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Raumfahrt-History - Apollo-11-Mission - Teil 1/2

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Mission Highlights
Apollo 11 launched from Cape Kennedy on July 16, 1969, carrying Commander Neil Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin into an initial Earth-orbit of 114 by 116 miles. An estimated 530 million people watched Armstrong's televised image and heard his voice describe the event as he took "...one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind" on July 20, 1969.
Two hours, 44 minutes and one-and-a-half revolutions after launch, the S-IVB stage reignited for a second burn of five minutes, 48 seconds, placing Apollo 11 into a translunar orbit. The command and service module, or CSM, Columbia separated from the stage, which included the spacecraft-lunar module adapter, or SLA, containing the lunar module, or LM, Eagle. After transposition and jettisoning of the SLA panels on the S-IVB stage, the CSM docked with the LM. The S-IVB stage separated and injected into heliocentric orbit four hours, 40 minutes into the flight.
The first color TV transmission to Earth from Apollo 11 occurred during the translunar coast of the CSM/LM. Later, on July 17, a three-second burn of the SPS was made to perform the second of four scheduled midcourse corrections programmed for the flight. The launch had been so successful that the other three were not needed.
On July 18, Armstrong and Aldrin put on their spacesuits and climbed through the docking tunnel from Columbia to Eagle to check out the LM, and to make the second TV transmission.
On July 19, after Apollo 11 had flown behind the moon out of contact with Earth, came the first lunar orbit insertion maneuver. At about 75 hours, 50 minutes into the flight, a retrograde firing of the SPS for 357.5 seconds placed the spacecraft into an initial, elliptical-lunar orbit of 69 by 190 miles. Later, a second burn of the SPS for 17 seconds placed the docked vehicles into a lunar orbit of 62 by 70.5 miles, which was calculated to change the orbit of the CSM piloted by Collins. The change happened because of lunar-gravity perturbations to the nominal 69 miles required for subsequent LM rendezvous and docking after completion of the lunar landing. Before this second SPS firing, another TV transmission was made, this time from the surface of the moon.
On July 20, Armstrong and Aldrin entered the LM again, made a final check, and at 100 hours, 12 minutes into the flight, the Eagle undocked and separated from Columbia for visual inspection. At 101 hours, 36 minutes, when the LM was behind the moon on its 13th orbit, the LM descent engine fired for 30 seconds to provide retrograde thrust and commence descent orbit insertion, changing to an orbit of 9 by 67 miles, on a trajectory that was virtually identical to that flown by Apollo 10. At 102 hours, 33 minutes, after Columbia and Eagle had reappeared from behind the moon and when the LM was about 300 miles uprange, powered descent initiation was performed with the descent engine firing for 756.3 seconds. After eight minutes, the LM was at "high gate" about 26,000 feet above the surface and about five miles from the landing site.
The descent engine continued to provide braking thrust until about 102 hours, 45 minutes into the mission. Partially piloted manually by Armstrong, the Eagle landed in the Sea of Tranquility in Site 2 at 0 degrees, 41 minutes, 15 seconds north latitude and 23 degrees, 26 minutes east longitude. This was about four miles downrange from the predicted touchdown point and occurred almost one-and-a-half minutes earlier than scheduled. It included a powered descent that ran a mere nominal 40 seconds longer than preflight planning due to translation maneuvers to avoid a crater during the final phase of landing. Attached to the descent stage was a commemorative plaque signed by President Richard M. Nixon and the three astronauts.
The flight plan called for the first EVA to begin after a four-hour rest period, but it was advanced to begin as soon as possible. Nonetheless, it was almost four hours later that Armstrong emerged from the Eagle and deployed the TV camera for the transmission of the event to Earth. At about 109 hours, 42 minutes after launch, Armstrong stepped onto the moon. About 20 minutes later, Aldrin followed him. The camera was then positioned on a tripod about 30 feet from the LM. Half an hour later, President Nixon spoke by telephone link with the astronauts.
Commemorative medallions bearing the names of the three Apollo 1 astronauts who lost their lives in a launch pad fire, and two cosmonauts who also died in accidents, were left on the moon's surface. A one-and-a-half inch silicon disk, containing micro miniaturized goodwill messages from 73 countries, and the names of congressional and NASA leaders, also stayed behind.
During the EVA, in which they both ranged up to 300 feet from the Eagle, Aldrin deployed the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package, or EASEP, experiments, and Armstrong and Aldrin gathered and verbally reported on the lunar surface samples. After Aldrin had spent one hour, 33 minutes on the surface, he re-entered the LM, followed 41 minutes later by Armstrong. The entire EVA phase lasted more than two-and-a-half hours, ending at 111 hours, 39 minutes into the mission.
Armstrong and Aldrin spent 21 hours, 36 minutes on the moon's surface. After a rest period that included seven hours of sleep, the ascent stage engine fired at 124 hours, 22 minutes. It was shut down 435 seconds later when the Eagle reached an initial orbit of 11 by 55 miles above the moon, and when Columbia was on its 25th revolution. As the ascent stage reached apolune at 125 hours, 19 minutes, the reaction control system, or RCS, fired so as to nearly circularize the Eagle orbit at about 56 miles, some 13 miles below and slightly behind Columbia. Subsequent firings of the LM RCS changed the orbit to 57 by 72 miles. Docking with Columbia occurred on the CSM's 27th revolution at 128 hours, three minutes into the mission. Armstrong and Aldrin returned to the CSM with Collins. Four hours later, the LM jettisoned and remained in lunar orbit.
Trans-Earth injection of the CSM began July 21 as the SPS fired for two-and-a-half minutes when Columbia was behind the moon in its 59th hour of lunar orbit. Following this, the astronauts slept for about 10 hours. An 11.2 second firing of the SPS accomplished the only midcourse correction required on the return flight. The correction was made July 22 at about 150 hours, 30 minutes into the mission. Two more television transmissions were made during the trans-Earth coast.
Re-entry procedures were initiated July 24, 44 hours after leaving lunar orbit. The SM separated from the CM, which was re-oriented to a heat-shield-forward position. Parachute deployment occurred at 195 hours, 13 minutes. After a flight of 195 hours, 18 minutes, 35 seconds - about 36 minutes longer than planned - Apollo 11 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean, 13 miles from the recovery ship USS Hornet. Because of bad weather in the target area, the landing point was changed by about 250 miles. Apollo 11 landed 13 degrees, 19 minutes north latitude and 169 degrees, nine minutes west longitude July 24, 1969.
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S69-16681 (10 Jan. 1969) --- These three astronauts have been selected by NASA as the prime crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Left to right, are astronauts Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot; Neil A. Armstrong, commander; and Michael Collins, command module pilot. They were photographed in front of a lunar module (LM) mock-up beside Building 1 following a press conference in the MSC Auditorium.
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S69-19644 (4 Jan. 1969) --- Lunar Module (LM) 5 ascent stage in Final Assembly Area on overhead hoist being moved to dolly for roll-out inspection. LM-5 will be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.
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S69-25944 (25 Feb. 1969) --- These two Apollo 11 crew astronauts study rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas. Neil A. Armstrong (in background) is the Apollo 11 commander; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. is the lunar module pilot.
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S69-31048 (18 April 1969) --- Suited astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969, in Building 9, Manned Spacecraft Center. Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he practices scooping up a lunar sample.
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S69-31080 (18 April 1969) --- Suited astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969 in building 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he is opening a sample return container. On the right is the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) and the Lunar Module (LM) mock-up.
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S69-32233 (22 April 1969) --- Two members of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission participate in a simulation of deploying and using lunar tools on the surface of the moon. The rehearsal took place during a training exercise in building 9 on April 22, 1969. Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. (on left), lunar module pilot, uses a scoop and tongs to pick up samples. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, holds the bag to receive the sample. In the background is a Lunar Module (LM) mock-up.
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S69-32240 (22 April 1969) --- Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit, participates in a simulation of deploying and using lunar tools on the surface of the moon during a training exercise in Building 9 on April 22, 1969. Armstrong is the commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. In the background is a Lunar Module mock-up.
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S69-32242 (22 April 1969) --- Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in a simulation of deploying and using lunar tools, on the surface of the moon, during a training exercise in Building 9 on April 22, 1969. Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, is holding sample bags. On the left is the Lunar Module (LM) mock-up.
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S69-32243 (22 April 1969) --- Two members of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission participate in a simulation of deploying and using lunar tools, on the surface of the moon, during a training exercise in Building 9 on April 22, 1969. Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. (on left), lunar module pilot, uses a scoop to pick up a sample. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, holds bag to receive sample. In the background is a Lunar Module (LM) mock-up. Both crewmembers are wearing Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMU).
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S69-32370 (11 April 1969) --- Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Apollo Spacecraft 107 Command and Service Modules (CSM) being moved from work stand 134 for mating to Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA) 14. S/C 107 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.
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S69-32396 (4 April 1969) --- Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Lunar Module (LM) 5 being moved from work stand for mating with its Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). LM-5 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.
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S69-34882 (24 May 1969) --- The prime crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission relaxes on the deck of the NASA Motor Vessel Retriever prior to participating in water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico. Left to right, are astronauts Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot; Neil A. Armstrong, commander; and Michael Collins, command module pilot. In the background is Apollo Boilerplate 1102 which was used in the training exercise.
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S69-33923 (April 1969) --- Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), deploys a lunar surface television camera during lunar surface simulation training in Building 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.
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S69-34967 (24 May 1969) --- The third member of the prime crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission egresses Apollo Boilerplate 1102 during water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico. The other two crewmen are in raft. Taking part in the training were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. The three crewmen practiced donning and wearing biological isolation garments (B.I.G.) as a part of the exercise. The Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) swimmer standing up, who assisted in the training, is also wearing a B.I.G.
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S69-38677 (19 June 1969) --- Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, participates in simulation training in preparation for the scheduled lunar landing mission. He is in the Apollo Lunar Module Mission Simulator in the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Flight Crew Training Building. The other two crewmen of the historic flight are astronauts Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot.
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S69-38749 (July 1969) --- Close-up view of the plaque which the Apollo 11 astronauts will leave behind on the moon in commemoration of the historic event. The plaque is made of stainless steel measuring nine by seven and five-eights inches, and one-sixteenth inch thick. The plaque will be attached to the ladder on the landing gear strut on the descent stage of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM). Covering the plaque during flight will be a thin sheet of stainless steel which will be removed on the lunar surface.
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S69-39149 (July 1969) --- A close-up view of the one and one-half inch silicon disk which will be left on the moon by the Apollo 11 astronauts. The disk bears messages of goodwill from heads of state of many nations. The messages are in each nation's native language, as can be seen by the enlarged view of some of the writing. The process used to make this wafer is the same as that used to manufacture integrated circuits for electronic equipment. It involves making tiny photographic images and depositing metal on the images.
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S69-39333 (July 1969) --- This is a photographic illustration of how the flag of the United States will be implanted on the moon by the Apollo 11 astronauts. The flag is three by five feet, and is made of nylon. It will be erected on an eight-foot aluminum staff, and tubing along its top edge will unfurl it in the airless environment of the moon. The implanting of the flag is symbolic of the first time man has landed on another celestial body, and does not constitute a territorial claim by the United States. The photograph on the right shows the flag in a furled condition. Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, will implant the flag after their Lunar Module (LM) sets down on the moon. Astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, will remain with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit while Armstrong and Aldrin explore the lunar surface.
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S69-39334 (July 1969) --- This is a replica of the plaque which the Apollo 11 astronauts will leave behind on the moon in commemoration of the historic event. The plaque is made of stainless steel, measuring nine by seven and five-eighths inches, and one-sixteenth inch thick. The plaque will be attached to the ladder on the landing gear strut on the descent stage of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM). Covering the plaque during the flight will be a thin sheet of stainless steel which will be removed on the lunar surface.
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S69-39335 (July 1969) --- Rocketdyne's artist concept depicting the firing of the ascent engine as the Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM) ascent stage is launched from the surface of the moon. The descent stage serves as a launch base and remains on the lunar surface. Inside the LM are astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. Astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remains with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit while Armstrong and Aldrin explore the moon. The LM ascent stage from the lunar surface and place it in proper trajectory for rendezvous with the CSM. Rocketdyne, a division of North American Rockwell Corporation, is the subcontractor for the LM ascent engine. Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, Bethpage, New York, is the LM prime contractor.
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S69-39956 (16 July 1969) --- The crewmen of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission leave the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) during the prelaunch countdown. Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, ride the special transport van over to Launch Complex 39A where their spacecraft awaited them. Liftoff was at 9:32 a.m. (EDT), July 16, 1969.
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S69-39955 (16 July 1969) --- The crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission arrives atop Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, during the Apollo 11 prelaunch countdown. Leading is astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander. He was followed by astronauts Michael Collins, command module pilot. Technician follows directly behind Armstrong and Collins.
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S69-39960 (16 July 1969) --- A fish-eye lens view of the launch of the huge, 363-feet-tall Apollo 11 (Spacecraft 107/Lunar Module 5/Saturn 506) space vehicle from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), at 9:32 a.m. (EDT), July 16, 1969. Aboard the Apollo 11 spacecraft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. Apollo 11 is the United States' first lunar landing mission. This photograph of the liftoff was taken by a camera mounted on the mobile launch tower.
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S69-39959 (16 July 1969) --- The huge, 363-feet tall Apollo 11 (Spacecraft 107/Lunar Module 5/ Saturn 506) space vehicle is launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), at 9:32 a.m. (EDT), July 16, 1969. Aboard the Apollo 11 spacecraft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. Apollo 11 is the United States' first lunar landing mission. This view of the liftoff was taken by a camera mounted on the mobile launch tower. While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descend in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Collins will remain with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.
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S69-39957 (16 July 1969) --- A 70mm Airborne Lightweight Optical Tracking System (ALOTS) took this picture. ALOTS tracking camera mounted on an Air Force EC-135 aircraft flying at about 40,000 feet altitude photographed this event in the early moments of the Apollo 11 launch. The 7.6 million-pound thrust Saturn V (S-1C) first stage boosts the space vehicle to an altitude of 36.3 nautical miles at 50.6 nautical miles downrange in 2 minutes 40.8 seconds. The S-1C stage separates at 2 minutes 41.6 seconds after liftoff. The crew of the Apollo 11 NASA's first lunar landing mission are astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. The Apollo 11 launch was at 9:32 a.m. (EDT), July 16, 1969.
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S69-39527 (16 July 1969) --- The huge, 363-feet tall Apollo 11 (Spacecraft 107/ Lunar Module 5/Saturn 506) space vehicle is launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), at 9:32 a.m. (EDT), July 16, 1969. Aboard the Apollo 11 spacecraft are astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. Apollo 11 is the United States' first lunar landing mission. While Armstrong and Aldrin descend in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Collins will remain with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.
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S69-39961 (16 July 1969) --- The huge, 363-feet tall Apollo 11 (Spacecraft 107/Lunar Module S/Saturn 506) space vehicle is launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), at 9:32 a.m. (EDT), July 16, 1969. Onboard the Apollo 11 spacecraft are astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. Apollo 11 is the United States' first lunar landing mission. While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descend in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Collins will remain with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.
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S69-39962 (16 July 1969) --- The huge, 363-feet tall Apollo 11 (Spacecraft 107/Lunar Module 5/Saturn 506) space vehicle is launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), at 9:32 a.m. (EDT), July 16, 1969. Aboard the Apollo 11 spacecraft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. Apollo 11 is the United States' first lunar landing mission. This view of the liftoff was taken by a camera mounted on the mobile launch tower. While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descend in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Collins will remain with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.
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S69-39526 (16 July 1969) --- The huge, 363-feet tall Apollo 11 (Spacecraft 107/Lunar Module 5/Saturn 506) space vehicle is launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39 Kennedy Space Center (KSC), at 9:32 a.m. (EDT), July 16, 1969. Onboard the Apollo 11 spacecraft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. Apollo 11 is the United States first lunar landing mission. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin will descend in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, while astronaut Collins remains with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.
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S69-39958 (16 July 1969) --- A 70mm Airborne Lightweight Optical Tracking System (ALOTS) camera, mounted in a pod on a cargo door of a U.S. Air Force EC-135N aircraft, photographed this event in the early moments of the Apollo 11 launch. The mated Apollo spacecraft and Saturn V second (S-II) and third (S-IVB) stages pull away from the expended first (S-1C) stage. Separation occurred at an altitude of about 38 miles, some 55 miles downrange from Cape Kennedy. The aircraft's pod is 20 feet long and 5 feet in diameter. The crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission are astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr.
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S69-31740 (May 1969) --- The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has named these three astronauts as the prime crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Left to right, are Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot.
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S69-31741 (July 1969) --- Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong. EDITOR'S NOTE: Armstrong was commander of Apollo 11 Lunar Landing Mission.
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S69-31742 (July 1969) --- Astronaut Michael Collins. EDITOR'S NOTE: Collins resigned from the NASA space program since this picture was taken.
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S69-31743 (July 1969) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. EDITOR'S NOTE: Aldrin was lunar module pilot of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.
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AS11-36-5299 (16 July 1969) --- This view of Earth showing clouds over water was photographed from the Apollo 11 spacecraft following translunar injection. While astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.
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Fotos: NASA
 
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