Blogarchiv

Sonntag, 28. September 2014 - 13:45 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Proton-M-Trägerrakete startet von Baikonur

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Proton-M carrier rocket lifts off from Baikonur
“The Russian satellite is expected to enter the final CALCULATED orbit at 09:26 Moscow time (on Sunday),” the press service of the Russian Space Agency (Roskosmos) reported.
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The Proton-M carrier rocket, which lifted off from Baikonur space launch facility early on Sunday, has put the Briz-M rocket booster and the Russian RELAY satellite Luch in the interim orbit, the press service of the Russian Space Agency (Roskosmos) reported.
“The Russian satellite is expected to enter the final CALCULATED orbit at 09:26 Moscow time (on Sunday),” the press service said.
The Luch spacecraft is another satellite of the Luch Multifunctional RELAY System which is being developed under the 2006-2015 Russian federal space programme. The Luch RELAY system is intended to provide the Russian segment of the International Space Station /ISS)/; low-orbiting space devices; boosters and upper stages with communication with ground-based facilities. The previous Luch spacecraft - Luch-5B - was successfully put in orbit on April 28 this year.
Quelle: ITARTASS
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Russian relay satellite enters calculated orbit

Russian RELAY satellite Luch, launched by the Proton-M carrier rocket from Baikonur space launch facility early on Sunday, has separated from the Briz-M rocket booster and reached the calculated orbit, the press service of the Russian Space Agency (Roskosmos) reported on Sunday. 
“The space apparatus has separated in scheduled time,” the press service said.
It was this years’ fifth launch with use of the Proton carrier and the first launch after the accident with the carrier. On May, Proton-M with the Express-AM4R communication satellite took off from Baikonur, and later on burned down in the dense layers of the atmosphere.
The Luch spacecraft is another satellite of the Luch Multifunctional RELAY System which is being developed under the 2006-2015 Russian federal space programme. The Luch relay system is intended to provide the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS); low-orbiting space devices; BOOSTERSand upper stages with communication with ground-based facilities.
The Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS) can communicate directly with the mission control centres in Russia and in the U.S. for 2.5 hours a day. For communication outside the time limit, Russia buys services of the U.S. Tracking and Data RELAY Satellite System.
The previous Luch spacecraft - Luch-5B - was successfully put in orbit on April 28 this year.
Quelle: ITARTASS
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Proton rocket lifts off on return-to-FLIGHT mission
A Russian Proton rocket blasted off Saturday with a secret military satellite, returning to flight status after a four-month grounding following a launch failure in May.
The three-stage BOOSTER, topped with a Breeze M upper stage, launched at 2023 GMT (4:23 p.m. EDT) Saturday, or 2:23 a.m. local time at the historic Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, according to Roscosmos, the Russian Federal Space Agency.
The Proton BOOSTER released the launcher's Breeze M upper stage about 10 minutes after liftoff to begin a series of maneuvers to propel the mission's payload into orbit thousands of miles above Earth.
The Proton rocket will deploy a secretive Russian military satellite called Luch at 0526 GMT (1:26 a.m. EDT), Roscosmos said in a post on its WEBSITE.
Russia has revealed little about the mission -- also known as Olymp -- other than the spacecraft was built by ISS Reshetnev, a Russian satellite manufacturer.
The satellite is likely heading for geostationary orbit, a 22,300-mile-high perch used by communications satellites, where a spacecraft's orbit matches the speed of Earth's rotation.
Saturday's launch was the first FLIGHT of a Proton rocket since a launch failure in May.
Investigators traced the cause of the May 15 failure to the premature shutdown of the Proton rocket's third stage engine. News reports after the launch blamed the problem on an anomaly in the third stage's steering system.
The Express AM4R communications satellite was lost in the launch mishap.
Russian officials delayed the launch of the Luch satellite four months after the May 15 failure.
The next Proton mission after Saturday is set for Oct. 21 with the Express AM6 satellite, a civilian telecommunications spacecraft for the Russian Satellite Communications Co.
Commercial flights of the Proton rocket, MANAGED by U.S.-based International Launch Services, are scheduled to resume later this year.
The ASTRA 2G communications satellite, owned by SES of Luxembourg, is the next commercial payload on the ILS manifest.
Troubled by reliability concerns and deteriorating relations between Russia and Western governments, ILS announced a staff cut of 25 percent in August to align with an expected reduction in launch business.
Phil Slack, president of ILS, said the layoffs would make the company's workforce consistent with three or four commercial Proton launches per year, down from up to eight ILS missions annually under previous forecasts.
The Proton rocket's performance is best suited to launching large telecommunications satellites weighing more than 6,000 kilograms (13,227 pounds).
But launch contracts for commercial telecom satellites of that size have mostly gone to SpaceX and Arianespace this year.
Quelle: SN

Tags: Raumfahrt 

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Samstag, 27. September 2014 - 15:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Lichtsimulation für Nachweis der Mondlandung

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Comparison of Nividia's rendering of Buzz Aldrin on lunar surface (left) and Neil Armstrong's original photo (right). (CREDIT: Nvidia)

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Many conspiracy theorists who believe the Apollo moon landings were an elaborate ruse point to an iconic photograph of Buzz Aldrin that they claim could only have been taken using an artificial light source. Turns out they were right, but, as a new digital reconstruction of the Apollo 11 landing site by COMPUTER graphics chipmaker Nvidia proves, that artificial light source was not from a movie studio soundstage but Neil Armstrong’s spacesuit.
Every epic moment in modern history inevitably spawns a tangled web of conspiracy THEORIES, and the Apollo moon landings are no exception. From the moment astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin set foot on the lunar surface on July 21, 1969, some believed it was all an elaborate ruse STAGED by NASA on a Hollywood soundstage in spite of the overwhelming evidence to the contrary. (Of course, a different conspiracy camp believes man first landed on the moon a quarter-century before the Apollo astronauts when the Nazis established a top-secret lunar base where Adolf Hitler lived out his final years.)
Even the photographic evidence of the Apollo 11 astronauts on the moon has been seized by moon landing conspiracy theorists as proof of the hoax. In particular, they point to an iconic color photograph of Aldrin descending the LADDER of the lunar module Eagle. Since the sun was hidden behind the other side of the spacecraft, conspiracy theorists argue that Aldrin appears too brightly illuminated in the shadows for the picture to be real and that he could only have been so clearly photographed with the aid of artificial studio spotlights.
Now, computer graphics chipmaker Nvidia has employed its cutting-edge technology normally used to create realistic lighting in video games and movies to debunk one of the most persistent conspiracy theories in American history. “We wanted to take on the challenge of showing the single light source of the sun was actually able to light Buzz Aldrin even though he’s in the shadows,” MARK Daly, senior director of content development at Nvidia, said in a company video. Using Maxwell, the company’s new high-end graphics processing unit architecture that simulates the real-time properties of light, Nvidia engineers created a three-dimensional virtual lighting model of the Apollo 11 landing site.
To build its digital reconstruction, the project team studied satellite imagery of the Apollo 11 landing site as well as photographs and videos from the mission. They painstakingly RESEARCHED and measured the reflective properties of a range of materials from moon dust to the Eagle’s rivets to the fabric of the spacesuits.
Once the three-dimensional simulation was constructed, the engineers added in the sun as the sole light source and then integrated the reflected light from the lunar surface and spacecraft. However, they found the IMAGE still didn’t look quite right. “There was some additional light source that was just missing,” Daly said.
As it turns out, the conspiracy theorists were correct that an artificial light source illuminated the famous photograph of Aldrin. Only it wasn’t a studio light, but the man taking that photograph—Armstrong. “We found a clip of videotape that was shot from the other side of the LADDER,” Daly said. “There is a huge glowing bright white light. And as we analyzed that video a little more we realized it’s Neil Armstrong himself. The bright white spacesuit that he was wearing reflected all that sunlight off of him and back onto Buzz Aldrin so essentially Neil Armstrong himself was a light source in that scene.”
While moon dust reflects about 12 percent of the sun’s light, the spacesuits worn by the Apollo astronauts were virtual mirrors constructed of materials that reflected 85 percent of the light that struck them, and Armstrong was BATHED in full sunlight as he took Aldrin’s photograph. Once the Nvidia engineers adjusted for the reflectivity of Armstrong’s suit, the lighting in the virtual rendering nearly matched the actual photograph and proved that Aldrin could have appeared illuminated in the Eagle’s shadow with the sun as the sole lighting source.
An additional piece of photographic “evidence” cited by some conspiracy theorists is the absence of stars in the pitch-black sky in any of the Apollo photographs. Those who believe NASA faked the moon landing say the agency couldn’t realistically fabricate the position of the stars from various angles so they simply ignored them. The reason the stars aren’t visible in the photographs, however, is that the moon’s surface was so bright that the camera exposures were set to capture just the scene on the lunar surface. As the Nvidia model demonstrates, the stars would have been visible had the camera apertures been increased to let in more light. However, the historic scenes of Armstrong and Aldrin on the moon would have been completely washed out by the reflected light and never RECORDED, something that truly would have provided fodder for conspiracy theorists.
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Frams:
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Lichtsiumulation mit 3D-Computerprogramm
Reflexioneffekt durch Astronauten-Anzug
Apollo-11-Crew - Pressekonferenz nach Mondlandung
Sternenhimmel über Mond nur sichtbar bei Überbelichtung des eigentlichen Foto-Motives
Quelle:HISTORY

Tags: Raumfahrt 

2276 Views

Samstag, 27. September 2014 - 11:05 Uhr

Astronomie - Spechtel-Alarm: Saturn, Mond und Zwergplanet Ceres am nächtlichen Samstag-Himmel

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On Saturday evening (Sept. 27, 2014), about an hour after sunset, the thin crescent Moon will be just below the dwarf planet Ceres in Libra, with Saturn and the asteroid Vesta near by. 
Libra is a constellation to which most skygazers rarely pay attention. Its brightest star, with the tongue-twisting name of Zubeneschamali, is barely third-magnitude, so it gets lost between the bright stars of Virgo to the WEST and Scorpius to the east. But this weekend Libra will shine.
Currently Libra is HOST to the planet Saturn and two of the largest and brightest asteroids, Ceres and Vesta. In addition, the crescent moon will be passing through on its monthly trip around the Earth.
Go out on Saturday night (Sept. 27) about an hour after sunset and look for the crescent moon, just three days REMOVED from the new phase. You should be able to see the portion of the moon that's not sunlit glowing with the ghostly light reflected from Earth, which is called earthshine or earthlight. Binoculars will help you see this.
Quelle: SC

Tags: Astronomie 

1995 Views

Freitag, 26. September 2014 - 13:24 Uhr

Astronomie - Komplexe organische Moleküle in interstellaren Raum gefunden

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Scientists have found the beginnings of life-bearing chemistry at the centre of the galaxy.
Iso-propyl cyanide has been detected in a star-forming cloud 27,000 light-years from Earth.
Its branched carbon structure is closer to the complex organic molecules of life than any previous finding from interstellar space.
The discovery suggests the building blocks of life may be widespread throughout our galaxy.
Various organic molecules have previously been discovered in interstellar space, but i-propyl cyanide is the first with a branched carbon backbone.
The branched structure is important as it shows that interstellar space could be the origin of more complex branched molecules, such as amino acids, that are necessary for life on Earth.
Dr Arnaud Belloche from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy is lead author of the research, which appears in the journal Science.
"Amino acids on Earth are the building blocks of proteins, and proteins are very important for life as we know it. The question in the background is: is there life somewhere else in the galaxy?"
Watch the skies
The molecule was detected in a giant gas cloud called Sagittarius B2, an active region of ongoing star formation in the centre of the Milky Way.
As stars are born in the cloud they heat up microscopic dust grains. Chemical reactions on the surface of the dust allow complex molecules like i-propyl cyanide to form.
The molecules emit radiation that was detected as radio waves by twenty 12m telescopes at the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (Alma) in Chile.
Each molecule produces a different "spectral fingerprint" of frequencies. "The game consists in matching these frequencies… to molecules that have been characterised in the laboratory," explained Dr Belloche.
"Our goal is to search for new complex organic molecules in the interstellar medium."
Previously discovered molecules in the Sagittarius B2 cloud include vinyl alcohol and ethyl formate, the chemical that gives raspberries their flavour and rum its smell.
But i-propyl cyanide is the largest and most complex organic molecule found to date - and the only one to share the branched atomic backbone of amino acids.
"The idea is to know whether the elements that are necessary for life to occur… can be found in other places in our galaxy."
Prof Matt Griffin, head of the school of physics and astronomy at Cardiff University, commented on the discovery.
"It's clearly very high-quality data - a very emphatic detection with multiple spectral signatures all seen together."
Prof Griffin added that the quantity of i-propyl cyanide detected is significant.
"There seems to be quite a lot of it, which would indicate that this more complex organic structure is possibly very common, maybe even the norm, when it comes to simple organic molecules in space.
"It's a step closer to discovering molecules that can be regarded as the building blocks or the precursors… of amino acids."
The hope is that amino acids will eventually be detected outside our Solar System. "That's what everyone would like to see," said Prof Griffin.
If amino acids are widespread throughout the galaxy, life may be also.
"So far we do not have the sensitivity to detect the signals from [amino acids]… in the interstellar medium," explained Dr Belloche. "The interstellar chemistry seems to be able to form these amino acids but at the moment we lack the evidence.
"Alma in the future may be able to do that, once the full capabilities are available."
Prof Griffin agreed this could be the first of many further discoveries from the "fantastically sensitive and powerful" Alma facility.
Quelle: BBC

Tags: Astronomie 

2023 Views

Freitag, 26. September 2014 - 09:46 Uhr

Astronomie - Die Hälfte des Wassers der Erde ist älter als die Sonne

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Who would have guessed that Earth's oceans are older than the sun? Much of the water on our planet and around the solar system started out as tiny grains of ice floating in interstellar space. The discovery provides important clues about not only the make-up of our solar system, but also what planets around other stars might be like.
"Water is an essential ingredient that pretty much all known forms of life on Earth need to flourish," says Ilsedore Cleeves at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. "To understand where water came from tells us a little bit about how common life is in the universe."
All water in the solar system – whether on planets, in comets or meteorites, or icy moons like Europa – contains a certain amount of deuterium – an isotope of hydrogen that has an extra neutron attached.
Ripped apart
Ice found between stars is even more deuterium-rich, so it was long suspected that it was the source of our solar system's heavy water. But the young solar system was so violent and full of radiation that any incoming ice should have been ripped apart, recombining later into water – according to this picture.
But when Cleeves and her collaborators built a model of the early sun, they found that this explanation didn't stand up. After their model scrapped all of the interstellar ice, they found that oxygen was being locked up in frozen carbon monoxide. And there wasn't enough ionised, deuterium-rich hydrogen being produced either. In short, the nascent solar system wouldn't have had the ingredients for water with the high levels of deuterium we see.
Instead, interstellar ice must have made its way into planets, moons and comets intact. Cleeves and her colleagues calculate that as much as half the water in Earth's oceans and possibly all of the water found in comets came from this ancient source.
Ice isn't the only thing out there in interstellar space – there's also organic material, says Fred Ciesla, a planetary scientist at the University of Chicago. If this interstellar stuff went into the formation of our solar system's planets, then it probably forms part of planets around other stars too – boosting the chances that many planetary systems formed with the raw ingredients for life.
"It provides the opportunity for organic materials, and the things that are important to the formation of life, to at least be accessible to all planets out there," says Ciesla. "Whether or not it forms into aliens and little green men and women is a whole other story."
Quelle: NewScientist

Tags: Astronomie 

2081 Views

Freitag, 26. September 2014 - 09:33 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - IFO-Universität: Iridium-Flares

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The glint of sunlight known as an Iridium flare. Photograph: nasaimages/org
At its best, the International Space Station outshines every star and can come close to rivalling Venus, the brightest planet. It is, though, occasionally surpassed by the glints of sunlight reflecting from the antennae of Iridium satellites – glints that are popularly known as Iridium flares.
Launched to provide satellite-phone communications, there are 66 active satellites, plus spares, in the Iridium constellation. All are near 778km in altitude and in circular orbits tipped at 86° to the equator, so we see them tracking northwards or southwards as they pass overhead.
Each maintains a stable attitude, making it possible to compute when their highly reflective door-sized antennae, three on each satellite, are in just the right orientation to reflect sunlight directly to any point on the ground.
An observer who is in the right place sees a glint or flare over several seconds that can reach magnitude -8 in astronomical terms – more than 30 times brighter than Venus and bright enough to be seen in broad daylight. Predictions for such flares for any location are available from www.heavens-above.com.
The days of Iridium flares may be numbered, however. Launches to construct a new Iridium-Next constellation are to begin next year, and most of the current Iridium craft are to be pushed to lower altitudes to accelerate their decay from orbit.
For a time, the flares may become brighter but unpredictable as attitude stability is lost. Meanwhile, the design of their replacements suggests that we cannot expect them to generate similar flares.
Quelle: theguardian

Tags: UFO-Forschung 

2147 Views

Freitag, 26. September 2014 - 09:14 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Erfolgreiches Andocken von TM-14M mit Crew-41 bei ISS

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Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev and Flight Engineers Barry Wilmore and Elena Serova safely docked to the space-facing Poisk module of the International Space Station at 10:11 p.m. EDT Thursday. The new Expedition 41/42 trio launched to the International Space Station at 4:25 p.m. from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
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NASA astronaut Butch Wilmore and Russian cosmonauts Alexander Samokutyaev and Elena Serova joined their Expedition 41 crewmates when the hatches between the Soyuz TMA-14M spacecraft and the International Space Station officially opened at 1:06 a.m. EDT. Expedition 41 Commander Max Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency and Flight Engineers Reid Wiseman of NASA and Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency, who arrived at the station in May, welcomed the new crew members aboard their orbital home.
Shortly after docking with the International Space Station, the Soyuz TMA-14M spacecraft's port solar array deployed successfully. The array previously did not deploy when the Soyuz reached orbit. NASA and Roscosmos officials have confirmed that the array poses no long term issue to either standard operations at the station for Expedition 41-42, or for the landing of Barry Wilmore, Alexander Samokutyaev and Elena Serova at the conclusion of their mission in March.
There are now five spacecraft docked to the station its maximum visiting vehicle capacity. There are two Soyuz vehicles, one Progress 56 resupply ship, Europe’s “Georges Lemaître” ATV-5 and the SpaceX Dragon commercial space freighter which arrived Tuesday morning.
The new crew floated into their new home for a welcoming ceremony and congratulatory calls from family, friends and mission officials in Baikonur. After the ceremony ended the new crew will underwent a mandatory safety orientation to familiarize themselves with escape paths and procedures and locations of safety gear.
Wilmore is starting his second visit to the space station. He piloted space shuttle Atlantis in November 2009 which delivered two EXPRESS Logistics Carriers carrying station gear and returned Expedition 20/21 Flight Engineer Nicole Stott back to Earth.
Samokutyaev is beginning his second stint at the orbital laboratory having served as an Expedition 23/24 Flight Engineer. He is replacing Skvortsov, who left the station two weeks ago, who also served as his crewmate in 2010.
Serova is on her first mission as a cosmonaut. She is Russia’s first female cosmonaut to live and work on the International Space Station.
They join Commander Max Suraev and Flight Engineers Reid Wiseman and Alexander Gerst. The international crew from Roscosmos, NASA and the European Space Agency has been aboard the orbital complex since May 28 and are due to return home Nov. 9.
Some of the cargo flown aboard this Soyuz will be used in research investigations that are either ongoing or planned aboard the International Space Station. Items such as questionnaires will be delivered to obtain in-flight data about crew member characteristics, such as day-to-day changes in health or incidence of pain or pressure in microgravity.
One such investigation is Space Headaches which uses questionnaires to collect information about the prevalence and characteristics of crew members' headaches in microgravity. This information is used to develop future countermeasures for headaches often caused by intracranial pressure change.
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Quelle: NASA
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Russia's First Female ISS Crew Member Launches Into Space

Yelena Serova training for her stint aboard the International Space Station.
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Russia's first female cosmonaut to travel to the International Space Station, Yelena Serova, launched early Friday morning, making her the fourth Russian woman in history to go to space.
Serova is part of the latest international crew of astronauts and cosmonauts to fly to the International Space Station, where they will spend six months. She is joined by Russian cosmonaut Alexander Samokutyaev and U.S. astronaut Barry Wilmore.
A native of a country far more patriarchal than Western Europe or North America, Serova has been largely stoic regarding gender issues leading up to the flight, but during a pre-launch press conference at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Wednesday, she responded to one reporter's question about taking care of her hair with a question of her own.
"Aren't you interested in my colleagues' hair?" she said at a news conference that was televised on Russian state television.
"I will be the first Russian woman to fly to ISS. I feel a huge responsibility toward the people who trained us and I want to assure them: We won't let you down!"
Serova's struggle with Russia's gender divide isn't new. Russia's space program, geriatric and conservative, has historically been under a glass ceiling. The numbers speak for themselves. In 1963, only two years after Yury Gagarin made his historic "first flight," Soviet citizen Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman in space. Since then, only two other Russian women have made the trip to space.
In contrast, NASA has flown more than 40 women of various nationalities into orbit aboard U.S. space shuttles, and several have commanded the International Space Station, such as NASA astronaut Suni Williams.
Williams recently completed a tour as NASA's head of training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, just outside Moscow.
In November the European Space Agency will send Italian Samantha Cristoforetti, meaning that for several months, ISS will have two women aboard.
Tereshkova's flight was conceived by the Soviet leadership as a publicity stunt and was prompted in part by rumors that NASA was considering recruiting a woman into its fledgling astronaut corps.
When Tereshkova's Vostok 6 spacecraft experienced technical difficulties during the flight, Soviet space officials deflected criticism by blaming the female pilot, and plans to recruit additional women were dropped.
At a celebration for the 50th anniversary of Tereshkova's flight last year, former cosmonaut candidate Yelena Dobrokvashina was quoted by news agency RIA Novosti as saying the disparity between Russian and American women in space was, "of course, linked with the peculiarities of our mentality."
"Although they always said that everyone was equal — men and women — it's no secret that we live in a man's world," Dobrokvashina explained. "There was an opinion that men were scared that if women went into space … the aura of heroism would be lost."
In the early 1980s, Tereshkova's story repeated itself when word got out that NASA was planning to send Sally Ride, its first female astronaut, aboard the space shuttle Challenger in 1983. Therefore, Svetlana Savitskaya was sent aboard a Soyuz spacecraft in 1982 to become the first woman to conduct a spacewalk.
Only after the collapse of the Soviet Union did another Russian woman fly into space, Yelena Kondakova in 1994 and again on the space shuttle Atlantis in 1997 — making her the only Russian woman to fly on two different vehicles.
After another 20-year interlude, Yelena Serova was tapped to become Russia's first woman to visit the International Space Station — a massive $100 billion project that has been the focal point of both the American and Russian manned space programs for almost 14 years.
Serova, 38, is a space program insider. After working as an engineer for RSC Energia — the company that builds Russia's manned spacecraft and space stations — and doing a stint in Russia's Mission Control Center, Serova was selected to become a cosmonaut candidate in 2006.
In the days before her flight, Russian media, reacting to popular stereotypes about the role of women in Russian society, ran stories focusing on Serova's ability to communicate with her family while away from home, and the clothes that she would bring with her.
"Russian female cosmonaut promised to call her husband from orbit," one RIA headline read, as if Serova were the first human to leave their family behind to travel into space. Not to mention the fact that she is married to another cosmonaut, Mark Serov.
"My daughter is almost 17 years old," Serova soberly explained, adding that "ISS is now outfitted with completely modern communications systems, it has IP telephones and e-mail. I'll call home."
Another story, carried by Interfax on Thursday, reported that an entirely new line of cosmonaut clothing was designed for Serova.
"Yelena ordered a great deal of clothing," Alexander Yarov, head of Centaur Science, the company that has made clothing for cosmonauts for 40 years, was quoted as saying by Interfax.
"Her socks had to be custom-made," Yarov said," because she has little feet."
Quelle:The Moscow Times
 

Tags: Raumfahrt 

2066 Views

Donnerstag, 25. September 2014 - 23:00 Uhr

Raumfahrt - Erfolgreicher Start von ISS-Crew 41 zur ISS

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Expedition 41 Crew Portrait
ISS041-S-002 (21 Jan. 2014) --- Expedition 41 crew members take a break from training at NASA's Johnson Space Center to pose for a crew portrait. Pictured on the front row are Russian cosmonaut Maxim Suraev (left), commander; and NASA astronaut Barry Wilmore, flight engineer. Pictured from the left (back row) are NASA astronaut Reid Wiseman, European Space Agency astronaut Alexander Gerst, Russian cosmonauts Alexander Samokutyaev and Elena Serova, all flight engineers. Photo credit: NASA
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Expedition 41 will begin in September 2014. The remainder of the crew is scheduled to launch in September 2014.
Soyuz 39
Crew: Reid Wiseman, Maxim Suraev, Alexander Gerst
Launch: May 28, 2014, 3:57 p.m. EDT
Docking: May 28, 2014, 9:44 p.m. EDT
Landing: November 2014
Soyuz 40
Crew: Barry Wilmore, Elena Serova, Alexander Samoukutyaev
Launch: Sept. 25, 2014, 4:23 p.m. EDT
Landing: March 2015
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Expedition 41/42 Crew
JSC2014-E-065948 (16 July 2014) --- NASA astronaut Barry Wilmore (center), Expedition 41 flight engineer and Expedition 42 commander; along with Russian cosmonauts Alexander Samokutyaev and Elena Serova, both Expedition 41/42 flight engineers, pose for a portrait following an Expedition 41/42 preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Stafford
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Cosmonaut Elena Serova and Crew Instructor
JSC2013-E-091582 (30 Oct. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Elena Serova, Expedition 41/42 flight engineer, participates in a space station rack and hatch skills training session in an International Space Station mock-up/trainer in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center. A crew instructor assists Serova. Photo credit: NASA
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Cosmonaut Elena Serova and Crew Instructors
JSC2013-E-091580 (30 Oct. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Elena Serova (second left), Expedition 41/42 flight engineer, and crew instructors are pictured during a space station rack and hatch skills training session in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA
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JSC2012-E-237844 (9 Nov. 2012) --- NASA astronaut Barry Wilmore (front seat), Expedition 41 flight engineer and Expedition 42 commander; and NASA astronaut Michael Hopkins, Expedition 37/38 flight engineer, are photographed as they prepare for a flight in a NASA T-38 trainer jet at Ellington Field near NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA
Quelle: NASA
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Update: 6.09.2014 
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Primary crew for next ISS space mission approved
The upcoming space EXPEDITION will be notable for the fact that a Russian woman cosmonaut, Yelena Serova, will take part in a space mission for the first time in the past 20 years
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The inter-agency commission of the Cosmonauts' Training Center on Friday approved the primary crew lineup for the spaceship Soyuz TMA-14M. The crew consists of Roscosmos (Russia's Federal Space Agency) cosmonauts Aleksandr Samokutyayev and Yelena Serova, as well as NASA astronaut Barry Wilmore. The BACKUP crew comprises Russian cosmonauts Gennady Padalka and Mikhail Korniyevko, as well as American astronaut Scott Kelly.
The upcoming space expedition will be notable for the fact that a Russian woman cosmonaut, Yelena Serova, will take part in a space mission for the first time in the past 20 years. She was enrolled in the cosmonauts squad on October 1, 2006. In 2011, by a decision of the inter-agency commission, Serova was appointed a flight engineer among the primary crew of Soyuz spaceship. The launch of the manned transport spaceship Soyuz TMA-14M with an international crew on board is scheduled for September 26. The International Space Station (ISS) crew for the ISS-41/42 mission will stay aboard the station for 168 days. The crew are to handle three Russian resupply spacecraft Progress and a European ATV vehicle. Samokutyayev, together with ISS crew member Maksim Surayev who is currently aboard the ISS, will take a spacewalk.
The crew will perform more than 50 experiments in the Russian segment of the ISS, take a spacewalk, and maintain an INTERNET blog in orbit, Soyuz crew commander Aleksandr Samokutyayev told a news conference. He said, "The spacewalk will be somewhat unusuall: we shall perform the rolk of cleaners, for it is essential to (dismantle and) remove a certain equipment".
American astronaut Barry Wilmore pointed out that there would be friends, not just crew members on board the spaceship. The astronaut said, "We have been training together for two years. We have got to entirely trust one another to accomplish the space mission".
Quelle: ITARTASS
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Update: 15.09.2014
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Expedition 41/42 Walk Off Plane
Expedition 41 Flight Engineer Barry Wilmore of NASA (left), Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos, center) and Flight Engineer Elena Serova of Roscosmos (right) walk off a Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center plane after arriving at the launch site at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan Sept. 12 for final prelaunch training. They are scheduled to launch from Baikonur on Sept. 26, Kazakh time, in their Soyuz TMA-14M spacecraft for a 5 ½ month mission on the International Space Station. Serova will become the fourth Russian woman to fly in space. Photo credit: NASA/Victor Zelentsov
Soyuz 40
Crew: Barry Wilmore, Elena Serova, Alexander Samoukutyaev
Launch: Sept. 25, 2014, 4:23 p.m. EDT
Landing: March 2015
Quelle: NASA
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Update: 21.09.2014
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Upper Stage of the Soyuz Booster Rocket
JSC2014-E-081145 (18 Sept. 2014) --- At the Integration Facility at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, the upper stage of the Soyuz booster rocket is raised to a vertical position after the Soyuz TMA-14M spacecraft was encapsulated inside Sept. 18. The Soyuz will arrive at its launch pad on Sept. 23 for final prelaunch preparations. Expedition 41 Flight Engineer Barry Wilmore of NASA, Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Flight Engineer Elena Serova of Roscosmos are scheduled to launch aboard the Soyuz Sept. 26, Kazakh time, to begin a 5 ½ month mission on the International Space Station. Serova will become the fourth Russian woman to fly in space and the first Russian woman to live and work on the station. Photo credit: NASA/Victor Zelentsov
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Spacecraft is Encapsulated in Upper Stage
JSC2014-E-081144 (18 Sept. 2014) --- At the Integration Facility at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, the Soyuz TMA-14M spacecraft is encapsulated in the upper stage of the Soyuz booster rocket Sept. 18 that will propel it into orbit. The Soyuz will arrive at its launch pad on Sept. 23 for final prelaunch preparations. Expedition 41 Flight Engineer Barry Wilmore of NASA, Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Flight Engineer Elena Serova of Roscosmos are scheduled to launch aboard the Soyuz Sept. 26, Kazakh time, to begin a 5 ½ month mission on the International Space Station. Serova will become the fourth Russian woman to fly in space and the first Russian woman to live and work on the station. Photo credit: NASA/Victor Zelentsov
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Soyuz TMA-14M Awaits Encapsulation
JSC2014-E-081143 (18 Sept. 2014) --- At the Integration Facility at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, the Soyuz TMA-14M spacecraft awaits its encapsulation in the upper stage of the Soyuz booster rocket Sept. 18 that will propel it into orbit. The Soyuz will arrive at its launch pad on Sept. 23 for final prelaunch preparations. Expedition 41 Flight Engineer Barry Wilmore of NASA, Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Flight Engineer Elena Serova of Roscosmos are scheduled to launch aboard the Soyuz Sept. 26, Kazakh time, to begin a 5 ½ month mission on the International Space Station. Serova will become the fourth Russian woman to fly in space and the first Russian woman to live and work on the station. Photo credit: NASA/Victor Zelentsov
Quelle: NASA
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Update: 24.09.2014
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Sunrise at the Soyuz Launch Pad
The sun rises as the Soyuz TMA-14M spacecraft is rolled out by train to the launch pad at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, Sept. 23, 2014. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for Sept. 25 at 4:25 p.m. EDT (Sept. 26 at 2:25 a.m. Kazakh time) and will carry Expedition 41 Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), Flight Engineer Barry Wilmore of NASA, and Flight Engineer Elena Serova of Roscosmos into orbit to begin their five and a half month mission on the International Space Station.
Quelle: NASA
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Update: 23.50 MESZ
Quelle: roscosmos
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Update: 25.09.2014 
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Expedition 41 During a Press Conference
201409240015hq (24 Sept. 2014) --- Expedition 41 Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), center, answers a question during a press conference on Sept. 24, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. He is seen with Flight Engineer Barry Wilmore of NASA, left, and Flight Engineer Elena Serova of Roscosmos, right. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for Sept. 26, Kazakh time, and will carry Samokutyaev, Wilmore, and Serova into orbit to begin their five and a half month mission on the International Space Station. Serova will become the fourth Russian woman to fly in space and the first Russian woman to live and work on the station. Photo credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani
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Expedition 41 Trio at Press Conference
201409240019hq (24 Sept. 2014) --- Expedition 41 prime crew members, Flight Engineer Barry Wilmore of NASA, left, Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), center, and Flight Engineer Elena Serova of Roscosmos, right, pose for a photo at the conclusion of the press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Sept. 24, 2014. Their mission to the International Space Station is set to launch Sept. 26, Kazakh time, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani
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Quelle: NASA
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Update: 22.15 MESZ - LIVE-Frams von Start der ISS-Crew 41
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Quelle: NASA-TV 
 
 

Tags: Raumfahrt 

2248 Views

Donnerstag, 25. September 2014 - 14:30 Uhr

Raumfahrt - ISRO´s MARS Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle-C25 (PSLV-C25) auf Mars-Kurs Teil-2

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26.12.2013

Isro uses new method to locate Mars Orbiter Mission

MUMBAI: Isro has employed a new method for the first time to locate the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) — currently over 65 lakh km away from earth.

According to Isro, the pointing direction of the ground station antenna directly gives the angular location of the spacecraft. "However, the accuracy one can achieve using this method is insufficient for interplanetary missions with stringent navigation requirements," Isro said in a statement.

The statement said that is why a new method was used on Tuesday. This involves receiving MOM's radio signals at two widely separated ground stations at different instances. The system is called "Delta differential one way ranging". The results were very satisfactory, Isro said.

Besides the Indian Deep Space Network at Byalalu near Bangalore, Nasa's communication facilities at Goldstone in California, Madrid and Canberra are also supporting MOM.

Quelle: The Time of India

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Update: 5.02.2014

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Mission to Mars: Mangalyaan on course for rendezvous with Red Planet 

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After a flight of almost three months, India’s maiden spacecraft to Mars – Mangalyaan – is healthy, on track and at a distance of 14.4 million kms from Earth.

 

“Another 233 days for MOM (Mars Orbiter Mission) to reach Mars. MOM is 14.4 million km away from Earth and moving at a velocity of 31.3 km/s with respect to Sun. As of now, a signal traveling at the speed of light takes around 48 seconds to reach MOM,” the Isro Facebook site on the Mars mission site reads.

 

India’s space programme reached a major milestone on November 5 last year, when Isro launched the MOM, commonly known as Mangalyaan from Sriharikota on a 11-month journey to find evidence of life on the Red Planet and position it as a budget player in the global space race.

 

“The spacecraft is absolutely healthy, on track  and continuously being  monitored. We are getting data from the Spacecraft Control Centre at Isro Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network in Bengaluru beside the three ground stations of Nasa’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Madrid, Goldstone (California) and Canberra,” programme director Dr Mylswamy Annadurai  told HT.

 

Maintaining that the next challenge for scientists would come on September 24, when the spacecraft will  have to be energised  after a hibernation of 9 months, he said: “The firing at that time will last for nearly 1500 seconds (25 minutes). The Mars Orbiter Insertion would be a major challenge for us but we have done a lot of ground simulation for that.” Probes to Mars have a high failure rate.

 

Of the 51 missions so far, only 21 have been successful. A similar mission by China failed in 2011.

 

Only the US, Europe, and Russia have sent probes that have orbited or landed on the planet.

 

Once in Mars’ orbit, the orbiter’s five payloads will then start performing experiments for the next six months.
Quelle: hindustantimes

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Update: 8.03.2014

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200 days for Mangalyaan to get into Mars orbit
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Mangalyaan will be inserted into the Mars orbit after 200 days after which it will carry out scientific experiments, says Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

 

“MOM is now 21 million kilometers away from earth, travelling with a helio-centric velocity of 29 km/s. The radio signals sent from ISTRAC ground stations to communicate with MOM takes 142 seconds to reach MOM and return. If everything goes as planned, MOM will get inserted into its Martian orbit, exactly 200 days from 7th March,” says  Isro’s Facebook page on Mars Orbiter Mission.

India’s space programme had reached a major milestone on November 5, last year when it had launched the Mars Orbiter Mission, commonly known as Mangalyaan from Sriharikota  on a 11-month journey to find evidence of life on the Red Planet and position it as a budget player in the global space race.

A senior official of Isro told HT: “ The spacecraft  is  absolutely healthy, on track  and continuously being  monitored. We are getting data from the Spacecraft Control Centre at Isro Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network in Bangaluru beside the three ground stations of Nasa’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Madrid, Goldstone (California) and Canberra.”

Maintaining that the next challenge for the scientists would come on September 24, when the spacecraft will have to be energized  after a hibernation of 9 months, he said: “ The firing at that time will last for nearly 1500 seconds. The Mars Orbiter Insertion would be a major challenge  for us but we have done a lot of ground simulation for that.”

Probes to Mars have a high failure rate. Of the 51 missions so far, only 21 have been successful. A similar mission by China failed in 2011. Only the US, Europe, and Russia have sent probes that have orbited or landed on the planet. If  the spacecraft enters the Mars orbit, India will join a select club comprising the US, Russia and Europe.

Quelle: Hindustantimes
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Update: 5.06.2014
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Mangalyaan : Trajectory correction on June 11

India's maiden interplanetary mission to Mars –Mangalyaan—will undergo a trajectory correction  manoeuvre  on June 11, Indian Space Research Organisation(Isro) has said.
India's space programme reached a major milestone on November 5 last year, when it launched the Mars Orbiter Mission, commonly known as Mangalyaan from Sriharikota on an 11-month journey to find evidence of life on the Red Planet and position it as a budget player in the global space race. It is expected to enter the Mars atmosphere on September 24 this year.
This will be the second trajectory correction since the spacecraft moved out of the Earth's orbit on December 1 last year. Isro had initially planned four corrections  during its journey to Mars. The manoeuvres are needed to keep the spacecraft on the required path. It is also essential for maintaining the required velocity.
Mangalyaan is on its 680-million-km voyage to Mars.  The spacecraft has already covered two-thirds of its distance. If  it makes it, India will join a select club comprising the US, Russia and Europe. Once in the Mars orbit, the orbiter's five payloads will then start performing experiments for the next six months.
According to sources there will be one more trajectory correction in August before the spacecraft enters the Mars atmosphere on September 24.
"The thrusters on board would be fired to steer the spacecraft to Mars during the correction. We have to do the correction to put in on the intended path. Initially we had planned the correction for February but then the deviation was within limit," said an Isro official.
Quelle: Hindustan Times
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Update: 10.06.2014
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Mars Orbiter’s trajectory to be corrected

It will be 16 anxious seconds from 4.30 p.m. on Wednesday at the ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) Station, Bangalore, when ground controllers will correct the trajectory of India’s Mars Orbiter, speeding towards the Red Planet.
During the complex manoeuvre, the ground controllers will radio commands to the orbiter’s thrusters to fire for 15 or 16 seconds to correct its trajectory so that the spacecraft reaches the Martian orbit on the appointed day of September 24.
M. Annadurai, Programme Director, Indian Remote-Sensing Satellites and Small Satellites Systems, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), called it “a trimming manoeuvre” of the spacecraft’s trajectory, when “a finer correction will be given to its velocity
Quelle: The Hindu
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Update: 17.06.2014
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100 Days for Indian Mars Spacecraft's Tryst With Red Planet
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Exactly 100 days from today, India's Mars spacecraft is scheduled for a rendezvous with the red planet as it is rapidly coasting towards its target covering almost 70 per cent of its journey.
On September 24, a very significant technological milestone of Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) called Mars Orbit Insertion is planned, Bangalore headquartered Indian Space Research Organisation said.
MOM, which is rapidly racing towards its target in its 300-day voyage in deep space, is at a radio distance of 108 million km from earth. A signal takes six minutes to reach Earth from MOM.
The spacecraft and its five payloads are in good health, ISRO said in a post on its Mars Orbit Mission Facebook page.
In a crucial milestone, ISRO performed the second Trajectory Correction Manoeuvre (TCM-2) on its Mars Orbiter spacecraft on June 11, at 4.30 pm by firing the spacecraft's 22 Newton thrusters for 16 seconds. Mid-course corrections are done to keep the spacecraft on course.
Another trajectory correction manoeuvre has been planned in August before the space agency performs the Mars Orbit Insertion in September.
The ambitious Mars mission was launched from Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh onboard the Pollar Satellite Launch Vehicle on November 5 last year with an aim to reach the red planet's atmosphere by September 24 this year.
The Rs 450-crore project is expected to provide the scientific community better opportunities in planetary research.
The spacecraft has been configured to carry out observation of physical features of Mars and limited study of Martian atmosphere with five payloads. ISRO has incorporated autonomous features in MOM spacecraft to handle contingencies.
Quelle: Outlook
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Update: 5.07.2014
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Mars orbiter completes 75% of journey

India’s Mars orbiter spacecraft has completed 75 per cent of its journey for its rendezvous with the red planet scheduled for September 24.
The spacecraft has covered a distance of approximately 510 million kilometres on its heliocentric arc towards Mars capture, Bangalore headquartered ISRO said.
With this, three-fourth of the 300-day voyage in deep space to Mars has been completed. MOM and her payloads are in good health, ISRO said in a post on its Mars Orbit Mission Facebook page.
In the last crucial milestone, ISRO performed the second Trajectory Correction Manoeuvre (TCM-2) on its Mars Orbiter spacecraft on June 11 by firing the spacecraft’s 22 Newton thrusters for 16 seconds. Mid-course corrections are done to keep the spacecraft on course.
Another trajectory correction manoeuvre is planned for August before ISRO performs the Mars Orbit Insertion in September.
The ambitious Mars mission under a Rs. 450 crore project was launched from Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh onboard the Pollar Satellite Launch Vehicle on November 5 last year with an aim to reach the red planet’s atmosphere by September 24.
The project is expected to provide the scientific community better opportunities in planetary research.
The spacecraft has been configured to carry out observation of physical features of Mars and limited study of Martian atmosphere with five payloads. ISRO has incorporated autonomous features in MOM spacecraft to handle contingencies.
Quelle: The Hindu

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Update: 13.07.2014
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Mangalyaan braucht nur noch 75 Tage, um Mars-Umlaufbahn zu erreichen
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Mangalyaan, India's maiden spacecraft to Mars, will enter the Red Planet in 75 days, Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) said.
“Mars Orbiter Spacecraft has travelled 525 million km on its heliocentric arc. Radio signals from earth now take 15 minutes to reach MOM and return. MOM’s Mars Orbit Insertion is planned exactly 75 days from today (Saturday),” Isro said in a post on its Mars Orbit Mission Facebook page.
A tricky path correction was performed on Mangalyaan last month. Another correction may be done in August.
India's space programme reached a major milestone on November 5 last year, when it launched the Mars Orbiter Mission, commonly known as Mangalyaan, from Sriharikota on an 11-month journey to find evidence of life on the Red Planet.
It is expected to enter the Mars atmosphere on September 24 this year.
Isro had initially planned four corrections during its journey to Mars. The manoeuvres are needed to keep the spacecraft on the required path. It is also essential for maintaining the required velocity.
Mangalyaan is on its 680-million-km voyage to Mars. If it makes it, India will join an elite club comprising the US, Russia and Europe. Once in the Mars orbit, the orbiter's five payloads will start performing experiments for the next six months.
 Only the US, Europe, and Russia have sent probes that have orbited or landed on Mars. Probes to Mars have a high failure rate and a success will be a boost for national pride, especially after a similar mission by China failed to leave Earth’s orbit in 2011.
The Mangalyaan probe, India’s first interplanetary mission, has a Rs. 450-crore price tag, which is less than a sixth of the amount earmarked for a Mars probe to be launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Nasa).
Quelle: hindustantimes
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Update: 1.08.2014
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No correction manoeuvre in August, Mars Orbiter Mission on track: ISRO

Last month, Indian Space Research Organisation said Mars Orbiter spacecraft has covered more than 540 million km, about 80 per cent of its journey.

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CHENNAI: ISRO scientists will not carry out the planned Trajectory Correction Manoeuvre (TCM) for the ambitious Mars Orbiter Mission in August as the spacecraft is on track. 
"Mars Orbiter Mission is closely following its trajectory and the mission managers have just ruled out the need for a Trajectory Correction Manoeuvre (TCM), originally planned for August 2014," ISRO said on its micro-blogging site. 
..."Which means MOM needs only three out of the four TCMs originally planned for the entire heliocentric journey", it said. 
Last month, Indian Space Research Organisation said Mars Orbiter spacecraft has covered more than 540 million km, about 80 per cent of its journey for its rendezvous with the planet, scheduled for September 24. 
The Mars mission under a Rs 450 crore project was launched from Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh on board Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle ( PSLV) on November 5 last year with an aim to reach the red planet's atmosphere by September 24. 
The project is expected to provide the scientific community better opportunities in planetary research.
Quelle: TET
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Update: 3.08.2014
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ISRO Mars Raumsonde  verbraucht bis 240 kg-Kraftstoff bei Bremsmanöver um in Marsumlaufbahn zu kommen
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In it's final lap, India's Mars ORBITER spacecraft will burn a bulk of the 290 kilograms of fuel left in its fuel-tanks, when it slows down and performs a crucial manoeuvre to enter the Martian orbit next month, ISRO officials said here today. Once placed in the orbit, the spacecraft is scheduled to scan and study the atmosphere of red-planet for a period of six months.
"It is currently about 163 million kilometers away from Mars. It is travelling at a speed of 1.2 million kilometers per day. It is on schedule and on target. Originally we were planning to have a corrective manoeuvre on August 19. But in the current situation, we don't think it is necessary. So the next (trajectory) correction is scheduled for September 14 and on September 24, the orbiter is supposed to reach Mars and perform the manoeuvre to orbit the red planet," said A S Kiran Kumar, director Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) while explaining the Mars Orbiter MISSION (MOM) spacecraft will undergo a final trajectory correction on September 14, before it goes ahead and performs this crucial manoeuvre ten days later to enter the Martian orbit.
"We have 290 kilograms of fuel left, and we will require about 240 kilograms for the manoeuvre to enter the Mars orbit. The process will involve reducing the velocity of the spacecraft and allowing it to get captured by Mars' (gravity)," Kiran Kumar told The Indian Express at the sidelines of a conference on "Intellectual Property Rights in Electronics, IT and ICT organised by Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and GOVERNMENT of Gujarat here on Saturday.
The veteran scientist who is a crucial part of the MOM said the ORBITER will be slowed down by reducing its velocity by one kilometer per second roughly from it's current velocity.
"The liquid apogee MOTORS that were used to push the spacecraft out of the earth's orbit, will be reoriented and fired, thus slowing down the spacecraft. It is a one time opportunity and has to be done precisely," Kiran Kumar said about the 440 Newton apogee motor on board the MOM spacecraft that will have to be restarted after 300 days since it was last fired during the Trans-Mars Injection phase.
ISRO officials point out that there is "no scope of error" during this nail-biting manoeuvre that will help tag India as the first Asian country to successfully reach Mars in it's maiden attempt.
"There is no scope for error," he said adding that all the commands will be fed in to the spacecraft three days in advance (before the manoeuvre on September 24) and the manoeuvre is expected to happen using the autonomous features of the spacecraft at 7:30 am on September 24. "In the previous activities, all the mechanisms and functionalities have got tested for this crucial manoeuvre," he added.
The MOM spacecraft that was launched on November 5, 2013, initially carried over 850 kilograms of fuel.
Quelle: TFE
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Update: 5.08.2014
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ISRO´s MOM Mangalyaan wird Komet Siding Spring im Mars-Orbit am 19.Oktober beobachten
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The passage of a comet, Siding Spring, will be the first astronomical event that the Indian Mars ORBITER Mission (MOM) spacecraft or 'Mangalyaan' will encounter once it reaches the red-planet next month. The comet that is scheduled to fly past the red planet on October 19 could pose a potential threat to the survival of the orbiter.
"After the spacecraft is captured in the Mars' ORBIT, we will encounter the Siding Spring comet that will engulf Mars in October," said AS Kiran Kumar, director Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) while talking about the spacecraft that is scheduled to enter the orbit of Mars on September 24.
In a spectacular event on October 19, the MOM will encounter comet Siding Spring, that will come closer to the Red planet than any recorded comet has ever passed Earth. The comet was discovered in 2013 by Robert H McNaught at Siding Spring Observatory.
The MOM will be using the instruments onboard to observe the Siding Spring's passage and its effects on the Martian atmosphere which is much thinner that compared to Earth.
When asked if the comet's rendezvous with the red-planet was a cause of concern for the Indian spacecraft's survival, KiranKumar said, "It is one of the events. We are looking if we can take advantage of this opportunity and study the comet."
But there definitely seems to be a case of worry as NASA is already taking steps to protect it's own orbiters and rovers on the red-planet. "The comet’s nucleus will miss Mars by about 82,000 miles (132,000 kilometers), SHEDDING material hurtling at about 35 miles (56 kilometers) per second. At that velocity, even the smallest particle -- estimated to be about one-fiftieth of an inch (half a millimeter) across -- could cause significant damage to a spacecraft," states a recent press release by American space agency whose MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution) spacecraft will enter the Mars' orbit on September 21, a few days ahead of ISRO's MOM.
"MAVEN will study gases coming off the comet's nucleus into its coma as it is warmed by the sun. MAVEN also will look for effects the comet flyby may have on the planet’s upper atmosphere and observe the comet as it travels through the solar wind," states the NASA's release adding that NASA was repositioning it's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey orbiter. It however, does not expect any "HAZARD" from the comet to Opportunity and Curiosity rovers positioned on the planet's surface.
Quelle: TFE
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Update: 11.08.2014
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Orbiter to reach Mars in 46 days

Hyderabad: The Mars ORBITER, launched in 2013 by  the Indian Space Research Organisation has completed 88 per cent of its journey and will face the most crucial phase on the morning of September 24. “Between 7 am to 9 am on September 24, the Orbiter will have to reduce its velocity and enter the orbit of Mars,” said Isro chairman Dr K. Radhakrishnan.
“The challenge is that its propulsion system should restart after being switched off for 300 days,” he added
He said there was no fear of the Siding Spring comet that is expected to fly by Mars around the same time. Nasa’s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution will enter Mars’ ORBIT three days before Mangalyaan he said, adding that Nasa has said it is taking  steps to prevent damage from the comet.
Quelle: Deccan Chronicle

Chennai: India's Mars Orbiter spacecraft has completed 90 percent of its journey to the red planet while scientists are gearing up to meet the challenge of restarting the onboard liquid fuel engine, an official said on Thursday.
"The spacecraft has completed 90 percent of its journey to Mars. On September 14, its trajectory would be corrected," a senior official of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), said.
According to him, on September 24, the spacecraft is slated to enter into the Mars orbit.
On September 24, the manoeuvring of the spacecraft will begin around 7.30am. The spacecraft's speed will be reduced from the current velocity so that the Mars Orbiter enters into the orbit.
The official said restarting the onboard liquid fuel engine will be a challenging task as it was dormant for nearly 300 days.
"However, necessary redundancy and other measures have been incorporated in the spacecraft design and we hope, not to face much problem in restarting the engine," he said.
The ISRO officials said the spacecraft and its payloads are in good condition.
Of the total Rs450 crore budget on the project, India has spent Rs349 crore on its Mars Orbiter Mission as on March 31, 2014.
The Mars Orbiter was launched on November 5, 2013.
Now 27 days are left for India's Mars Orbiter to enter into the orbit of the Red Planet.
Quelle: F-India
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Update: 2.09.2014
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Mars Mission completes 300 days in space

In a major boost to the Indian scientific community, the Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan), on its maiden tryst with the red planet, has completed 300 days of its journey in space and is just 23 days away from reaching its intended orbit. "Mars Orbiter Mission completes 300 days in space. Just 23 days more to reach Mars", Indian Space Research Organisation said in its micro-blogging site.
It said the spacecraft has travelled 622 million km in its heliocentric trajectory towards Mars. It is now 199 million km away from Earth and is travelling at a velocity of 22.33 km a second with respect to the distance from the Sun. "MoM and its payload are in good health," ISRO said. 
The Rs 450-crore project was launched from Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh from the old workhorse Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) on November 5, 2013 with the aim of reaching the red planet's atmosphere by Sept 24, traversing 680 million km.
Last week ISRO scientists said the spacecraft had completed 90% of its journey towards Mars. On September 24, the scientists will undertake a "challenging task" when they would restart the on board liquid engine, which has been in sleep mode for nearly 10 months, for Mars Orbit insertion.
The project is expected to provide the scientific community better opportunities in planetary research.
Quelle: dna
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Update: 7.09.2014
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Isro will do a test fire of engine on Sept 22

Nearly 41 hours ahead of the actual insertion of Mangalyaan into Mars, the Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) is bracing itself for a test fire of the LIQUID apogee motor (LAM) inside the spacecraft on September 22.
The spacecraft is slated to enter the Mars atmosphere on September 24 at around 7.30am. The 440 Newton engine inside the spacecraft has been lying idle for nearly 300 days. The first prolonged firing of the engine that occurred on November 29 last year,  had catapulted the spacecraft out of its geocentric orbit into a heliocentric orbit.
“Yes, we will do a test fire of the 440N LIQUID apogee motor (LAM) on board the spacecraft on September 22. There are many strategies that have to be planned.
Different groups are working on it and we will finally know the minute details  next week,” Isro chairman K Radhakrishnan told HT.
According to sources in Isro, the test firing that will be done for nearly 4 seconds will ascertain  if all the connections are proper. "The oxidiser and fuel VALVES have to be connected to the LAM."
As per the latest update on the facebook page of Isro, Mangalyaan is less than 6 million km away from Mars and is travelling with a velocity  of 22 km/sec.
On November 5 last year, Isro put Mangalyaan on an 11-month journey to find evidence of life on the Red Planet and position itself as a budget player in the global space race.
Probes to Mars have a high failure rate. Of the 51 missions so far, only 21 have been successful. A similar MISSION by China, which beat India to the moon, failed in 2011. Only the US, Europe and Russia have sent probes that have orbited or landed on the planet.
Quelle: hindustantimes

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Update: 22.09.2014
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Hello Mars, here comes India

Our fingers are crossed as our space scientists prepare to wake the hibernating engine from safe mode on Mangalyaan on Monday. They can rest assured that it is only for good luck that we make the gesture since we have implicit trust in their technological capabilities, which are nearing their apotheosis in putting the Mars Orbiter Mission in place around the Red Planet. It is a moot point whether the height of Indian achievement in the last several thousand years will come to be represented by the Orbiter circling Mars or the composing of the Upanishads.
The cost at which our engineers have pioneered space exploration — the standing joke is the Indian Mars mission cost less than the making of Gravity, the most recent award-winning movie on space travel — is a feather in their caps. The picture of a rocket travelling to the launch pad in Thumba on a bicycle will remind us of the most humble beginnings of India’s ambition to become a space power. On Wednesday, Mangalyaan will join Nasa’s Maven (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Orbiter), which should have synched perfectly into Mars orbit some time on Sunday after a 10-month and 442-million-mile journey.
While Maven will be devoted to studying the upper atmosphere of Earth’s neighbour to understand how the Martian climate changed from an assumed life-supporting presence of flowing water and minerals that will form only in water, Mangalyaan will also be checking for methane in the Martian atmosphere since that gas is known to indicate that life may be supported. How satisfying would it be to know that we are not alone in this Universe even if an alien is probably far different from the standard dimensions of life as we know them?
The argument over whether a developing country like India can afford space exploration is too narrow-minded. The importance of a scientific temperament cannot be overstated. The fact that so many countries are reaching out to space to understand more of how we came to be as an intelligent life form should be ample proof of the importance of mankind’s exploration of the limits of its knowledge and curiosity about celestial wonders.
And then there is, of course, the theory that Mars is possibly the next most habitable planet if ever we have to abandon Earth. If by studying Mars we can form some idea of how to deal with climate change — a planet that once possessed flowing water is today cold and dry because gas escaped from its atmosphere — then maybe science can help man live better on his own planet. Little wonder then that our eye will, figuratively, be on the sky over the next few crucial days as we wait for Isro to say that it has, once again, executed its mission to perfection.
Quelle: DECCAN Chronicle
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Mangalyaan engine test-fire successful, all set for Mars now

Before the test-firing, Annadurai, programme director at Isro, told Hindustan Times: “The test firing is like a trial. The dormant engine has to be brought back to life. It is a challenge but if one is prepared well for the exam, the confidence for success is higher.”
The nail-biting prelim was carried out at 2:30pm when the craft’s 440 Newton Liquid Apogee Motor engine, which has been idle for 300 days, was fired up for four seconds. The fourth and final trajectory corrections were also made.
“The engine will be fired for nearly 4 seconds and almost half a kg of fuel will be needed for this operation,” says Koteshwar Rao, scientific secretary, Isro before the test-firing
On September 24 it will be put in action along with eight thrusters to slow down Mangalyaan so it can be injected into a safe orbit around the Red Planet.
Isro launched the Mangalyaan on November 5 to find evidence of life on Mars. If the spacecraft makes it, India will be the fourth after US, Russia and Europe to reach the Red planet. Once in orbit, the craft’s five payloads will take pictures and collect data for the next six months.
Probes to Mars have a high failure rate. Of the 51 missions so far, only 21 have succeeded. A similar mission by China failed in 2011.
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Quelle: Hindustan Times 
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The spacecraft configuration is a balanced mix of design from flight proven IRS/INSAT/Chandrayaan-1 bus. Modifications required for Mars mission are in the areas of Communication, Power, Propulsion systems (mainly related to Liquid Engine restart after nearly 10 months) and on-board autonomy. 
Disassembled View of Spacecraft
390 litres capacity propellant tanks accomodate a maximum of 852 kg of propellant which is adequate with sufficient margins.
A Liquid Engine of 440 N thrust is used for orbit raising and insertion in Martian Orbit.
The spacecraft requires three solar panels (size 1800 X 1400 mm) to compensate for the lower solar irradiance.
Antenna System consists of Low Gain Antenna (LGA), Medium Gain Antenna (MGA), and High Gain Antenna (HGA). The High Gain Antenna system is based on a single 2.2 meter reflector illuminated by a feed at S-band. It is used to transmit/receive the Telemetry, Tracking and Commanding (TTC) and data to/from the Indian Deep Space Network
On-board autonomy functions are incorporated as the large distance does not permit real time interventions.
A view of Mars Orbiter Spacecraft Control Centre during Trans Mars Injection Operations
Quelle: ISRO
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Update: 24.09.2014 
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India's first Mars satellite 'Mangalyaan' enters orbit

India has successfully put a satellite into orbit around Mars, becoming the fourth country to do so.
The Mangalyaan robotic probe, one of the cheapest interplanetary missions ever, will soon begin work studying the Red Planet's atmosphere.
A 24-minute engine burn slowed the probe down enough to allow it to be captured by Mars' gravity.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi said the country had achieved the "near impossible".
Speaking at the mission control centre in the southern city of Bangalore he said: "The odds were stacked against us. Of 51 missions attempted in the world only 21 have succeeded. We have prevailed."
Only the US, Europe and Russia have previously sent missions to Mars, but India is the first country to succeed on its first attempt.
The latest US satellite, Maven, arrived at Mars on Monday.
US space agency Nasa congratulated its Indian counterpart, the Indian Space and Research Organization (Isro), on Wednesday's success.
"We congratulate @ISRO for its Mars arrival! @MarsOrbiter joins the missions studying the Red Planet," the agency tweeted.
From early in the morning, there was an atmosphere of excitement and tension at the Indian Space Agency's Mission Tracking Centre in Bangalore.
Scientists, many of them women and several of them young, were seated in front of their computer monitors tracking the progress of Mangalyaan.
Giant screens above their heads fed a steady stream of data, graphics and sequence of operations. The first whoops broke out when Mangalyaan successfully fired up its liquid engine, the first in a series of critical moves to make sure that the spacecraft was able to launch into the planet's gravitational pull.
Then there was an agonising 20 minutes, when Mangalyaan disappeared behind Mars and beyond contact.
But there was no mistaking the moment, when the scientists all rose as one, cheered, clapped, hugged each other and exchanged high fives - ­ confirmation that Mangalyaan was now on an elliptical orbit around Mars.
After PM Modi's congratulations, they poured out into the open and the bright sunlight, beaming as they took in the adulation.
"Thrilled to be a part of history," one young scientist told me. "It's like hitting a golf ball from Bangalore to London and getting it into the hole in one go," deputy operations director, BN Ramkrishna said. "It's got to be that precise."
Mr Modi congratulated the scientists and said: "Today all of India should celebrate our scientists. Schools, colleges should applaud this."
"If our cricket team wins a tournament, the nation celebrates. Our scientists' achievement is greater," he said.
The total cost of the Indian mission has been put at 4.5bn rupees ($74m; £45m), which makes it one of the cheapest interplanetary space missions ever. Nasa's recent Maven mission cost $671m.
The Mangalyaan probe will now set about taking pictures of the planet and studying its atmosphere.
One key goal is to try to detect methane in the Martian air, which could be an indicator of biological activity at, or more likely just below, the surface.
Nasa has put four robot rovers on Mars since 1997 - the latest and biggest of them all, the one-tonne vehicle known as Curiosity, landed on the Red Planet in August 2012. Unlike Curiosity, the Indian probe will not land on Mars.
Mangalyaan - more formally referred to as Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) - was launched from the Sriharikota spaceport on the coast of the Bay of Bengal on 5 November 2013.
Quelle: BBC

ISRO creates history with Mars Mission

India on Wednesday became the first country to successfully put a spacecraft around Mars in its first attempt. The ambitious Rs. 460 crore Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), launched on November 5 last year, had a perfect Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) to get captured into the Mars orbit.
The Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) and the eight small thrusters on board India's orbiter to Mars ignited on time at 7.17 a.m. The spacecraft's velocity was slowed down 1.09 metres per second against the targeted 1.1 metres per second. At the end of the burn-time of 24 minutes, the spacecraft was inserted into the Martian orbit.
"The periapsis achieved was 427 km and the apoapsis was 78,500 km. The final values will be obtained after several hours," said Mission Director, MOM, V. Kesava Raju.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who arrived in Bangalore on Tuesday night for another engagement, spent nearly two hours watching India's moment of glory.
"India has successfully reached Mars. History has been created today. We have reached the unknown and achieved the impossible," Mr.Modi said.
Quelle: The Hindu
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Mars Orbiter Spacecraft Successfully Inserted into Mars Orbit
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India's Mars Orbiter Spacecraft successfully entered into an orbit around planet Mars today morning (September 24, 2014) by firing its 440 Newton Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) along with eight smaller liquid engines. This Liquid Engines firing operation which began at 07:17:32 Hrs IST lasted for 1388.67 seconds which changed the velocity of the spacecraft by 1099 metre/sec. With this operation, the spacecraft entered into an elliptical orbit around Mars. Honourable Prime Minister of India, Mr Narendra Modi, was present at ISRO's Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) in Bangalore to witness this important event. Other dignitaries who were present at ISTRAC include His Excellency Governor of Karnataka, Mr Vajubhai R Vala, Hon'ble Minister of Railways, Mr D V Sadananda Gowda, Hon'ble Minister of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Mr Ananth Kumar, Hon'ble Chief Minister of Karnataka, Mr Siddaramaiah, Hon'ble Minister of State (Space), Dr Jitendra Singh, Hon'ble Minister of State for Civil Aviation, Mr G M Siddeswara, Hon'ble Member of Parliament, Mr Prahlad V Joshi, Hon'ble Minister of Transport, Government of Karnataka, Mr Ramalinga Reddy and Hon'ble Member of Legislative Assembly, Government of Karnataka, Mr Muniraju S. Prof U R Rao, former chairman, ISRO and Prof Yash Pal, former director, Space Applications Centre, were also present. 
The events related to Mars Orbit Insertion progressed satisfactorily and the spacecraft performance was normal. The Spacecraft is now circling Mars in an orbit whose nearest point to Mars (periapsis) is at 421.7 km and farthest point (apoapsis) at 76,993.6 km. The inclination of orbit with respect to the equatorial plane of Mars is 150 degree, as intended. In this orbit, the spacecraft takes 72 hours 51 minutes 51 seconds to go round the Mars once. 
Mars Orbiter Spacecraft was launched on-board India's workhorse launch vehicle PSLV on November 05, 2013 into a parking orbit around the Earth. On December 01, 2013, following Trans Mars Injection (TMI) manoeuvre, the spacecraft escaped from orbiting the earth and followed a path that would allow it to encounter Mars on September 24, 2014. 
With today's successful Mars Orbit Insertion operation, ISRO has become the fourth space agency to successfully send a spacecraft to Mars orbit. In the coming weeks, the spacecraft will be thoroughly tested in the Mars orbit and the systematic observation of that planet using its five scientific instruments would begin.
Quelle: ISRO
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Update: 25.09.2014
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NASA Administrator Statement About India's Mars Orbiter Mission
The following statement is from NASA Administrator Charles Bolden about India's Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM):
"We congratulate the Indian Space Research Organisation for its successful arrival at Mars with the Mars Orbiter Mission.
"It was an impressive engineering feat, and we welcome India to the family of nations studying another facet of the Red Planet. We look forward to MOM adding to the knowledge the international community is gathering with the other spacecraft at Mars.
"All space exploration expands the frontiers of scientific knowledge and improves life for everyone on Earth. We commend this significant milestone for India."
Quelle: NASA
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Tags: Raumfahrt 

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Donnerstag, 25. September 2014 - 14:15 Uhr

UFO-Forschung - IFO-Universität: Drohnen im Alltag

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"DHL-Paketkopter" startet Feldversuch
Taugt die Post-Drohne für den Alltag?
Die Deutsche Post DHL testet erstmals unter Alltagsbedingungen den Einsatz von Drohnen für die Paketzustellung. Bei dem Feldversuch soll ein "DHL-Paketkopter" in den kommenden Monaten Medikamente von der niedersächsischen Hafenstadt Norden zu einer Apotheke auf der Nordsee-Insel Juist transportieren.
Erste Testflüge mit dem unbemannten Kleinfluggerät fanden bereits vergangene Woche statt, sagte ein DHL-Sprecher der Nachrichtenagentur DPA. Am Freitag soll der reguläre Lieferbetrieb mit der ""Seehund"-Apotheke aufgenommen werden.
Einen einmaligen Probedurchlauf für die Paketzustellung per Drohne hatte DHL bereits Ende 2013 mit einem Flug über den Rhein absolviert. Dabei hatte der wegen seiner vier mit Rotoren besetzten Arme auch "Quadrokopter" genannte Flugapparat eine ein Kilometer lange Strecke in zwei Minuten zurückgelegt.
Bei dem jetzt eingesetzten unbemannten Fluggerät handelt es sich um eine Weiterentwicklung des damals benutzten Paketkopters. Er wurde mit Blick auf Flugdauer, Reichweite und Geschwindigkeit für den Einsatz bei Wind und Wetter an der Nordseeküste optimiert.
Per Autopilot 50 Meter über der Erde
Die etwa zwölf Kilometer lange Distanz zur Insel legt der neue "DHL Paketkopter 2.0" völlig autonom - also ohne jeglichen Eingriff von außen - per Autopilot in etwa 50 Meter Höhe zurück. Je nach Wind soll er Nachmittags mit einer Geschwindigkeit von bis zu 18 Meter pro Sekunde unterwegs sein.
Allerdings verfolgt eine mobile Bodenstation von Norddeich aus jede Phase des Fluges, um in Notfällen eingreifen zu können. Für die 1,2 Kilo schwere Nutzlast wurde ein extrem leichter wetter- und wasserfester, tropfenförmiger Behälter entwickelt. Er ist unter der knapp fünf Kilogramm schweren Kohlefaser-Karosserie der Drohne befestigt, die über ihre vier Rotoren in der Luft gehalten wird.
Jeder Flug muss einzeln angemeldet werden
Obwohl das behördliche Okay von der Flugsicherung, der Nationalparkverwaltung Wattenmeer und anderen Stellen für den mehrmonatigen Feldversuch vorliegt, muss aus Sicherheitsgründen aber jeder Flug noch einzeln angemeldet werden. Neben DHL und dem Drohnen-Hersteller Microdrones ist für die wissenschaftliche Begleitung auch das Institut für Flugsystemdynamik der Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen (RWTH) an dem Test beteiligt.
"Erstmals darf mit dem DHL Paketkopter ein unbemanntes Luftfahrzeug außerhalb der Sichtweite des Piloten in der realen Welt eine Transportaufgabe erledigen", betonte der für die technische Innovation zuständige Briefvorstand Jürgen Gerdes. "Das ist ein regulärer Flugbetrieb." Konkrete Pläne für den regulären Betrieb derartiger Drohnen hat DHL nach eigenen Angaben aber noch nicht. DHL schließt allerdings deren Einsatz in dünn besiedelten oder schwer erreichbaren Gebieten künftig nicht aus - vorausgesetzt er ist ökonomisch sinnvoll und technisch machbar.
Quelle: ARD

Tags: UFO-Forschung 

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