsste also umgekehrt sein, die Äste müssten sehr hell und knallgrün sein, und das UFO unscharf. Stattdessen ist es umgekehrt. Sehr merkwürdig."
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18.06.2005
    
Phoenix-UFO-Video: Der Abschuss!
Neueste unabhängige Informationen knacken beeindruckentes UFO-Falschmaterial
Am Freitag, den 17.Juni 05, berichtete dann KTVK-TV Channel 3 in Phoenix selbst, dass der schwere Verdacht im Raum hängt, wonach das hier behandelte Video ein Schwindel ist ( http://www.azfamily.com/ontv/teased... Der Sender bekam nach der Erstausstrahlung des Videos am 9.Juni (und der folgenden eigenen Untersuchung) heraus, dass der Zeuge der Sichtung "a graphic artist and amateur filmmaker from Texas, visiting Arizona to help produce a DVD about UFOs" ist und damit ganz und gar eigenständige Interessen (der wirtschaftlichen Art) hat. Darüber hinaus hat ´Bessent´ bereits früher (2003, Santa Saba, Texas) schon mal eine Flotte von UFOs aufgenommen, die sich als ein Vogelschwarm herausstellte ( http://www.geocities.com/brian_bess... ). Als ihm vorgegworfen wurde, dass dies einfach nur ein Vogrlschwarm sei, erklärte er neue UFO-Flottenaufnahmen zu besitzen, die "the real thing" zeigten - doch auch hier nur ein Vogelschwarm ( http://www.geocities.com/brian_bess... ). Interessant auch - nach wie vor gibt es keinerlei weitere Zeugen für die hier behandelte Erscheinung. ´Bessent´ wurde vom Sender eingeladen sein Video in einem spezialisierten Videostudio von Experten untersuchen zu lassen - er sagte zu, tauchte aber nicht auf obwohl er noch in der Jeff Rense-Radioshow erklärte sich direkt auf den Weg zu machen. Als Entschuldigung schickte er dem Sender diese bemerkenswert schwache eMail: "I think I have spent too much time on the UFO thing and get [sic] behind on my real life work. So I need to address some important issues before I have time to blow on UFOs." KTVK-TV erklärte daraufhin die ganze Geschichte in seinen Nachrichtensendungen vom 17.Juni als eine Fälschung und Bessent als der Fälscher, der gezielt seine Geschichte und "Aufnahme" in UFO-Kreisen plazierte. Selbst Jim Dilettoso (der selbst bereits früher verdächtige UFO-Filme als echt durchgehen ließ und in Fachkreisen den Spitznahmen "Dilettanto" abbekam), nannte das Material hier klar "a fake". Interessant mal wieder wie weit UFO-Fans gehen. Wirklich - eine seltsame Szene.
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18.06.2005
    
Aliens, UFOs und FACTS in der Schweiz

Wir sind nicht allein - Forscher glauben an Leben im All
So war der Titel-Aufmacher des Schweizer Print-Nachrichtenmagazins FACTS Nr.24 vom 16.Juni 2005, von dem ich am 18.6. mein Belegexemplar erhielt. Im Vorfeld hatte mich Herr Thomas Häusler von der entsprechenden Wissenschaftsredaktion kontaktiert und um ein Gespräch gebeten. (1) Die dabei abgegebenen Statements flossen in die Berichterstattung ein. Zwei Beiträge machten die Titelstory zur Frage "Sind wir allein im Weltall?" aus - "Hallo, hello, ciao, allo..." und "Ganz von dieser Welt". Ausgangspunkt war natürlich Spielbergs neuer Alien-Invasions-Film "Krieg der Welten" kurz vor der Sommerferien-Saison 2005.
(1) = Dabei fragte ich ihn erstaunt wie er ausgerechnet auf mich kam, seine Antwort: "Schon nach kurzer Recherche stolpert man ja geradezu über Sie. Da kommt man ja nicht daran vorbei." Inzwischen hatte er auch intensiv das CENAP-Internet-Angebot studiert, was man zum UFO-Part in der Berichterstattung auch deutlich verspürt. Eher selten hat sich ein Journalist so die Zeit genommen, um seine Geschichte ´rund´ zu machen. Ich muss nach Eingang des Belegheftes und des Lesens des Artikels selbst darüber staunen.
Inhalts-Highlights:
"Offensichtlich landeten Aliens bisher nur in Büchern und Filmen, trotzdem erwarten nun auch nüchterne Wissenschaftler, in den Tiefen des real existierenden Alls auf Leben zu stoßen. ... Sind wir allein - oder nicht? Die ´allergrößte unter den Existenzfragen´, wie sie der Kosmologe Paul Davies nennt, beschäft die Menschheit seit dem Altertum. ... ´Heute halten die meisten Astronomen des vatikanischen Observatoriums außerirdische Wesen für unvermeidlich´, sagt Giuseppe Koch, einer der päpstlichen Himmelsgucker. Die späte Einsicht teilen laut Umfragen 60 Prozent der Amerikaner und 55 Prozent der Deutschen. Jetzt rüsten Weltraumbehörden und Sternwarten auf, um dem Rätsel auf den Grund zu gehen. ´Die Entdeckung von Leben im Kosmos ist in greifbare Nähe gerückt´, sagte der damalige Chef der NASA, Sean O´Keffe, letztes Jahr. Der junge Forschungszweig der Asttrobiolohie hat Hochkonjunktur; Allein im Astrobiology Institute der NASA grübeln mehr als 700 Wissenschaftler über Ursprung und Evolution des Lebens auf anderen Welten. ...
Die UFO-Literaten verwoben ihre Aliengarn gerne mit der realen Welt. So war Wells´ s Martsepos keine simple Gruselstory, sondern eine Kritik am Imperialismus des britischen Empire, das in die Kolonien einfiel wie wie wellsschen Marsianer in England. In den Dreissigerjahren nahmen in den USA Gazetten wie ´Amazing Stories´ mit Geschichten über besucher vom orion das aufkommende Raumfahrtzeitalter vorweg - und bereiteten das Feld für das kommende Alienfieber. Das entzündete sich am 24.Juni 1947. An diesem Dienstagnachmittag pilotierte kenneth Arnold sein Flugzeug über die Cascade Mountains im Nordwesten der USA. Um 15 h sichtete er neun strahlende Objekte, die mit immensem Tempo über den Himmel flitzten. ´Es schien unmöglich´, diktierte er der Zeitung ´East Oregonian´, ´aber da war es - uch musste meinen Augen glauben.´ Der Reporter vom ´East Oregonian´ bezeichnete Arnolds Erscheinungen als ´saucer-like´ - zu deutsch: wie eine Untertasse. Der Begriff war geboren - und mit ihm die UFO-Bewegung. Von da an hörten die Sichtungen nicht mehr auf.
Vier Jahre später brachte es der erste Untertassenfilm Hollywoods gleich zum Kassenschlager: ´Der Tag, an dem die Erde stillstand.´ Alien Klaatu schweb te in Washington ein und ruft alle Regierungen zu Friedensverhandlungen auf. Der Film griff die Ängste im Kalten Krieg auf und amplifizierte die UFO-Welle zur Hysterie. Bald tauchten am US-Himmel fast täglich leuchtende Objekte auf, die von F-94-Kamüpfjets gejagt wurden. Der Friedensengel Klaatu spiegelte sich im einst berühmten UFO-Propheten Geoirge Adamski, der 1952 in der Mojave-Wüste in einer Untertasse mit einem Venusianer über die nukleare Abrüstung debattiert haben wollte. Adamski nährte damals mit seinen Büchern die spirituellen Sehnsüchte der UFO-Gläubigen genauso wie Erich von Däniken seit 1968 mit seinen Pamphleten, in denen er Aliens, Götter und Paranormales verrührt.
Seither besuchen vor allem in Sommernächten Ausserirdische die Welt. ´Dann sitzen die Leute draussen und schauen in den Himmel´, sagt Werner Walter, der in Mannheim eine UFO-Hotline betreibt. Seltene Ereignisse lassen bei ihm das Telefon die Nacht durch klingeln. Das letzte Mal am 19.Mai, als der Jupiter am Mond vorbeizog. Wenn bald Spielbergs ´War of the Worlds´ über die Leinwände flimmern wird, erwartet Hobbyastronom Walter geschäftige Nächte. Vielleicht gar so wie 1989, als Belgien von Europas letzter UFO-Welle heimgesucht wurde. Zur Gaudi der Weltpresse liess die belgische Armee Abfangjäger zur Alienverfolgung aufsteigen. Walter fand später heraus, dass es sich vermutlich um Ultraleichtflieger gehandelt hatte, aber das interessierte keine mehr - schon gar nicht die Gläubigen, ´die mit keinerlei Argumenten vom Wahn abzubringen sind´, wie Walter feststellt. Seit der Welle in Belgien herrscht etwas Flaute in der Szene - von der wachsenden Aufregung der Forscher um Marsmikroben lassen sich eingefleischte UFO-Jünger nicht anstecken. ..."
Das Anschlußwort des Artikels überließ man quasi mir: "...Hier treffen die Gedanken kühner Wissenschaftler auf die Träumereien der UFO-Anhänger. Manche glauben an Besuche der Ausserirdischen, anderen wähnen sie längst unter uns. ´Doch inzwischen ist die Welle abgeflaut´, sagt UFO-Enttarner Walter. Das US-Militär dämmte den Kult ein, als es 1997 einen Bericht über den Roswell-Fall herausrückte. ... Unter dem Einfluss der TV-Serie ´X-Files´, in der FBI-Agenten paranormale Phänomene untersuchen und öfter Verschwörungen aufdecken, die etwa Alienbesuche vertuschen sollen, interessierten sich viel UFO-Jünger nun eher für Paranormales und Komplott-Theorien, hat Walter beobachtet. Doch nicht wenige seien ganz abgesprungen, vermutet er: ´Die Wissenschaft versorgt inzwischen die Traumbedürfnbisse der Menschen dank SETI und dem Hubbleteleskop besser als die gefälschten Untertassenbildchen."
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Quelle: CENAP-Archiv

Tags: UFO-Forschung 

1298 Views

Sonntag, 15. Mai 2016 - 12:30 Uhr

Astronomie - Hubble sieht eine Spirale-Schneeflocke

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Together with irregular galaxies, spiral galaxies make up approximately 60 percent of the galaxies in the local universe. However, despite their prevalence, each spiral galaxy is unique — like snowflakes, no two are alike. This is demonstrated by the striking face-on spiral galaxy NGC 6814, whose luminous nucleus and spectacular sweeping arms, rippled with an intricate pattern of dark dust, are captured in this NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image.
NGC 6814 has an extremely bright nucleus, a telltale sign that the galaxy is a Seyfert galaxy. These galaxies have very active centers that can emit strong bursts of radiation. The luminous heart of NGC 6814 is a highly variable source of X-ray radiation, causing scientists to suspect that it hosts a supermassive black hole with a mass about 18 million times that of the sun.
As NGC 6814 is a very active galaxy, many regions of ionized gas are studded along its spiral arms. In these large clouds of gas, a burst of star formation has recently taken place, forging the brilliant blue stars that are visible scattered throughout the galaxy.
Quelle: NASA

Tags: Astronomie 

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Sonntag, 15. Mai 2016 - 09:05 Uhr

Astronomie - Die Rolle der Sternentstehungsraten in Metallgehalte von weit entfernten Galaxien

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An international team led by scientists at the Subaru Telescope and Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich in Switzerland used the W. M. Keck Observatory (Note 1) to study the role of star formation rates in metal contents of distant galaxies. What they discovered is that the amount of metals is very similar irrespective of galaxies' star formation activity, raising new questions about star-forming theory. Their findings were published in the Astrophysical Journal this week.
Using the Keck I telescope – one of the two world's largest optical and infrared telescopes at Keck Observatory – equipped with the MOSFIRE (Note 2) instrument, the scientists gathered data on 41 normal, star-forming galaxies found in the Universe 11 billion years from today (Figure 1).
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Figure 1: A galaxy observed in this study (surrounded by a blue rectangle). The light we received from the galaxy in the distant Universe tells us - from hydrogen, oxygen, and neon emission lines - that they followed a different rule to produce the heavy elements. (Credit: 3D-HST / NASA / ESA / STScI)
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The team found typical galaxies forming stars in the Universe 2 billion years after the Big Bang have only twenty percent of metals (elements heavier than Helium) compared with those in the present day Universe. They also discovered the metal content is independent of the strength of the star-formation activity – in stark contrast with what is known for recently formed, or nearby galaxies (Figure 2).
"The galaxies we studied are very faint because they are so far away that light needs more than 11 billion years to reach us," said Masato Onodera, the lead author of the paper. "Therefore, the superb light-gathering ability of the 10 meter Keck Observatory telescope was crucial to accomplish this study." He led the study while he was at ETH Zürich and hence moved to the Subaru Telescope.
Gathering the photons is only part of the job; breaking it down into data that could be analyzed by the team was the job of Keck Observatory's latest instrument, MOSFIRE.
"MOSFIRE allowed us to observe multiple objects simultaneously with an exquisite sensitivity, enabling us to collect spectra of many galaxies very efficiently," he said. "We saw number of spectral features emitted by ionized atoms in the galaxies such as hydrogen, oxygen, and neon, which allowed us to determine the metal content of the galaxies."
In addition to the telescope time awarded to them through the California Institute of Technology, the team utilized time exchange program between the 8.2-meter Subaru Telescope and the telescopes of Keck Observatory to complete the research.
Metal content in star-forming galaxies is the result of a complex interplay between gas coming into the galaxy, star formation in the galaxy, and gas outflowing from the galaxy in the cosmological context. How much metal is in the system and whether the correlation between the metal content and star formation activity exists provide important clues how galaxy evolve in a distant Universe.
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Figure 2: A diagram showing the star formation rate (SFR) of distant galaxies (11 billion years ago) and today's galaxies (present) versus their metallicity. The former does not show any distinction in the metallicities with respect to the SFRs, while the latter is divided into two distinct metal contents according to their SFRs. Horizontal axis is the weight of the galaxy in the unit of solar mass. (Credit: NAOJ)
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"If you extrapolate what is known in the local Universe, you would have expected a higher metallicity in less active star-forming galaxies than they found," said Hien Tran, staff astronomer at Keck Observatory who was not part of the finding. "It's part of the normal stellar and galaxy evolution. Onodera's team realized the role of star formation is not as strong at great distances as it is at zero distance. Understanding the interplay between metallicity, star formation rates and the mass of star forming galaxies will help us better understand galaxy evolution."
Because the team did not see any influence of the strength of star formation in the metal enrichment in distant galaxies, it is telling that the physical condition regulating star formation in galaxies in the early Universe is possibly different from that seen in the present-day Universe. This could be related to the fact that star formation rate cannot keep up with the gas accretion rate from the cosmic web.
The research paper appeared in May 1, 2016 issue of the on-line version of the Astrophysical Journal titled "ISM excitation and metallicity of star-forming galaxies at z~3.3 from near-IR spectroscopy" by Onodera, M., Carollo, C.M., Lilly, S., Renzini, A., Arimoto, N., Capak, P., Daddi, E., Scoville, N., Tacchella, S., Tatehora, S., and Zamorani, G.; doi:10.3847/0004-637X/822/1/42
Notes:
The W. M. Keck Observatory operates the two, 10-meter optical/infrared telescopes near the summit of Maunakea on the Island of Hawaiʻi, neighboring the Subaru Telescope.
MOSFIRE (Multi-Object Spectrograph for Infrared Exploration) is a highly efficient instrument that can take images or up to 46 simultaneous spectra. A sensitive state-of-the-art detector and electronics system enables MOSFIRE to obtain observations of very faint objects.
Research Team
M. Onodera: Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Switzerland and Subaru Telescope, USA
C. M. Carollo: Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Switzerland
S. Lilly: Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Switzerland
A. Renzini: INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Italy
N. Arimoto: Subaru Telescope, USA and SOKENDAI, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Japan
P. Capak: Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), USA and California Institute of Technology, USA
E. Daddi: CEA, Laboratoire AIM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, France
N. Scoville: California Institute of Technology, USA
S. Tacchella: Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Switzerland
S. Tatehora: SOKENDAI, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Japan
G. Zamorani: INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Italy
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Quelle: Subaru Telescope NAOJ

Tags: Astronomie 

1355 Views


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